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Lesson -10

 

                                                     Reading: Word Forms

 

Mainframes:

Large computer systems, or mainframes, as they are referred to in the field of computer science, are those Computer systems found in computer installations

processing immense amounts of data. These powerful computers make use of very high-speed main memories into which data and programs to be dealt with are transferred for rapid access. These powerful machines have a larger repertoire of more complex instructions which can be executed more quickly. Whereas smaller computers may take several steps to perform a particular operation, a larger machine may accomplish the same thing with one instruction.

 

These computers can be of two types: digital or analog. The digital computer or general-purpose computer as it is often known, makes up about 90 percent of the large computers now in use. It gets its name because the data that are presented to it are made up of a code consisting of digits–single-character numbers. The digital computer is like a gigantic cash register in that it can do calculations in steps, one after another at tremendous speed and with great accuracy.

 

Digital computer programming is by far the most commonly used in electronic data processing for business or statistical purposes. The analog computer works something like a car speedometer, in that it continuously works out calculations. It is used essentially for problems involving measurements. It can simulate, or imitate different measurements by electronic means. Both of these computer types – the digital and the analog – are made up of electronic components that may require a large room to accommodate them. At present, the digital computer is capable of doing anything the analog once did. Moreover, it is easier to program and cheaper to operate. A new type of scientific computer system called the hybrid computer has now been produced that combines the two types into one.

 

Really powerful computers continue to be bulky and require special provision for their housing, refrigeration systems, air filtration and power supplies. This is because much more space is taken up by the input/output devices – the magnetic tape and disk units and other peripheral equipment – than by the electronic components that do no make up the bulk of the machine in a powerful installation. The power consumption of these machines is also quite high, not to mention the price that runs into thousands of dollars.

 

The future will bring great developments in the mechanical devices associated with computer systems. For a long time these have

been the weak link from the point of view of both efficiency and reliability.

Exercises :

1. Main idea

Which statement best expresses the main idea of the text? Why did you eliminate the other choices?

                                1. Hybrid computers are a combination of digital and analog computers.

                               

                                2. Digital computers are used more than any other type of computer.

                               

                                3. There are three types of mainframes.

 

                                4. Analog computers can do more varied work than digital or hybrid          computers.

Exercises (Answer slide)

1. Main idea

Which statement best expresses the main idea of the text? Why did you eliminate the other choices?

1. Hybrid computers are a combination of

digital and analog computers.

2. Digital computers are used more than any other type of computer.

3. There are three types of mainframes.

4. Analog computers can do more varied work than digital or hybrid computers.

 

2. Understanding the passage:

Decided whether the following sentences are true or false (T/F) by referring to the information in the text. Then make the necessary changes so that the false statements become true. 

    T       F

            1. A mainframe is the type of computer that can sit on top of a desk.

 

                       

2. Mainframes are very powerful and can execute jobs very rapidly and easily.

           

           

3. Digital computers are used more than analog computers.

 

            4. The analog computer is far smaller than a digital computer and therefore                     occupies very little space.

           

           

            5. The hybrid computer is a combination of both the digital and the analog                      computer.

 

           

            6. The analog computer does its calculations one step at a time.

 

           

7. The digital computer continuously works out calculations.

 

           

            8. Mainframes are huge powerful machines whose peripheral equipments takes up a lot of space.

 

            9. Mainframes are expensive to buy and to operate.

 

                       

10. Mainframe technology has reached the end of the road. No further development is needed.

 

Understanding the passage (Answer slide)

Decided whether the following sentences are true or false (T/F) by referring to the information in the text.Then make the necessary changes so that the false statements become true.

T   F

1. A mainframe is the type of computer that can sit on top of a desk.F

2. Mainframes are very powerful and can execute jobs very rapidly and easily.T

3. Digital computers are used more than analog computers.T

4. The analog computer is far smaller than a digital computer and therefore occupies very

little space.F

5. The hybrid computer is a combination of both the digital and the analog computer.T

6. The analog computer does its calculations one step at a time.F

7. The digital computer continuously works out calculations.F

8. Mainframes are huge powerful machines whose peripheral equipments takes up a lot

of space.T

9. Mainframes are expensive to buy and to operate.T

10. Mainframe technology has reached the end of the road. No further development is

needed.F

They will be great developments in computer technology in the future

 

 

3. Locating information :

Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expressed. Give the line references.

………. 1.       Smaller computers may take longer to   perform an operation.

………..2.       More technological development is necessary in the mechanical devices                                     associated with computer systems.

………..3.       Mainframes can operate quickly and execute more complex instruments.

….……..4.      The hybrid computer is a combination of both digital and analog computers.

 ….……..5.     Digital computers are used more than    analog computers.

 

….……..6.      Mainframes are large powerful computers.

 

….……..7.      An analog computer is comparable to a car speedometer in the way it operates.

 .………. 8.     Digital computers do calculations, one after another, quickly and exactly.

 

16

Locating information (Answer slide)

Find the passages in the text where the following ideas expressed. Give the paragraph references.

P1. 1.Smaller computers may take longer to perform an operation.

