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Pakistan Studies 2nd Year Class Intermediate Short Questions Answers 2014
26.When was the Zakat System introduced in Pakistan?
Ans..The Zakat System was introduced in the country through the Zakat and Ushr Ordinance on June 20,1980.According to this ordinance,zakat fund would be established to collect these sorts of gifts and it was compulsory for every sahib-e-nisab Muslim whetehr male or female to pay zakat by deducting it from his or her account in the bank.
27.Name the first casts of Hindu Society?
Ans.The Hindu Society was divided into the following four casts:
28.Which caste is respected the most in the Hindu Society?
Ans.The Brahman’s are considered the most superior in the Hindu society.
29.What are the works given to the Khatris?
Ans.The occupation of Khatris was to fight and defend the country.
30.What is the occupation of Vaish?
Ans.The people of the Vaish caste are farmerstraders ,industrialist and artisans.
31.What was the occupation of Shooder?
Ans.The people of Shooder caste were considered the lowest of other casts.They had to serve the other castes,i.e they were slaved.
32.How did Urdu language came into being?
Ans.The Mughal army consisted of people belonging to different communities of India and speaking different languages. By intermingling of these people,a new language by the name of Urdu came into existance.
33.Name the Sufi’s who worked for the spread of Islam in South Asia?
Ans.The Sufi’s and Saints who worked for the spreading of Islam in South Asia are:
(i) Hazrat Data Ganj Baksh
(ii) Khuwaja Moeenuddin Chishti
(iii) Hazrat Mujaddid Alif Sani
(iv) Hazrat Lal Shahbaz Qalander
(v) Hazrat BahaUddin Zakaria
34.What do you mean by “Ideology of Pakistan”.?
Ans.Pakistan came into existence of the basis of one ideology and this ideology refers that Islam is the religion of all the Muslims and this Islamic ideology is the idiology of Pakistan,
35.Which province did not have any constitution during the British rule?
Ans.The British had made North West Frontier Province as “Non-Constitutional Land”.
36.When did Partition of Bengal take place and benefited from it?When and had did the annulment of partition took place?
Ans.The Partition of Bengal took place in 1905 and this was the first right step taken by the British towards the intrests of Muslims,but the narrow-minded Hindus could not bear this and due to thier opposition the annulment of partition took place in 1911.
37.Why did the Muslims not accept the Nehru Report?
Ans.In the Nehru Report,the Hindus did no respect the rights and intrests of Muslims and not fulfilled the promises made by them.Therefore,the Muslims did not accept the Nehru Report.
38.Why didQuaid-e-Azam presented his fourteen points?
Ans.Quaid-e-Azam presented his fourteen points in reply to the Nehru Report.
39.Why did the round table conference failed?
Ans.The Round Table Conference failed due to the narrow-mindedness and negative attitude of the Hindus.
40.Write down the points of the Indian Independence Act of 1947?
Ans.The important points of Indian Independence Act are:
(i) The legislative supremacy of the two dominions.
(ii) The legislatures of the two Dominions were given full powers to make laws having extra-territorial jurisdication.
(iii) The British Government was to have no control over the affairs of the Dominions.Provinces or any part of the Dominions after 15th August,1947.
41.What were the important points of third June Plan?
Ans.The important points of third June Plan was are as follows:
(i) India was to be divided into Hindustan And Pakistan.
(ii) Pakistan was to comprise the Muslim majority areas with a right to secede from the rest of India.
(iii) The Muslims majority areas would be demarcated by a Joint Boundary Commission.
(iv) Bengal would be partitioned into Muslim and Hindu majority areas.
42.Which party formed the Government of Britain when the sub-continent was partitioned?
Ans.The Labour Party ruled the Government of Britain when India was partitioned.
43.Write the name of some Muslim Leaders who worked during the Pakistan Movements?
Ans.(i) Sir Syed Ahmed Khan
(ii) Nawab Salim Ullah
(iii) Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk
(iv) Nawab Waqar-ul-Mulk
(v) Sir Agha Khan
(vi) Allama Iqbal
44.During the World War II,what promise did the British Government made towards the people of sub-continent?
Ans.The British Government promised the people of sub-continent that India will be partitioned after the end of the Second World War.
45.How many Resolutions did the U.N passed regarding Kashmir problem?
Ans.The Security Council of United Nations passed two Resolutins on 17th August,1948 and 5th January,1949.
46.What did Quaid-e-Azam said about Radcliff Commission?’
Ans.The Quaid-e-Azam remarked about Radcliff Commission or Radcliff award:
“The award was a parting Kick of the British Government.”
47.What was the percentage of Muslims in Jammu and Kashmir according to the census of 1941?
Ans.According to the census of 1941,the Muslim population in Kashmir was 96% and in Jammu,it was 70%.
48.What do you know about Mohammad Ali Bogra Formula?
Ans.In the period of third Prime Minister,Mr.Mohammad Ali Bogra,great efforts were made for the preparation of the constitution in the light of the recommendations of the committee he was able to prepare a draft bill of the constitution which is known as “Mohammad Ali Bogra’s Formula”.In this formula,it was suggested to give equal representation to East and West Pakistan.
49.When was the objective resolution passed?
Ans.The objective resolution was passed on 12th March,1949 in the Constituent Assembly.
50.Which event took place in the history of constitution making of Pakistan 1955?
Ans.It was hoped that after Mohammad Ali Bogra Formula,a constitution would be made in the country but in 1954,the Governer General dismissed the Constituent Assembly and in 1955,a new constituent Assembly was elected which started the work of constitution making.
51.How long did the 1956 constitution last?
Ans.The constitution of 1956 lasted for only two and a half years.On 7th October,1958,the army took over the Government.
52.According to the constitution of 1962,name the council that was established to point out the non-Islamic things.
Ans.The Council which was established to point out the non-Islamic things is known as “Islamic Ideology Council”.
53.How long did the constitution of 1962 last?
Ans.This constituted lasted for 7 years.On 25th March,1969,Ayub Khan resigned and gave the power to the army.General Yahya Khan dismissed the 1962 constitution and enforceed Martial Law in the country.
54.When was the legal frame work Order issue?
Ans.The legal frame work Order was issued on March 30th,1970.The said order contained the fundamental principles of the constitution to be framed by the elected assembly as well as the number of seats in National and Provincial Assembly for the General Elections to be held.
55.When were the Shariat Courts formed and where is its head office?
Ans.Shariat Courts were established in 1979 and its head office is at Islamabad
Role of Allama Iqbal in The Creation of Pakistan
Allama Mohammad Iqbal was born on 9th November 1877 in Sialkot. After seeking early education, he was admitted to Government College Lahore, where he obtained M.A. degree in Philosophy. He left for England for higher studies in 1905. In 1907, he obtained the Degree of Doctorate (Ph.D.) from Munich University.