P3. 2. More technological development is necessary in the mechanical devices associated with computer systems.

P1 3. Mainframes can operate quickly and execute more complex instruments.

P 2.4. The hybrid computer is a combination of both digital and analog computers.

p.2 5. Digital computers are used more than analog computers.

p.1 6. Mainframes are large powerful computers.

p.2 7. An analog computer is comparable to a car speedometer in the way it operates.

p.2 8. Digital computers do calculations, one after another, quickly and exactly.

 

 

 

 

4. Contextual reference :

Look back at the text and find out what the words in bold typeface refer to.

1.which can be executed                                              (l.7) …………….

2.

2. as it is often known                                       (l.12)……………

 

3. that are presented to it                                             (l.14)……………

 

4. in that it can do calculations                          (l.16)……………

 

5. in that it continuously works out                                (l.20)…………...

 

6. Both of these computer types                                   (l.23)…………...

 

7. that may require a large room                                   (l.24)…………...

8. that combines the two types                                     (l.29)…………...

 

9. Require special provision for their housing                (l.31)……………

 

10.that runs into thousands of dollars                            (l.37)……………

 

4. Contextual reference (Answer slide)

Look back at the text and find out what the words in bold typeface refer to.

1. which can be executed                       (p.1) instructions

……….

2. as it is often known                            (p.2 General-purpose computer

)……………

3. that are presented to it                        (p.2) data

 

4. in that it can do calculations               (p.2 digital computer

 

5. in that it continuously works out         (p.2 analog computer

)…………...

6. Both of these computer types               (p.2 digital & analog

)…………...

7. that may require a large room              (p.2 electronic components

 

8. that combines the two types                   (p.2)Hybrid computer

9. Require special provision for

theirhousing                                                (p.3)computer

10.that runs into thousands of dollars          (p.3)price

 

5. Understanding words

Refer back to the text and find synonyms for the following words.

1. area                                                                          (l. 2) ……………………..

2. Acted on                                                                  (l. 7) ……………………..

3. do                                                                            (l. 9) …………………….

4. Composed of                                                           (l. 15)…………………….

5. Principally                                                                 (l. 21) ……………………

Understanding words (Answer slide)

Refer back to the text and find synonyms for the

following words.

1. area                                                                                (p.1) …field…………………..

2. acted on                                                                         (p.1) ……executed………………..

3. do                                                                                   (p.1) ………accomplished…………….

4. composed of                                                                    (p.2)……consisting of ……………….

5. principally                                                                        (p.2) ………essentially……………

 

 

 

Now refer back to the text and find antonyms for the following words.

 

6.ignored                                                                      (l. 5) ……………………..

 

7.seldom                                                                      (l. 12) ……………………..

 

8.little                                                                           (l. 16) …………………….

 

9.small                                                              (l. 30)…………………….

 

10.weak                                                                       (l. 35) ……………………

Now refer back to the text and find antonyms for the

following words.

6. ignored                                                                       (p.1) ……deal with………………..

7. seldom                                                                         (p.2) ………often……………..

8. little                                                                               (p.2) ………gigantic…………….

9. small                                                                               (p.3)………bulky…………….

10. weak                                                                              (p.3) …………powerful…………

 

 

6. Words forms:

First choose the appropriate form of the words to complete the sentences. Then check the differences of meaning in your dictionary.

1.permission, permit, permissible, permitted

 

a.It is usually not ………………… to smoke in a computer installation.

 

b. Computers ……………….. people to use their time more effectively.

 

c. Building ……………………. is usually required before starting any renovations to a building for computer department.

 

 

Words forms (Answer slide)

First choose the appropriate form of the words to complete the sentences. Then check the differences of meaning in your dictionary.

1. permission, permit, permissible, permitted

 

a. It is usually not ……permitted…………… to smoke in a computer installation.

b. Computers ………permit……….. people to use their time more effectively.

c. Building …………permission…………. is usually required before starting any renovations to a

building for computer department.

 

2. continuation, continue, continuing, continuously

 

a. If microcomputer sales ………………… to increase, it won’t be long before every household has one.

b. Computers  can do repetitive operations……………….. without getting bored.

c. There is a ……………………….interest in discovering new areas where computers can be used.

Answer Slide: ntinuation, continue, continuing, continuously

a. If microcomputer sales …………continue……… to increase, it won’t be long before every

household has one.

b. Computers can do repetitive operations……continuously………….. Without getting bored.

c. There is a …………continuing……………. Interest in discovering new areas where computers can be used.

 

 

3. measurement, measure, measured, measurable

 

a.The analog computer is essentially used for problems is involving ……………………

 

b. Because computer equipment is often bulky, the area used for a computer installation must be…………………… out carefully.

 

c. The number of employees a computer company has can be seen as a ……………….. of its success in the business world.

 

Answer Slide: measurement, measure, measured, measurable

a. The analog computer is essentially used for problems is involving …measurement…………………

b. Because computer equipment is often bulky, the area used for a computer installation

must be……measured……………… out carefully.

c. The number of employees a computer company has can be seen as a    ….measure …… of its success in the business world.

 

4. association, associate, associated

 

a.Computers are ………………….. with speed and accuracy.

 

b. There are many computer………………. around the world  to which computer professionals belong.

 

c. Business …………………………. In different cities often communicate with each other via their computers. 5. Efficiency, efficient, efficiently

 

a. Using a hand calculator to do simple mathematics is an ………...………way of working.

 

b. Computers can solve problems faster and more …………………….. than humans.

 

c.…………………………… is important in any service industry.

Answer Slide: ssociation,

associated

associations

associates

 Computers are …………………..

speed and accuracy.

5. efficiency, efficient, efficiently

a. Using a hand calculator to do simple mathematics is an …………………………

way of working.

b. Computers can solve problems faster and more …………………….. than humans.

c. …………………………… is important in any service industry.

36

 (Answer slide)

efficient

efficiently

efficiency

. There are many computer……………….

a7. Content review:

complete the following statements with the appropriate words. (Some can be used more than once.) Make sure you use the correct form, i.e. singular or plural.

 

 

 

 

              mainframe                      computer installation  digits

              hybrid computer            code                                      programming

           

  Digital                analog          

                       

1. The ………………………………. system is a computer  which has combined the features of both the             ………………… and ………………….. computer. It is used mainly in scientific research.

2.……………………………computers get their name form the word……………………These are single character numbers that make up the …………………. in which the data are presented to the computer for processing.

3.……………………… are usually found in large …………………………………………

4. The most commonly used language of ……………….. in the business community is ……………………

 

7. Content review (Answer slide)

hybrid computer

digital

analog

digital

digits

code

 

 

8. Focus review :

Focus C Organizing information

On a separate sheet, organize the information in Unit 6, ‘Mainframes’, under main idea(s) major details and minor details.

 

Focus review (Answer slide)

Focus on Organizing information

Main idea

Mainframes are big powerful machines which process

an immense amount of data with great speed and

Accuracy.

Major detail

There are three types of mainframes: digital, analog

and hybrid.

Minor detail

The digital computer

1. It is also called ‘general-purpose’ computer.

2. It makes up 90% of large computers now in use.

3. Data are presented to it in digits.

4. It does calculations in steps.

5. It is very common for business or statistical

programming.

6. It requires a large room to accommodate it.

Minor detail

The analog computer

1. It continuously does calculations.

2. It is used for problems dealing with measurements

3. It requires a large room to accommodate it.

4. It is more expensive to operate and more difficult

To program.

The hybrid computer

This computer combines the two types in one.

Lesson -11

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reading: Understanding Reading

 

Reading is the most important skill you will need for success in your studies. Poor reading may be a problem for many of you, but it is not a hopeless one.We have been learning ways in which you

can improve your reading comprehension. Remember, this will only be an introduction. You must

 continue to read and practice on your own _ you learn to read by reading.

 

Our main concern is with improving your comprehension. There is a relationship between reading speed and reading comprehension. You may think that if you read rapidly your comprehension will suffer. This is a false assumption. As you push yourself to read faster you may find that you comprehend less.

One cause of slow reading is VOCALIZATION - the forming the sounds of each word even though you may not say them aloud. Vocalization is very common among our students. Its is a sure sign that the reader is a poor reader. So, learn to read with your eyes and mind and not with your lips. In simple words learn to read silently

If you learn to recognize and understand the principles and methods of writing - rhetoric - it will help improve your reading. If you learn to understand why a piece of text or writing was written, what it says, both in overall statement and major subpoints, and how the author or writer has made those major statements and the minor but parts fit in - it will help improve your understanding of the reading text.

All successful writers work along these lines. The way they write will provide answers to the three questions - Why? What? And How?

 

- An important part of reading is realizing that everything you read has an author or writer who has something to say, and he says it in a particular way or manner. You, as a successful reader, must apply the same technique that the writer used - the questions, Why? What? How? and decode what he has said.

 

To answer the first question - Why?- remember the author is a person who has a reason for writing a given piece of text, and who works from a personal point of view. As a skilled reader you must fully

understand and evaluate what you read. The writer has a purpose in writing. You must recognize that PURPOSE. Aligned with purpose are two other things which are known as ATTITUDE and TONE - the expression of the writer’s feelings.

 

8- There are 3 common purposes of communication: to inform, to persuade and to entertain. When the purpose is to inform, the writer gives information on facts about the topic or subject he is writing about. When the purpose is to persuade, the aim is to convince the reader to agree with the writer’s point of view. Here, also writers may give facts but their main goal is to promote an opinion. For the third purpose which is to entertain, the author appeals to the reader’s senses and imagination with the aim of amusing and delight.

 

9- Closely related to the question of purpose is the matter of ATTITUDE. What is the writer’s attitude toward his purpose, and toward his subject, or toward you, the reader? Even if he is arguing, he can be arguing coolly and logically, or angrily and heatedly. He can see something funny in the

situation or something frightening.

 

10 -Similarly, he can approach his audience, the readers as friends, as enemies, as equals, or he can talk down to them from a position of authority. Attitude, then, is the author’s approach, position, the stance that he adopts towards the material he is presenting), the audience i.e. you the reader and the situation in which he is writing.