Iqbal's Role in Pakistan Movement
Following are some key areas where Allam Iqbal's role led to Pakistan's creation.
Iqbal's Idea about Nationhood
Allama Iqbal was the greatest philospher and poet of the present era. Alongwith this, he possessed a view about political affairs. He awakened the feeling of Muslim Nationhood among the Muslims of India through his poetry and told them about the propaganda of West about Muslims.
When the Hindu philosphers presented this philosphy that a nation is born throughout the country and when Maulana Hussain Ahmed Madni seconded it, then Iqbal reacted strongly towards it. His thinking and poetry reflect the Two Nation Theory and his poetry awakened the feeling of Islamic nationality among the Muslims of India. This sense of a single unity was a major factor in the creation of Pakistan.
Iqbal's Political Life
Allama Iqbal made his debut in politics when he was elected as the member of Punjab's Legislative Assembly in 1926. During the elections of 1937, when Quaid-e-Azam started the reconstruction of the Muslim Leaague, Allama Iqbal stood besides him. He not only supported Quaid-e-Azam and the Muslim League wholeheartedly, but he also respected Quaid-e-Azam's point of view.
Iqbal and Two Nation Theory
Allama Iqbal firmly believed that the Muslims of India have a separate identity and to protect this identity, the establishment of a separate homeland for the Muslims of India was necessary. On 28th March 1909, he rejected the invitation from the secular party "Minswa Lodge" highligting the fact that:
"I have been a keen supporter of this theory that religious differences in this country should end and even now I practise this principle. But, now I have started to believe that separate national identity for the Muslims and the Hindus is necessary for their survival."
In 1930, in the Annual Session of Muslim League at Allahbad, Iqbal said:
"India is a continent of human groups belonging to different races, speaking different languages and professing different religions. Their behaviour is not at all determined by a common race conciousness. I therefore, demand the formation of a consolidated Muslim state in the best intrest of India and Islam."
Allama Iqbal's Presidential Adress at Allahbad in 1930 determined the political path of the Muslims of sub-continent. In his adress, he in clear words said:
"I would like to see the Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sindh and Balochistan been combined into a single state".
He further stated that:
"The formation of a consolidated North-West Indian Muslim State appears to be the final destiny of the Muslims, at least of the north west India."
Thus, Iqbal demanded a sovereign independent Muslim state even before the Muslim League demanded it in Pakistan's Resolution.
Ideology of Pakistan and Iqbal
Iqbal was strictly against nationalism. He considered all the Muslims to be a part of One Ummah. For him, a Muslim in any part of the world was part of a brotherly relation. He considered nationalism to be a coffin for the Muslim Umma.
Thus, highlighting the limitations and disadvantages of nationalism, Iqbal gave the philosphy of a "Millat-e-Islamia" and this philosphy became the basis of Pakistan's ideology.
In short, the personality of Allama Iqbal has left indelible marks in history. He tried to awaken the Muslims of India through his philosphy, poetry and politics. He gave the idea of independence to the Muslims of India. Iqbal died on 21st April, 1938. He was buried infront of the "Badshahi Mosque" in "Huzori Bagh."
Ideology of Pakistan
DEFINITION OF IDEOLOGY
Science of ideas,visionary speculations,manner of thinking ,characteristic of a class or individual,ideas on the basis of some economic,social or political theory or system is called Ideology.It contains those ideals,which a nation strives to accomplish in order to bring stability to its nationhood.Defining ideology ,George Lewis says:
"Ideology is a plan or program which is based upon philosphy".
IDEOLOGY OF PAKISTAN
Pakistan is an Ideological state and the ideology of Pakistan is an Islamic ideology.Its basic princple being:
"The only sovereigner is Allah".
Islam acted as a nation building force before the establishment of Pakistan.Ideology of Pakistan basically means that Pakistan should be a state where the Muslims should have an opportunity to live according to the faith and creed based on the Islamic principles.They should have all the resources at the disposal to enhence Islamic culture and civilization.Quid-e-Azam once said:
"Pakistan was created the day the first Indian national entered the field of Islam".
From the above statement ,it is clear that Ideology of Pakistan is an Islamic one.
TWO NATION CONCEPT
The fundamental concept of Ideology is that Muslims should get a separate identity.They should have a separate state where they could live according to Islamic rules and principles ,profess their religion freely and safeguard Islamic tradition .On one occation Quid-e-Azam said:
"The Muslims demand Pakistan where they can rule in accordance with their own system of life ,their cultural development ,their traditions and Islamic laws."
Thus,this fundamental concept of Ideology led to the concept of two nations in the Sub Continent and resulted in the formation of Pakistan.
FACTORS CREATING THE IDEA OF A SEPARATE HOMELAND
Ideology of Pakistan was created when Muslims of Indo-Pak Sub Continent developed a specific atitude of mind that they are different from Hindus.This was due to the injstices done to the Muslims by British and Hindus.Some of these are:
1.Anti Muslim Campaign
The Hindus and British joined hands to destroy the faith,belief,costoms and national importance of Muslims because Muslims rebillion was creating much problem for both.
2.Inacceptance of British Rule
Muslims had been ruling the Sub Continent for ages.Therefore,they could not resist any power over them,When Britsh came to rule the Sub Continent ,Muslims were the only nation who opposed them.Thus,in order to gain power,British had to crush the Muslims collectivity.
3.Hindus Betrayed Muslims
In the beginning ,Hindus appeaared to be on Muslim's side,but later on their hostility was exposed as they opposed various steps taken by British Government which purely benefited for Muslims.
4.Refusal of Muslim identity
British wanted to implement parliamentary system in Sub Continent in which the majority was the power and authority.Due to Hindu majority it was probablethat if British left India undivided,it would fall under the Hindus rule.Further more ,Hindus did not accept the separate identity of Muslims and thus,there were no chances of freedom even after the British rule.
5.War of 1857
In 1857,Muslims and Hindus tried to expel the British out of India but failed .Later due to Hindu conspiracies,Muslims were held responsible for it and hence were crushed further by Britishers.
6.Sir Syed's Idea
Sir Syed for the first time put down the idea that Muslims are a separate nation.He convinced Muslims to unite themselves in order to have a separate social and political identity.
BASIC POINTS OF IDEOLOGY OF PAKISTAN
1.Muslims are different Hindus in every aspects,their culture ,civilization,customs and religion all are entirely different.