A good clue to the author’s attitude and approach to the subject is his TONE. This is the voice in which he is speaking to you - the language, the words and phrases he chooses to write. It is through the author’s tone that we sense his wit, humor, sadness, indignation, friendliness etc.

Just as a speaker’s voice can project a range of feelings, a writer’s words and phrases can project one or more tones or feelings. Understanding tone is an important part of understanding what the writer has written. Sometimes, tone is evident from the first line, from the first paragraph. Sometimes, the tone, purpose and attitude will not be evident or clear to you until all of the piece or text has been read.

 

11-B Authors and their works are complex. An author may use different types of writing to put forward his views. He may narrate, describe explain or argue. Not all writing fits neatly into one of these categories. He may combine all these types in one piece of writing. Description and narration are often used to help develop a further purpose – either Exposition or Argument.

 

Or he may use exposition to develop an argument. Thus, you may find combinations of purpose involved in what you read. The same approach can apply to humor and entertainment. If you can find out what is the underlying purpose and intention of the author, and what technique or strategy he is employing then you are a successful reader.

 

12- All this might not be evident in your first reading. So, this means you will have to re-read. At least, this might be necessary till you are a practiced reader. You cannot always rely on your first reading to bring you the comprehension, the analytical understanding. But the clues that your first reading will supply will then be valuable in your re-reading.

 

13- The second technique that the writer uses - the WHAT question - what the writer says in the overall statement and major subpoints of the text - leads us to the author’s basic statement - his thesis statement about his subject. For you the reader, the thesis also indicates what the writer is NOT saying. It shows you the limitations the writer has set for himself, how much of the general subject he is going to deal with. A good reader makes sure that he reads within the boundaries of those limitations.

 

14- To help readers understand their main points, authors try to present supporting details in a clearly organized way. Details might be arranged in any of several common patterns. Sometimes, authors may build a paragraph or longer passage exclusively on one pattern; very often the patterns are mixed.By recognising the patterns, you, the reader, will be better able to understand and remember what you read.

 

15- The most commonly used patterns of organization orsubdivisions are time order /

sequences. List of items, comparison or contrast, cause and effect, definition and example.These subdivisions complete the pattern of the writer’s basic statement, his thesis, his main thought.

 

 16- The reader’s recognition and understanding of these subdivisions are a part of answering the question HOW -the third important technique used by the writer. Recognition of the main subdivisions is recognition of the techniques and devices of organization.

 

17- Paragraphs and, particularly, the topic sentences of paragraphs are important clues. The topics of the individual paragraphs are the core statements in explaining the thesis: each paragraph will make some kind of core statement and then develop it with some concrete details.

 

18- In short pieces of writing each paragraph may be a separate subdivision; in longer pieces, a

number of paragraphs may form a subdivision, each contributing to the total understanding. Relationships between the parts are conveyed throughout a text by transitions. A recognition of these transitions - the movement from or connection between one part and the next will lead to a general improvement of your reading. In other words it means noticing important words and phrases which connect the parts. These may be function words or content words.

 

19- Function words are an important part of writing and reading and are used no matter what the subject of the text is. These are the small words such as in, at, and, but… the prepositions, the conjunctions, the modifiers, etc. They establish emphasis and relationships between the parts. They are the chief clues to the organization of a piece of writing.

 

20- Content words are those words that are central to the development of the subject of any particular piece of writing. They are often words that are most fully defined. But it is also possible that the author assumes you know their definitions. In either case you, the reader, have to be sure you understand these key words. Also you need to notice how an author modifies key content words at different parts of the text. He may use synonyms i.e. use other words with similar meaning or he may use antonyms – words that are in contrast to the key content words.

 

21- The successful reader learns to recognize and understand the clues that the writer gives. This can only happen through practiced reading.

 

 

READING AND UNDERSTANDING

An Approach to Comprehension

You have probably realized by now that everything you learn in this course is geared towards the end of writing and understanding English, and nothing is merely an exercise learnt for examination purposes. What we call ‘comprehension exercises’ are in fact a test of this understanding. Uptill now, you have been dealing with computer related passages, now we will shift gear and make you look at other kinds of reading materials.

 

The pieces of writing we use will be of two varieties:imaginative and practical.

The ‘imaginative’ passage will be a piece of creative writing, an extract from a novel or a short story

dealing with a fictional situation; it could alternatively be a poem.

(a) In answering the questions you will show that you can understand what the writer is talking about, not just on the surface, but also the subtleties and implications.

 

 (b) You will also need to say something about how the writer is getting his points over, the

effectiveness or otherwise of the way he uses words, images and sentences to create particular effects. In other words, some insight into matters of style and the appropriateness of style to content will be demanded. The ‘practical’ passage will deal mainly with facts. It may be a report, an account or someone expressing his opinions on a particular matter, a series of instructions or a set of statistics which you will be asked to interpret. The emphasis here will be on making sure that you can understand the line of argument or the logical step-by-step statement of the facts. You may be asked to summarize the points made in the passage about a particular aspect of the matter being discussed. Keep in mind that the computer texts that we did in the earlier lessons were factual texts .

Kinds of Questions:The kinds of questions on reading passages are likely to be as follows;

 

1. Meaning. You may be asked to explain the meaning of the word or phrase as it is used in the

passage, e.g. when you see the word ‘execute’, you may immediately think of the meaning ‘inflict capital punishment on’. But this would not be an appropriate 32 meaning in a context like this: ‘To execute the plan for redevelopment of the town will call for the support of all citizens.’ Here ‘execute’ means ‘carry into effect’.

 

2. Facts. You may be asked to answer questions about what the passage is actually saying to

make sure that you understand it, e.g. if the piece of writing is about a character digging his allotment, you may be asked ‘what is the character doing?’

3. Reading between the lines. Writers do not always state facts directly. They imply emotions and

attitudes and suggest points of view, and they depend on the reader being perspective enough to be able to form a total impression greater than the bare words on the page. For instance, an author may not state directly that he dislikes a particular character he is writing about, but the words he uses to describe that character and the situations he presents him in may convey the author’s attitude towards the character, and that attitude is passed on to the perceptive reader. The words are not chosen accidentally but with a purpose, and you must be able to get beyond the surface meaning of the words and see what the implications of such words are. For example:

 

(a) the same soldiers could be called ‘terrorists’ or ‘freedom-fighters’, according to the writer’s

attitude towards them;

(b) in describing someone eating a writer may use the words ‘wolfed down’, ‘slobbered’, ‘guzzled’. If he is describing a baby eating, these words may be merely a statement of fact, but if they are about an adult, there may well be a suggestion of distaste towards the character.

 

4. Metaphorical language. You may be asked to explain what it is exactly that a writer has in mind

when he makes a comparison or uses a metaphorical expression, e.g. in The Story by Dylan Thomas, the author says ‘my uncle blew and bugled whenever he won’ (at cards). The word ‘blew’ suggests a literal and factual way of expelling, the breath from his mouth in a burst, but the word ‘bugled’ is being used in a metaphorical way. Thomas is making a comparison between the noise his uncle made and the sound of a bugle. He is trying to make more vivid to our imaginations the kind of noise his uncle made. The word ‘bugled’ suggests things like ‘high-pitched’, ‘strident’, ‘sudden and loud’, perhaps even ‘triumphant’. These are ideas which this metaphorical used of the word conveys which a more literal word could not produce.

 

5. Style. Just as people are individual and different, so the way people write varies. In addition, a particular writer may write in different ways depending on what effects he is trying to achieve, e.g. he may use very flowery language if he is trying to create an atmosphere; he may write very simply if he is concerned with getting important facts over; he may have his tongue in his cheek. You may be asked to comment on the style of the passage you are studying and you may have to justify the appropriateness and effectiveness or otherwise of the style to the content – what the writer is saying. The kinds of points you would have to be aware of are the variety of sentences used, the kinds of words chosen, particular literary devices he uses, etc. These are very important aspects of understanding writing, and they will be discussed in greater detail in later units.

 

6. Summary. You may be asked to pick out certain facts in a passage relevant to a particular point,

e.g. you may be asked ‘what do we learn about X’s physical appearance?’ and you will have to search through the piece of writing to find all the details that the writer gives you about this.

 

7. Opinions. You may be asked to comment on the views expressed in the passage, to say whether you think they are convincing, or to give your own views on the topic, e.g. if the passage is about

homeopathy, you may be asked, ‘Do you think Homeopathy is harmful?’ Or you may be asked to

develop or expand on an area of experience described in the passage, but this time treating it from a personal point of view. For example, the passage may be about working conditions, and you may be asked, ‘Comment on the conditions under which you work, indicating the area in which you think improvements could be made.’

These are the main kinds of questions and approaches you are likely to be asked. There may be others, but if you become acquainted with these types of questions and texts and can understand them, you should be well prepared. confident.

 

Listing

It is important when reading to recognize and understand the relationship in which sentences and groups of sentences combine to present information. This is information may be linked by means of a connective word or marker. Making a list, enumerating, and giving instructions, indicates a cataloguing of what is being said. It is important to note that most enumerations belong to clearly defined sets. The following table is a list of the markers that can be used to show the order in which

things are to be said.

 

LISTING MARKERS

1,2,3, etc.

One, two, three, etc.

First(ly), second(ly), third(ly)

in the first/second/third place

another, next, then

furthermore, afterwards, moreover

lastly/finally

to begin/start with, and to conclude

first and foremost mark the beginning

first and most important(ly) of a descending order

Above all mark the end of

Last but not least an ascending order 42

There are many ways of showing sequential

relationships. Those given in the table above are not

the only ones, they are the most common ones used in

listing or enumerating. The –ly forms are usually used

when listing.