2.The Muslims need a free state for protection of their separate where they can live in accordance with their faith,belief and follow the Islamic codes.
IMPORTANCE OF IDEOLOGY IN NATIONAL LIFE
Ideology is a motivating force for a nation,which is striving hard to bring stability and homogeneity to its nation hood.Its provide the binding force to the scattered groups in a societyand bring them close to each other on a common platform.Ideologies impel their adherence to follow a joint linked action for the accomplishment of their goal.Ideologies give shape to the revolutions and create new cultures and civilizations.They stress on their adherents to insist on the realization of their ideal throught total transformation of society.An urgent agreement with each other on the ideals is most vital pre-requisite of an ideology.
The fundamental concept of ideology of Pakistan is that Muslims are a separate nation having their own culture,literature ,religion and way of life.They cannot be merged in any other nation.They should be able to develop their culture and religious traditions in an Islamic State and they should be able to create a true Islamic society for themselves.
Thus the ideology of Pakistan which developed through the period of Mohammad Bin Qasim and others and followed by political leaders like Quid-e-Azam was materialized in 1947.
Pakistan Resolution was the turning point in the history of Pakistan.It provides a way to the Muslims,leading to the destination of a complete independence.
ATTITUDE OF HINDUS
Hindus clearly stated that they would not tolerate another community in India by saying:
"India belong to the Hindus and if Muslims wish to live in India,they should Hinduism."
The Hindus tried to destroy Muslim identity by introducing Hindi as a medium of education.
The congress neglected the Muslim in every field and supported the Hindus.It did not recognize Muslim as a considerable party in India.In his address Nehru stated that: "There are only two parties in the country,the congress and the british." According of Quaid-e-Azam :
"The sole aim and object of the congress is to annihilate every other organization in the country."
By 1937,the political conditions of Sub Continent compelled the Muslim political leaders to seriously consider the partition of India.The idea of Indian partition was not a new one,a number of partition proposals had been forwarded previously by many Muslim leaders like Syed Ahmed Shaheed,Mohammad Abdul Qadir,Allama Iqbal,Syed Jamal Uddin Afghani,Abdul Halim Sharar e.t.c.
PROPOSAL GIVEN BY ALLAMA IQBAL
The most reasonable proposal was given by Allama Iqbal.The poet,philospher,while delivering his presidential address at the annual session of the Muslim League at Allahbad in December 1930 said:
"India is a continent of Human Beings belonging to different languages ,having different religion,therefore,I demand the formation of separate Muslim State for the Muslims of India."
CHAUDRY REHMAT ALI'S SCHEME
Chaudry Rehmat Ali proposed his scheme of partition of India.He declared:
"North of India is Muslim and we shall keep it Muslim.Not only that ,we will make it a Muslim State....?"
He coined the word "Pakistan" in which 'P' stands for Punjab,'A' stands for Afghanistan,(N.W.F.P) 'K' for Kashmir ,'S' for Sindh and 'tan' stands for Baluchistan.The word Pakistan means "The land of Pure".
THE PAKISTAN RESOLUTION
In 1940,the annual session of Muslim League was held at Lahore in Minto Park (Iqbal Park).Under the chairmanship of Quaid-e-Azam and a resolution was passed on 23rd March,1940.The Resolution was moved by Bengal Chief Minister Maulvi Fazlul Haq and seconded by Chaudry Khaliq-uz-Zaman.It stated that:
"No Constitution plan would be workable in this country or acceptable to Muslims unless it is designed on the following basic principles,viz,that geographically contigous units are democrated into regions which should be so constituted,with such territorial adjustment as may necessary,that the areas in which Muslims are numerically in majority as in the North-Western and Eastern zones of India,should be grouped to constitute independent states in which the constituent units shall be autonomous and sovereign...adequate,effective and mandatory safeguards should be specifically provided in the constitution for minorities for the protection of their religion ,cultural,economic,political,administrative and other rights."
PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS OF QUAID-E-AZAM
The Quaid-e-Azam delivered a historic address at this moment highlighting the distinct national character of the Muslims of India.He said:
"Musalmans are not a minority at is commonly known and understood.One has only got to look around even today,According to the British map of India,out of 11 provinces,4 provinces where the Muslims dominate more or less are functioning not with standing the decision of the Congress High Command to non cooperate and prepare fore civi disobedience .Musalmans are nation according to any definition of a nation and they must have their homelands,their territory and their state.We wish to live in peace and harmony with our neighbours as a free and independent people.We wish our people to develope to the fullest our spritual,cultural,economic,social and political life in a way that we think best and in consonance with our own ideals and according to the genius of our people."
MUSLIMS ACCEPTANCE AND HINDUS REJECTION OF THE RESOLUTION
The Resolution was unanimously accepted by the Muslims who had assembled the meeting plan in a large number.The Hindu readers and newspaper raise a hue and cry after the Resolution.They refused it and referred to the partition as "Vivesection of Motherland".
Gandhi said that :
"Dividing India was like dividing a cow."
Quaid-e-Azam warned the Hindus that:
"If the Hindus tried to get the whole of India they would loose the whole,but if they gave one-third to the Muslims they would get two-thirds."
IMPORTANCE OF PAKISTAN RESOLUTION
The Pakistan Resolution is a land mark in the history of the Muslims of India.This famous Resolution results in the creation of Pakistan.The acceptance of Pakistan Resolution strengthned the Two Nation Theory which was the basis of Muslim struggle for Independence.
Pakistan Resolution was a demand for the protection and safeguard of the national identity of the Muslims.With the passage of Pakistan Resolution,the Muslims began to acquire new hope and confidence in their destiny.The Resolution infused high spirits among the Muslims who were now determined to fight to the last minute for the accomplishment of Pakistan.
TWO NATION THEORY
Meaning of Two Nation Theory
The Two Nation Theory in its simplest way means the cultural,political,religious,economic and social dissimilarities between the two major communities.Hindus and Muslims of the Sub Continent.These difference of out look ,in fact,were greatly instrumental in giving rise to two distinct political ideologies which were responsible for the partition of India into two independent states.
THE BASIS OF THE CREATION OF PAKISTAN
The Two Nation Theory was the basis of the struggle for creation of Pakistan which held that Hindus and Muslims are two separate Nations.They in spite of living together for centuries could not forget their individual cultures and civilization.Al-Beruni recorded his ideas in 1001 A.D in his famous book "Kitab-ul-Hind" as:
"The Hindus society maintained this peculiar character over the centuries.The two socities,Hindus and Muslims,like two streams have sometimes touched but never merged,each following its separate course."
There are a few factors which split the inhabitants of the Sub Continent into two Nations.Let us examine each of them separately.