 

 

Sample Paragraph

More and more police departments are now sophisticated devices to help control the increasing

crime rate. Some of these are: Firstly, a computer terminal inside a police vehicle to answer an officer’s questions; secondly, a computer-controlled display unit for displaying fingerprints; and thirdly, educational systems for police officers such as terminals, enabling them to verify changes in laws, rules and regulations. The computer memory of many law enforcement systems contain all kinds of information. First and foremost, it has data on stolen items such as cars, 44 license plates and property. Second, it has information on missing persons and wanted fugitives. Last but not least, it contains information on political extremist groups and their activities. It goes without saying that computers have certainly revolutionized police work by providing access to millions of items of information with the least possible delay and speeding up the process of apprehending suspicious-looking characters.

 

Exercise 1

The following paragraph is an excerpt from a passage you have read earlier‘What Is a Computer? While reading this paragraph underline the listing marks. Computers are thought to have many remarkable powers. However, most computers whether large or small have three basic capabilities. First, computers have circuits for performing arithmetic operations, such as addition, subtraction, division , multiplication and exponentiation. Second, computers have a means of communicating with the user. After all, if we couldn’t be of mush use. Third, computers have circuits which can make decisions. The computer can 46 Only decide three things:

 1. Is one number less than another?

2. Are two numbers equal? and 3. Is one number greater than

another?

 

Exercise 2

Complete the following paragraph by filling in the blanks with appropriate listing markers.

Computers can do wonders, but they can waste a lot of money unless careful consideration goes into

buying them. Any businessman thinking of buying a computer system should …………………… admit he knows very little about computers. ……………….., he must realize that the computer salesman doesn’t know how his business works.

……………., that he should get outside advice is a must, not necessarily from consultants but from other executives who have had recent experience buying a computer system. ………………… he should try to see systems similar to ones under consideration in operation. Because his operations will have the differences that must be accommodated, he should ……………. find out what would be involved in upgrading a system. …………………. Important thing to know before buying a computer is the financial situation of the supplier because computer companies come and go and not all are financially stable. …………….., the perspective buyer should demand that every details be covered in writing. Including hardware and software if they are supplied by different companies. There’s nothing wrong with computers, it’s how and why they are used that can cause probl

Lesson -12

 

 

 

 

Reading: Making Inferences

 

 

Making Inferences

1. You are familiar with the expression “to read between the lines”, which means that you pick up

ideas that are not directly stated in the material you are reading. The writer is giving or making a

suggestion but stating it directly i.e. he is implying something. These implied ideas are often important for a full understanding of what the writer means. It is this discovering of ideas in writing that are not stated directly that is called “making inferences” or drawing conclusions.

 

2. Our aim is to help you not only become a better reader but a strong thinker – a person able not only to understand what is read but to analyze and evaluate it as well. In fact, reading and thinking are closely related skills, and practice in thoughtful reading will also strengthen your ability to think clearly and logically. It is a higher level skill.

 

3. In everyday life we are constantly making inferences. For e.g. you go out in the street and you notice a large crowd gathered outside a shop, and you also notice a lot of broken glass on the road. As you get closer you hear loud talking. Before you even reach the shop, you have inferred what all the fuss is about - there has been an accident.

 

4. How did you arrive at these inferences? First you used your experience of life and general knowledge of people. Second, you made informed guesses which were based on the facts you observed. Remember not all your inferences will necessarily prove true. For e.g. it is possible that the crowd gathered outside is not because of an accident between cars etc. but because of a quarrel among some people and while fighting among themselves they hit the glass windows of the shop and it turned into a nasty brawl. In any case, the more evidence you have, the more solid your inferences are.

 

5. Consider two incidents. Write down  on a piece of paper what you might infer if you saw the following two occurrences.

i) A high school has policemen walking up and down its main hall.

What would you infer? _______________

ii) A dog shrinks or cringes when you try to pat him.

What would you infer? _______________

 

The inferences you probably made are that, in the first situation, there is a public examination going on/or there is an important function taking place and some high-ranking person is present. And in the

second situation you probably inferred that the dog has previously been maltreated and is afraid of people.

 

Look at the following two pictures on your screen and put a tick mark against the inference(s) most logically supported by the information given in the picture.

 

 

 

 

Picture 1:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The old woman is asking for something.

The old woman couldn’t see because of the smoke.

The old woman was pointing to a no-smoking sign.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Picture 2.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The man has a problem with his vision.

The boy is doing his home work.

The man watches a lot of TV.

The father cannot read.

 

Inferences in Reading

In reading also we make logical jumps from the information given or stated directly to ideas that arenot stated directly. i.e. we make statements or draw conclusions about what is not known on the basis of what is known or given. So, to draw inferences the reader uses all the clues provided by the writer, his own experience i.e. the reader’s own experience and logic.

 

8. Read the sentences given on your screen and put a tick mark by the inference most logically based on the information in the sentence.

Sohail always sits in the last row of the classroom.

a. Sohail dislikes his college courses.

b. Sohail is unprepared for his class.

c. Sohail feels uncomfortable sitting in the front

row

d. Sohail is farsighted

 

The given sentence tells us nothing about how Sohail feels about his college courses, how prepared he is, or how well he sees. So answers a, b or d are possibilities, but none is directly suggested by the sentence. The correct answer is therefore c. Based on the information we are given, we can conclude only that Sohail – for some reason – does not like sitting in the front. We are not given enough information to know why he feels this way. Remember your inferences will be stronger if you don’t jump to conclusions that are unsupported or that are only very weakly supported by the available information.