The Hindus and Muslims belong to different religions.Islam preaches Tawheed (oneness of Allah) and believes in equality of man before law.Muslims are the believers of God,The Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) the Holy Book Quran and hold a cohesive approach towards life.
Hinduism,on the other hand is based on the concept of multiple Gods.Their society follows a caste system and is divided into four classes and have a very narrow approach towards life.
A number of Hindu nationalist movements,which emerged from time to time in the Indian history ,added fuel to the fire by playing up the tension and antagonism which already existed between the two communities.
The Hindu nationalist leaders totally ignored the great contribution made by the Muslims in the indian society by way of promoting education and other social activities.Their writings and ideas flared up the communal discord between Hindus and Muslims to further pollute the political condition.
Muslim followed the Islamic culture while Hindus inherited a self build culture.The Hindus burnt their dead bodies while Muslims burred them.Hindus considered the 'Mother cow' as a sacred animal and worshiped it while Muslims slaughtered it.they performed 'sati' while Muslims abhorred this tradition .The Hindus and Muslims did not intermarry nor they inter-dine.
The two communities of the Sub Continent differ in their social life as well.The clothes,the foods,the household utensils,the layout of homes,the words of salutation,the gestures and every thing about them was different and immediately pointed to their distinctive origin.
After 1857,the Muslim economic was crushed and all trade policies were framed in such a way so as to determent the Muslim condition .They were thrown out of Government services and the their estates and properties were confiscated,while the Hindus were provided with ample opportunities to progress economically.
The Hindus had advanced in the educational field because they quickly and readily took the english education.While Muslims did not receive modern education which heavily affected their economic conditions.
The political differences between the Hindus and Muslims have played an important role in the developement and evolution of Two Nation Theory.
(i) Hindi Urdu Controversy
In 1867,Hindus demande that Urdu should be written in Hindi Script instead of Persian script.This created another gap between Hindus and Muslims.
(ii) Congress Attitude
The Indian national Congress was founded in 1885.It claimed to represent all communities of India but oppressed all Muslim ideas and supported the Hindus.
(iii) Partition of Bengal
In 1905,the partition of Bengal ensured a number of political benefits for the Muslims,but the Hindus launched an agitation against the partition and partition was annulled in 1911.
The Muslimsand Hindus wrote and spoke two different languages .The language of the former was Urdu and it was written in Arabic Script.On the other hand ,the Hindi language was spoken by Hindus and it was written in Sanskrit.Urdu and Hindi language had the difference in writing,thoughts of poetry,arts,painting and words of music.Even this small difference lead to a stirring conflict between the two nations.
Sir syed Ahmed Khan-The Pioneer of Two Nation Theory
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan,the pioneer of two nation theory,used the word 'two nation' for Hindus and Muslims after being concinced of the Hindus and Congress hatred,hostility and prejudice for the Muslims.
The entire freedom movement revolved around the two nation theory which was introduced by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan.He considered all those lived in India as one nation and was a great advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity.Speaking at the meeting of Indian Association he said:
"I look to both Hindus and Muslims with the same eyes and consider them as my own eyes.By the word 'Nation' I mean only Hindus and Muslims and nothing else,We,Hindus and Muslims live together on the same soil under the same government.Our intrests and problems are common,and therfore,I consider the two factions as one nation."
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan did his best to make the Muslims realize their differences ewith the Hindus with regard to religions,social and language national and international identity and for this purpose he diverted attention of the Indian Muslims towards a new idea of "Two Nation" or "Two entities."
After Hindi-Urdu controversy Sir Syed felt that it was not possible for Hindus and Muslims to progress as a single nation.He said:
" I am convinced now that Hindus and Muslims could never become one nation as their religion and way of life was quite distinct from each other."
TWO NATION THEORY IN THE VIEW OF ALLAMA IQBAL
Allama Iqbal was the first important figure who propounded the idea of separate homeland on the basis of two nation theory.He firmly believed in the separate identity of the Muslims as a nation and suggested that there would be no possibility of peace in the country unless and untill they were recognized as a nation.In the annual session of Muslim League at Allahabad in 1930,he said:
"India is a continent of human beings belonging to different languages and professing different religions...I,therefore,demand the formation of a consolidated Muslim state in the best interests of the Muslims of India and Islam."
QUAID-E-AZAM'S STATEMENT ON TWO NATION THEORY
The most clear and emphatic exposition is found in Jinnah's statement and speeches.He expounded the two nation theory in such detail that most Muslims and even some Hindus came to believe in its truth.He declared:
" Muslims are not a minority,They are one nation by every definition of the word nation.By all canons of international law we are a nation."
Quaid-e-Azam reiterated that Hindus and Muslims could ever evolve a common nationality was on idle dream.They are a totally different nation .They have an unbridgeable gulf between them and they stand miles apart in regards to their ideals,culture and religion.In 1973,he said:
"Hindustan is neither one country,nor its inhabitants one nation.This is Sub Continent which consist of many nations of which the Hindus and Muslims are two major nations."
The Muslims apprehended that they would lose their identity if they remained a part of Hindu society.They also came to realize the above mentioned differences between them and the Hindus and hence demanded separate electorate on the ground that they were different nation from Hindus.
Hence it is right to say that this theory i.e two nation theory is the basis of the creation of Pakistan because without this as a base,Pakistan would not come into being on 14th August ,1947,and we would not be breathing freely in this open air of Pakistan.
Fourteen Points of Quaid-e-Azam
In 1928,an All Parties Conference was convened to solve the constitutional problems of India.A committee was set up under Pandit Lal Nehru.That committee prepared a report which is known as "Nehru Report".This report demanded "Dominion Status" for India.Separate electorates were refused and the reservation of seats for the Muslims of Bengal and Punjab was rejected.In this report,not a single demand of the Muslims was upheld.
Since Nehru Report was the last word from Hindus therefore Mr.Jinnah was authorized to draft in concise term the basis of any future constitution that was to be devised for India.Originally these demands were Fourteen in number and so they popularly came to be known as "Jinnah's Fourteen Points".
In March 1929 ,at the annual session of All india Muslim league,he declared his famous fourteen points.
JINNAH'S FOURTEEN POINTS -1929
The form of the future constitution should be federal with the residuary powers rested in the provinces.
A uniform measure of autonomy shall be granted to all provinces.
3.Representation of Minorities
All legislative in the country and other elected bodies shall be constituted on the definite principles of adequate and effective representation of minorities in every province without reducing the majority in any province to a minority or even equality.
4.Number of Muslim Representative
In the central legislative ,Muslims representative shall be not less than one -third.
Representative of communal groups shall continue to be by means of separate electorates as at present provided it shall be open to any community,at any time to abandon its separate electorate in favour of joint electorate.
6.Muslim Majority Provinces
Any territorial re-distribution that might at any time be necessary shall not in any way,effect the Muslim majority in Punjab,Bengal and N.W.F.P.
Full religious Liberty,liberty of belief,worship and observance,association and education shall be guaranted to all the communication.
No bill or resolution shall be passed in any legislative or any other elected body if three-fourths of the members of any community in that particular body oppose such a bill.
9.Separation of Sind
Sind should be separated from Bombay Presidency.
10.Introduction of Reforms in N.W.F.P and Baluchistan
Reforms should be introduced in the North-West Frontier Province and Baluchistan on the same footing as in other provinces.
Muslims should be given adequate share along with other Indians in the services of State.
12.Protection of Muslim's culture and Language
The constitution should embody adequate safeguard for the protection of Muslim culture,language,religion and civilization.
13.One-Third Muslim Ministers
No cabinet,either central or provincial be formed.Without being a proportion of at least one-third Muslim Ministers.
No change shall be made in the constitution of state except with the concurrence of State constituting the Indian Federation.
The reasonable and moderate demands contained in the fourteen points,were rejected by the Hindus leaders which considerably widened the gulf between the two communities.
IMPORTANCE OF JINNAH'S FOURTEEN POINTS
A comparison of the Nehru Report with the quaid-e-Azam's Fourteen Points shows that the political gap between the Muslims and the Hindus had really widened.Fourteen points of Quaid-e-Azam became principles for Muslims of India.These points made it clear to Hindus and British Government that Muslims of India.Those points made it clear to Hindus and British Government that Muslims wanted their own identity without influence by Hindus.Fourteen Points not only revived Muslim League but also directed them on a new way.These points prepared the Muslims of India for a bold step to struggle for freedom.
The importance of these points can be judged by the fact that these points were presented in the Round Table Conference of 1930.
As a result,these points became the demands of the Muslims and greatly influenced the Muslims thinking for the next two decaded till the establishment of Pakistan in 1947.
Salient Features of Pakistani Culture
DEFINITION OF CULTURE
Culture may be defined as behaviour perculiar to human beings,together with material objects used.Culture consists of language,ideas,beliefs,customs,codes,institution,t ools,techniques,works of arts,ceremonies and so on.According to Allama Iqbal:
"Culture encompasses all the mental,Spiritual and Physical activities of a Nation.It includes the basic beliefs and faith,values and literature ,aart and architecture,music and mode of dress,manners and customs prevalent in a given Society."
PAKISTANI CULTURE IS A ISLAMIC CULTURE
Pakistan is an ideological Islamic State.Its very existence is due to Islam,so the Pakistani culture is primarily based on the Islamic way of life.All other ingredients of culture are inspired by Islam.Pakistani culture is highlighted by its grandeur,simplicity,firm convictions and noble deeds and ideas.
SALIENT FEATURES OF PAKISTANI CULTURE
The main characteristics of Pakistani culture are as follows:
Pakistan came into existence to provide its people a system of life based on Islam.The people ,in spite of some differences of languages,customs and traditions commonly follow one religion of Islam.This is the religion,which is practiced by all people of Pakistan.
A number of languages are spoken in Pakistan.Some of them are Punjabi,Sindhi,Pushto and Baluchi.But Urdu is spoken and understand in all parts of Pakistan.Being the official language,it is the media of communication between all regions of Pakistan.
3.Literatur and Poetry
Literature is an important aspects of our cultural life.Most of our poets reflect Islamic code and trend in their poetry.They gave the message of love and brotherhood.Simlarity of thoughts amongst poets and writers of all regions is an important factor of our cultural life.
4.Dress and Diet
Dress is an important manifestation of culture.The regional dresses of Pakistan under go changes in the light of local traditions,economic conditions,way of living and wealth in the region.But in all provinces people generally wear Shalwar Qameez.
Our eating habits,foods and social etquette are stricktly in conformity with Islamic principles.
Pakistani culture is a mixed culture although majority of people are Muslims by birth and faith .But there is great influence of Hindu and British culture on the present Pakistani society.
6.Male Dominated Society
In Pakistani culture the male member of the family enjoys the key position.Family is headed by a male member and in most cases,he is the soul sources of income for other members of the family.
7.Arts and Architecture
The iconoclasm of Islam has given a characteristic form and pattern in the use of elwgant designs,based on geometric figures and floral forms borrowed from nature.The Shah Jahan Masjid,Shalimar Garden,Badshahi Masjid,Shahi Qila and many such graceful buildings are a living proof of the exellent Mughal architecture.
Embroidery,Leather works,glazed pottery,wood work,carpet making,metal crafts,ivory are the essential parts of our culture.Pakistani craftsmen are considered as the best in their craftsmanship.They are known for the high quality works which is very popular in foreign countries.
The recreational activities all over the Pakistan are common.The games like wrestling,hockey ,cricket,football,squash,Kabaddi etc are popular in every part of our country.These games reflect our cultural identity.
Education contributes a great deal in developing national character.Educational system plays a vital role in the formation of culture,unity and solidarity of a nation.it is,therefore,important that the entire syllabi right from the lower to higher level should be placed in accordance with the ideology of Pakistan.
Festivals play an important part of our culture.Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Azha are our two main religious festivals .They are celebrated with great happiness throughout the country.
12.Ulema,Mushaikh and Sufi Poets
Ulema,Mashaikh and Sufi Poets occupy an honoured place in our cultural aspect of life.Sufis like Lal Shahbaz,Data Ganj Baksh,Shah Abdul Lateef,Sachal Sarmast,Hazrat Sultan Bahu and Waris Shah rendered meritorious services for the spread of Islam in the Sub Continent.
Culture which includes religion,literature art,architecture,dresses,music,manners and customs has its roots in the Islamic culture.Islam has described the rights and duties of every individual.Even in drinking,eating and dressing,we have to observe certain rules prescribed by Islam.So it may be said that Pakistani culture represents the true picture of Islamic culture.
Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is an important world organization of the third world countries who do not wish to be aligned with any of the big powers.The NAM can be defined as:
"The international forum of the people of the third World who openly condemn and negate the lust for creating the spheres of influence by the super powers and thus is an important and effective organ against Colonialism and imperialism."
REASONS FOR THE FORMATIONS OF NAM
The World War ll devided the world into two power blocs.The Western bloc being headed by U.S.A and the socialist bloc being governed by U.S.S.R.