 

9. Now you will have some more practice in drawing inferences. Read the given sentences and put a tick mark by the inference, most logically supported by the information given in the sentence.

1. The Arabic language contains numerous words describing different types of camels.

a. There is really only one kind of camel.

b. The Arabic language clearly has many times more words than the English language.

c. The Arabic language probably also has numerous words for different types of dates.

d. The exact nature of camels is important to the desert way of life.

 

 

2. A man enters his office building, marches past a group of fellow employees without returning there greetings and goes into his office, slamming the door.

 

a. The man has just lost his job

b. The man has quarreled with his boss.

c. The man is in a bad mood.

d. The man is angry with his wife.

 

3. Read the passage & then check the four statements which are most logically supported by the

information given.

 

The elimination of jobs because of super-automation is not limited to industrial factories – offices are increasingly electronic. Engineers and architects now draw three dimensional designs, update them, test them, and store them almost instantaneously in computer. Agriculture employs robot fruit pickers and sheepshearers, computerized irrigation systems that use sensors to calculate water and fertilizer needs in different parts of a field, and automated chicken houses.

 

Retail stores, banks, and brokerage houses use on-line transaction processing to obtain instant information and to conduct transactions. Laser scanning and bar codes are transforming the physical handling of codes by retailers and wholesale distributors. A final example of technological change affecting jobs is the widespread use of televisions, telephones, and personal computers for the purposes of home banking and shopping.

 

-1.Computers will soon replace engineers and architects.

-2.There will be more jobs for people who run and repair electronic devices.

-3.One function of superautomation is the handling and storage of information.

4. Restaurants can’t benefit from superautomation

-5. Machines can help company employees accomplish more.

6. Superautomation requires few adjustments form society.

7. Superautomation has advantages and disadvantages.

8. Laser technology is limited to the business world.

20

1 a) You might like to ask why the Sun is able to supply its own light, heat, and energy, whereas the Earth and the other planets only shine feebly with the aid of borrowed light. Strange as it may seem, it is best to start this problem by Strange as it may seem, it is best to start this problem by considering the interior of the Earth.

b) The morrow brought a very sober-looking morning, the sun making only a few efforts to appear; and Catherine augured from it everything most favourable to her wishes. A bright morning so early in the year, she allowed, would generally turn to rain; but a cloudy one foretold improvement as the day advanced.

21

c) Your mother and I were so happy then. It seemed as though we had everything we could ever want. I think the last day the sun shone was when that dirty little train steamed out of that crowded, suffocating Indian station, and the battalion band playing for all it was worth. I knew in my heart it was all over then. Everything.

22

Inferences in Literature

If you are fond of reading novels, short stories, poetry, etc. you will know that inference is very important in understanding and appreciating literature. While nonfiction writers, that is, writers of factual material, usually state directly what they mean, fiction or creative writers often show what they mean by describing the scene or situation. It is for the reader to infer the point of what the

writer has to say. I shall illustrate this with an example. A non-fiction writer might write:

Henry was angry at his wife . A fiction/creative writer might write:

Henry’s eyes narrowed when his wife spoke to him. He

cut her off in the middle of the sentence with the words,

“I don’t have time to argue with you.”

23

Instead of simply stating that Henry was angry, the creative writer has through his description shown

Henry’s anger. If you read literature – poetry, short stories, novels, biographies, etc… you will need to apply inference skills. Your understanding and appreciation of such works where a lot of meaning is implied i.e. not stated directly, will depend on this skill. Now I shall read a very short poem of four lines. Its written by the American poet James Russell Lowell and is called “Sixty – Eight

Birthday”.

24

It’s written by the American poet James Russell Lowell and is called “Sixty – Eight Birthday”.

“Sixty – Eight Birthday”

As life runs on, the road grows strange With faces new, and near the end The milestones into headstones change,

‘Neath every one a friend.

J. R. Lowell

Milestone: a slab of stone set up in the ground to show the distance in miles on a road.

Headstone: a stone which marks the top end of a grave, usually having the buried person’s name on it

25

1. We infer that the speaker in the poem is sixty-eight although the poem does not state that the speaker is sixty eight. The title of the poem strongly implies it. That is the purpose of the title.

2. The poem compares life to a road with milestones – 1st & 3rd lines suggest that life runs on a road marked by milestones along it. As we move along the road we meet new faces of people we are not familiar with.

3. The poem implies that birthdays are like milestones that mark the distance covered i.e. the years lived.

A time comes when, life’s milestones turn into headstones the markers set into graves, meaning in other words that life ends in death.

4. The final line implies that as we get older more and more friends die. Under all the headstones are friends. You will see a short poem on your screen. Read the poem titled ‘Fog’ by Carl Sandburg and answer the question given at the end.

27

Fog

The fog comes

On little cat feet.

It sets looking ones harbor and city

On silent haunches

And then moves on.

C Sandburg

Put a tick mark ( )against the answer that is based on the poem.