These two super powers involved in cold war creating great problems for the smaller nations and under developed countries.The best policy for such states would have been to isolate themselves from the cold war of the super powersand fully concentrate on their economic,social and cultural uplift .NAM is an organization to help these nations to exist.
A meeting of those countries of the World who had no alignment with any super was held in Bandung(Indonesia) on April 24,1955.It was held to discuss the problems faced by Afro-Asian countries which was mainly to avoid the "Tug of War" of the super powers.
MAIN FEATURES OF NAM OR PANJSHILA PRINCIPLES
The declared principles of NAM are:
1.Respect of Independence and Sovereignty
To respect each others sovereignty,territorial integrity and independence.
To refrain from acts of aggression or use of force against any states.
Non interference in others international affairs.
4.Recognization of Equality and Liberty
To recognize the equality and liberty of all the Nations.
To live in a peaceful atmosphere.
OBJECTIVE OF NAM
1.To promote good will and cooperation among the Afro-Asian countries.
2.To consider social,economic and cultural problems of all participants.
3.To consider the problems like radicalism and coloniasm.
4.To access the position of Afro-Asian states and their people in the world.
SUMMIT CONFERENCES OF NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENTS
First Summit Conference
It was held at Belgrade (Yugoslavia) in 1961 in which 25 nations took part.The rules for obtaining membership of NAM were drafted.
Second Summit Conference
It was held at Cairo(Egypt) in 1964.
Third Summit Conference
It was held at Lusaka (Zambia) in 1970.51 countries participated in this conference.
Fourth Summit Conference
It was held at Algiers (Algeria) in September 1973.In this conference the membership of Pakistan and China was opposed by India.
Fifth Summit Conference
It was held at Colombo (Srilanka) in August,1976.86 countries participated in this conference.
Opposition of radicalism and expansionism was declared .Arab cause was supported and USA was critisized for its annexation over Vietnam and Cuba.
Sixth Summit Conference
It was held at Havana (Cuba) on 3rd September,1979 to 9th September,1979.Pakistan attended this meeting for first time as a member of NAM.
Seventh Summit Conference
It was held at Delhi (India) in March 1983.101 countries participated in this conference.Arab cause,Palestine War,South African and Namibian struggle were discussed.USA was criticized for assisting Israel.
Eighth Summit Conference
It was held at Harare (Zimbabwe) on 1st September 1986.Afghanistan Problem,Iran Iraq War,Palestine and Namibian issue were discussed.
Ninth Summit Conference
It was held at Belgrade (Yugoslavia) on 4th September,1989.
PAKISTAN -AS THE MEMBER OF NAM
Pakistan joined NAM in 1979 although it participated actively in the 1st Conference and attende the 5th conference as an observer.This was due to the fact that Pakistan was a member of SEATO and CENTO .Pakistan got rid of these organizations after the war with India(1965) and the debacle of East Pakistan (1971) when the sponsors of SEATO and CENTO did not came to help it.
Today, Pakistan participates actively in the programs of NAM and advocates affectively the problems relating to its member countries.Pakistan placed the case of foreign interference in Afghanistan in the Session of the 7th conference and was able to get most of the members confirm Pakistan stand on the problem and its equitable solution.
The NAM re-affirmed the inalienable right of all states to apply and develop their programs for peaceful uses of nuclear energy for economic and social developement.
Islamic Provisions of Constitution of
INTRODUCTION On 7th April,1972 the national assembly of Pakistan appointed a committee to prepare a draft of the permanent constitution of Pakistan.A bill to provide a constitution was introduced by the committee in the Assembly on February 2,1973.The Assembly passed the bill on 19th April,1973 and at last the constitution came into force on 14th August 1973.
The present constitution (1973) provides for the protection and preservation of Islamic Concept of life.It also attempts to propagate and implement the basic teachings of Islam.
ISLAMIC PROVISIONS OF 1973 CONSTITUTION
The following are the Islamic provisions of 1973 constitution based on the principles of Holy Quran and Sunnah.
1.Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Pakistan shall be known as "Islamic Republic of Pakistan".
Islam shall be the state religion of Pakistan.
3.Sovereignty Belongs to Allah
Sovereignty over the entire Universe belongs to Almighty Allah and the authority bestowed by him on men is a sacred trust which the people of Pakistan will exercise with the limits prescribed by Quran and Sunnah.
4.Definition of a Muslim
The constitution also gives the definition of a Muslim.A person who believes in Tauheed or Oneness of Allah,and in the prophet hood of Hazrat Mohammad (P.B.U.H) as the last prophet of Allah has described as aMuslim.
5.A Muslim to be a President and Prime Minister
The constitution laid down that only Muslims shall be elected president and Prime Minister of Pakistan.Non non-Muslim could hold these offices.
6.Islamic way of life
Steps shall be given to enable the Muslims of Pakistan to order their lives in accordance with the fundamental principles and basic concepts of Islam.
7.Promotion of Social Justice and Eradication of Social Evils
The State shall take necessary steps for prosecution of social justice and eradication of social evils and shall prevent prostitution,gambling and taking of injurious drugs,printing,publication,circulation and display of obscene literature and advertisements.
8.Teachings of Holy Quran
The state shall try to make the teachings of Holy Quran and Islamiat compulsory to encourage and facilitate the learning of Arabic language.
9.Strengthing Bond,with Muslim World
The state shall endeavour to strengthen fraternal relations among Muslim countries in order to promote Islamic unity.
10.Council of Islamic Ideology
There is a councel of Islamic Ideology which shall guide the government in respect of Islamic teachings,their implementation and propagation.Its chairman and members are appointed by President.Although its advice is not binding on the government yet it is not easy for any government to ignore or over rule its suggestion or opinion regarding any law.
11.Error Free Publication of Quran
The government shall endeavour to secure correct and exact printing and publishing of the Holy Quran.
12.Oath to Project and Promote Islamic Ideology
The federal and Provincial Ministers,the Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the National and Provincial Assemblies,the chairman of the Senate and the Governors and Chief Ministers of the Provinces also take oath to preserve and protect the Islamic Ideology.
13.Ahmadi's A Non Muslim Minority
According to the second amendment of 1973 constitution,the Qadiani group or the Lahori group who call themselves "Ahmadi's " were declared as Non-Muslim minority.
The 1973 constitution enlisted the main principles of State Policy Maximum efforts were made to improve the character of this constitution.Like other constitutions,1973 constitution of Pakistan also provides for the protection,propagation and enforcement of Islamic Ideology.
Initial Difficulties at the Establishment of Pakistan
The emergence of Pakistan,after a long and ardous freedom movement,was infact a great victory of the democratic idea of life.The Indian Muslims happily and valiantly laid down their lives and properties to achieve a destination in which they saw the fulfillment of their dreams of living an independent life fre from Hindu or British dominance.Quaid-e-Azam on 15th August ,1947 said:
"My thoughts are with those valiant fighters in our cause who readily sacrificed all they had,including their lives,to make Pakistan possible."
INITIAL DIFFICULTIES OF PAKISTAN
From its very inception,Pakistan faced a large number of problems.Some of the initial difficulties were:
1.Choice of Capital and Establishment of Government
The first problem that Pakistan had to face was to choose a capital to form a Government and to establish a secretariat,Karachi was chosen as the capital of Pakistan.Quaid-e-Azam took the office of the Governor General ,Liaqat Ali Khan was appointed as Prime Minister and a Cabinet of experienced persons was selected.Arrangements were to be made to bring the officials who had opted for Pakistan from Delhi to Karachi.
2.Unfair Boundary Distrbution
A boundry commission was set up under a British Chairman,Sir Cyril Redcliff.He misused his powers and handed over Muslim majority areas like Gurdaspur,Ferozpur,Jullander to India hence providing them a gateway to Kashmir.Quaid-e-Azam called it:
" An unjust,incomprehensible and even perverse award."
3.The Massacre of Muslim Refugees in India
On the birth of Pakistan,Hindus and Sikhs became more furious.In a planned move,Muslim properties were set on fire and they were compelled to leave Bharat for Pakistan with nothing but their lives.Millions of refugees were killed before they reached Pakistan.Many migrants were looted and had to be provided boarding immediately as they reached Pakistan.
4.Division of Military and Finantial Assets
In order to embarrass Pakistan financially ,India did a lot of dishonesty in the matters of Pakistan which were concerned with its benefits.Pakistan was promised to get Rs.750 million but the Bharat Government refused to give .Pakistan received only 200 million .Pakistan also did not receive the due share of the military assets.This dishonest attitude put Pakistan into great difficulties.
5.Canal Water Dispute
Most of the river flowing in Pakistan have their origin in India.In 1948,india stopped water supply to Pakistani canals to damage the Pakistani agriculture.However on 9th September ,1960 on agreement called "Indus Basin Treaty" was signed between the two countries.
Kashmir dispute is the most important and unsolved problem.Kashmir is the natural part of Pakistan becaouse at the time of partition 85% of the Kashmir's total population was Muslim.The Hindu dogra rule ,who was secretly with the Govenment of Indiadeclared Kashmir as a part of India.Pakistan has continously insisted that Kashmir must get their right of self determination but due to non-coperation of India,Kashmir issue still remain unsolved.
The constituent assembly failed to frame a constitution even in eight years.Lack of a permanent constitution created ,chances of unsrupulous interference in democratic progress of Pakistan.
8.Annexation of Princely States
All Indian princely states were given the right to link up with either of dominions.However,the fate of following states remained undecided.
The Muslim Nawab governing junagadh favoured in acceding to Pakistan.But Indian Government sent Army troops towards Junagadh and occupied the stste by force in November,1947.
Hyderabad Deccan was the largest and richest state ruled by Muslim ruler Nizam who decided to remain independent.But pressure tactics began to be applied by Indian Government and Mount Batten .India attacked Hyderabad on 13th September 1948 and forcibly annexed this state to India.
Due to transfer of Muslim majority areas to Bharat and unfair demarcation,electricity system of West Punjab was disrupted ,because all power stations were at Mundi,a predominantly Muslim majority area,gifted to Bharat but Quiad-e-Azam said:
"If we are to exist as a nation ,we will have to face the problems with determination and force."
Pakistan came into being as a free Muslim state in quite unfavourable circumstances .It had no resources ,it had no resources,it had to build up its administrative machinery from a scratch.But Supreme efforts were made by the Quiad-e-Azam and his colligues to grapple with the situation .His golden principles "Unity " "Faith" and "Discipline" gave way to Pakistan for a bright future of a strong and well developed country .In his last message to the nation on 14th August 1948,he told the nation:
"The foundation of your state have been laid and it is now for you to build and build as quickly and as you can."
Role of Muslim League in the Creation of Pakistan
Anti partition agitation staged by Hindus made it clear to the Muslims that they must have a separate political Organization.In December,1906 Muslim Leaders from all over the Sub Continent assembled in Dacca to attend the all India Mohammadan to establish a central political organization for Muslims called the "All India Muslim League" .The Muslim League was established with the primary aim of the protecting the political rights of Indian Muslims and presenting their demands and problems before the British Government.
FOUNDATION OF MUSLIM LEAGUE
The success of Simla Deputation made it imperative for the Muslims of the Sub Continent to have their own political organization .In 1906 ,the Muslims of India founded a political party of their own known as "All India Muslim League."
CAUSES OF MUSLIM LEAGUE'S FOUNDATION
The partition of Bengal by the British Government in 1905 greatly embittered the relations between Hindus and Muslims.The partition ensured a number of political benefits for the Muslim but the Hindus reacted towards the partitions of Bengal in a hostile and violent manner .This made it clear that the Hindus were not willing to give Muslims their due share.This violent protest of the Hindus convinced the educated Muslims that they could be redeemed only if they created their own political force and their own leadership.
AIMS OF MUSLIM LEAGUE
The aims of Muslim league are given below:
1.To safe guard and protect Muslims intrests and to convey their demands to British Government.
2.To create a feeling of respect and good will in Muslim for the British Government.
3.To promote brotherhood between the different nations of India.
ROLE OF MUSLIM LEAGUE
The role played by All India Muslim League in the creation of Pakistan is summarized under:
1.Minto-Morley Reform Act -1909
The Muslims under the able leadership of the Muslim league now began to press for the separate electorate for the Muslims.The authorities accepted their demand in Act,called "The Minto-Morley Reform Act",in 1909.
In November 1916,two committees of League and Congress met at Calcutta and drew an agreement draft of political reform for India called "Lucknow Pact".Through this pact the Congress recognized the separate status of Muslims.
In 1927,Simon Commission was sent to India under the chairmanship of Sir John Simon to settle Muslim Hindu differences.It was rejected because there was no indian member on the commission.
4.Jinnah's Fourteen Points-1929
The Quaid-e-Azam refused to accept the Nehru-report.In order to protect the Muslim's point of view on the political issues of South Asia,he prepared a draft of guiding principles consisting of 14 points,popularly known as "Jinnah's Fourteen Points."
5.Allama Iqbal's Allahabad Address-1930
In 1930,in his presidential address at annual session of League at Allahabad,Iqbal proposed the formation of a separate Muslim State by combining Northern and South Western Muslim majority region in Sub Continent.
6.Day of Deliverance
On 22nd December ,Muslim League observed "Deliverance Day" to thank God for resignation of Congress Ministers.
7.Pakistan Resolution -1940
The attitude of the Hindus made it clear that the Hindus and Muslims were two separate nations.On March 23rd,at the Annual session of Muslim League at Lahore,the famous resolution ,commonly known as the Pakistan Resolution was passed.It presented by Maulvi Fazlul Haq.Quiad-e-Azam said in his address:
"By all means Muslims are one nation and they need a separate homeland where they could live their spiritual ,cultural ,economical,social and political lives independently."
Sir Stafford Cripps was sent by the British Government to India,to discuss with Indian leaders,the future Indian Constitution.His proposal was rejected by both the Congress and the League.The Congress characterized them as "a post-dated cheque on a failing bank" Jinnah said that:
"If these were accepted "Muslims would become a minority in their majority provinces as well."
9.Gandhi Jinnah Talks-1944
Gandhi held talks with Jinnah to discuss about the future of India,but no fruitful results came out of it because Gandhi did not accept Muslims as a separate nation."
Louis Feisher wrote:
"The wall between Jinnah and Gandhi was the Two Nation Theory ."
10.Simla Conference -1945
Lord Wavell called a conference at Simla.The conference failed to achieve any purpose due to one sided attitude of Lord Wavell.In this conference ,Quaid-e-Azam made it crystal clear that the Muslim League can represent Muslims of India.
Elections for the central and provincial assemblies were held in 1945-1946 in which Muslim League won 30 seats of central legislative meant for Muslims and 430 seats out of 495 in the provincial legislative.Quiad-e-Azam said on this occassion:
"I have no doubt now in the acheivement of Pakistan.The Muslims of India told the world what they want.No power of world can topple the opinion of 10 crore Muslims of India."
Cabinet Mission a visited India in 1946 and submitted its recommendations to the Britishers.As a result Interium Government was formed but Congress and League couldn't co-operate amongst themselves.
Quaid-e-Azam called a convention of all the Muslim League members at Delhi.At the convention every member took the pledge to under go any danger for the attainment of national goal of Pakistan.
14.3rd June Plan -1947
Lord Mount Batten prepared the plan for tranference of power according to the wish of people.He emphasized on the partition of the country and told that it was the only solution of the Indian political deadlock.Both League and Congress accepted the plan.
Muslim League thus got its object and Pakistan was created on 14th August 1947.In short we can say that the creation of Pakistan is the result of the ceaseless efforts of the Muslim League and the great heroes which dedicated their lives for the creation of Pakistan.If there were be no Muslim League the fate of the Muslims of the Sub Continent could not be changed.
Political Events From 1940 to 1947
The era from 1940 to 1947 is the era of rapid changes.Many important events in the most prominent among them.In the past,the demand of Pakistan was not raised clearly.It was due to Muslim achievements in this period that now we are living in a sovereign and independent state.The political events from Pakistan Resolution to the establishment of Pakistan are summarized under:
23rd March-Pakistan Resolution
The attitude of the Hindus made it clear that the Hindus and the Muslims were two separate nations.On March 23rd ,at the annual session of Muslim League at Lahore,the famous resolution,commonly known as the Pakistan Resolution was passed.It was presented by Maulvi Fazlul Haq.Quiad-e-Azam said in his address:
"By all means Muslims are one nation and they need a separate homeland where they could live their spiritual,cultural,economical,social and political lives independently."
8th August -August Offer
It was proposed to enlarged governor general councils to include members from political parties.War Advisory Committee was also launched.Both league and Congress rejected the offer.
12th -15th April-Civil Disobedience Movement
28th session of League was held at Madras in which a resolution was adopted on Civil Disobedience Movement launched by Congress.
23rd March-Crisp Mission
Sir Stafford Cripps was sent by the British Government to India,to discuss with Indian leaders,the future Indian Constitutions.His proposal was rejected by both the Congress and the League.The Congress Characterized them us "a post-dated cheque on a failing bank."Jinnah said that if these were accepted "Muslims would become a minority in their majority provinces as well."
8th Ugust-Quit India
Congress initiated it against British,it was "open rebellion" due to which many people were killed League raised a slogan of "Divide and Quite India".
27th December-Action Committee
It was formed to prepare and organized Muslims of India for coming struggle for acievements of Pakistan.
9th September-Gandhi Jinnah Talks
Gandhi held talks with Jinnah to discuss about the future of India,but no fruitful results came out of it because Gandhi did not accept Muslims as a separate nation.
"The wall between Jinnah and Gandhi was the Two Nation Theory."
25th June-Simla Conference
Lord Wavell called a conference at Simla.The conference failed to achieve any purpose due to one sided attitude of Lord Wavell.In this conference ,Quiad-e-Azam made it crystal clear that the Muslim League can represent Muslim of India.
2nd December General Elections
Elections for the central and provincial assemblies were held in 1945-1946 in which Muslim League won 30 seats of central legislative meant for Muslims and 430 seats out of 495 in the provincial legislative .Quiad-e-Azam said on this occasion:
"I have no boubt now in the acheivement of Pakistan.The Muslims of India told the world what they want .No power of world can topple the opinion of 10 crore Muslims of India."
24th March-Cabinet Mission
Cabinet Mission visited India in 1946 and submitted its recommendations to the Britishers .As a result Interium Government was formed but Congress and league couldn't co-operate amongst themselves.
8th-9th April-Delhi Convention
Quaid-e-Azam called a convention of all Muslims Leaguue members at Delhi.At the convention every member took the pledge to under go any danger for the attainment of national goal of Pakistan.
16th August-Direct Action Day
League withdraw its acceptance of Cabinet Mission and Direct Action Day was observed peacefully throughout India,except in Culcutta,where riots broke out.
3rd June -3rd June Plan
Lord Mount Batten prepared the plan for transference of power according to the wish of people.He emphasized on the partition of country and told that it was the only solution of the Indian political deadlock.Both League and Congress accepted the plan.
18th July-Indian Independence Act
In july ,the British parliament passed the Indian Independence act which was enforced promptly.The Muslims of the Sub Continent finally succeeded in carrying out an independent Islamic State for Muslims.
14th August -Transfer of Power
The transfer of power ceremony was held in Karachi.On August 15,Quaid-e-Azam was sworn in as Governer General of Pakistan and Mr. Liaqat Ali Khan was appointed his Prime Minister.
"That was the culmination of a long struggle which the Muslims of the South Asian Sub Continent had weged for a separate homeland in the name of Islam."