1. The way the fog moves is compared to

a. The movements in the harbor

b. The movements in the city

c. The way a cat moves

28

2. This comparison implies that the fog

a. floats over the harbor

b. hangs over the city

c. moves quickly and silently

 

3. The comparison with the cat continues with the

word.

a. harbor

b. haunches

c. city

 

4. The poem implies that the fog

a. stays for a while and then leaves

b. stays too long

c. never stays

29

5. The poem shows fog as

a. dangerous

b. quiet

c. full of movement

30

Another way in which writers can indicate character is through the words they put into their character’s mouths. The readers have to read between the lines and infer meanings which may not be directly stated. This is true of novels and other genres of literature. In drama, for example, playwrights expect their audience to read between the lines of the dialogue and use inference to depict the diversity of their characterization.

31

This is, of course, an important-possibly the most important-element of the dramatist’s art, to reveal his characters through their speech, but other writers employ the device as well.

Study the following passage from P.G.

Woodhouse’s ‘Thank you, Jeeves’.

‘Jeeves’, I said, ‘do you know what?’

‘No sir.’ 32

‘No, sir.

‘Do you know whom I saw last night?

‘no, sir.”

‘J. Washburn Stoker and his daughter,

Pauline.’

‘Indeed, sir?.

‘Awkward, what?’

33

‘I can conceive that after what occurred in

New York it might be distressing for you to

encounter Miss Stoker, sir. But I fancy the

contingency need scarcely arise.’

I weighed this.

‘When you start talking about contingencies

arising, Jeeves, the brain seems to flicker

and I rather miss the gist. Do you mean I

ought to be able to keep out of her way?

‘Yes, sir.’

34

‘Avoid her?

‘Yes, sir.’

(P.G. WODEHOUSE, Thank You, Jeeves)

Look at Jeeves’s answers. Apart from one speech, they are very economical. What can

we deduce about the kind of person Jeeves is and his attitude towards his master from this economy of speech, from what Jeeves actually says and from what is implied?

35

In today's lesson you’ve had practice in reading between lives “first in non-fiction or factual

writing and then in creative writing, in finding out meaning that is not stated directly. This is a skill that you can only acquire by reading extensively.

 

 

Lesson -13

Reading: Assessing the Text

 

 

In this lesson we will be looking at different ways of determining fact from opinion. In the second half we will be looking at different ways of indicating time sequences in practical scientific texts.

 

Distinguishing Facts from Opinion Being able to dissociate facts from opinions is an essential first step in acquiring a critical ability. When most writers or speakers communicate they include their opinions of a subject. What they say is therefore at least partly biased. While bias is unavoidable, writers do try to remain as objective as possible. Scientific reports are examples of writing in which authors try to be as factual as they can. However, there are other types of materials, such as newspaper editorials, political speeches, advertisement, etc… where opinions are central to the 4

writing. In such writings the writer/author tries to convince readers to change their minds and share

their view points. This means that facts and opinions are valuable to writers. But readers ought to know the difference between the two in order to evaluate what they read In other words, a skilled reader must be able to distinguish fact from fiction. I am sure this is something we do already without realizing. Most of the time when we talk we mix facts with opinion. In today’s lesson you will learn to sift fact from opinion.

 

What is a fact? A fact is a statement that can be proved true through objective evidence. Now, this

evidence may be physical proof, or the testimony of witnesses (spoken or written). The following are some facts which can be checked for accuracy and thus can be proved true:

1. The neem tree in our garden is 25 feel tall. (Anyone can measure & confirm or disprove the fact.)

2. The Lahore Museum is the oldest museum in Pakistan (Any researcher can check with historical publications/documents) 6

3. Pakistan won the 1992 World Cup. (Anyone can check sports record to confirm this)

Now we turn to opinion:

An opinion is a statement that cannot be objectively proved true or false. Opinions usually express

beliefs, feelings, judgments that a person may have on or about a subject. Here are some opinions:

1. The Alhmara Arts Council building is the most beautiful building in Lahore.

Now, there is no way this statement can be proved because people can look at the same building and come to different conclusions about its beauty.

 

“Beautiful” is a value-word – a word we use to express our judgment. Now remember value-words

are signals that an opinion is being expressed.These value-words by their very nature represent opinions, not facts. e.g.

1. The Prime Minister should have willed his property to the nation (That’s your opinion).

2. Pakistan cricket team is the best in the world. This, again, is an opinion. ‘Best’ is debatable.

 

To sharpen your understanding about fact and opinion, read the following statements and decide whether they are facts (F) or opinions (O)

1. My brother Aslam is very handsome.

2. Last night there was an accident on the highway.

3. Mohammad Ali Bogra was the worst Prime Minis

our country had ever had.

4. Ostriches do not hide their heads in the sand. (Contrary to popular opinion, this is a fact which can be

checked through observation or reports of observations.

 

 

Some more points about fact and opinion.

When separating fact form opinion keep in mind that:

 

i) A statement of fact may be found to be un- true.

Sometimes, evidence may show a fact is not really true.

 

ii) Opinions may be masked as facts.

People sometimes present their opinions as facts. e.g.

a) The economy, in fact, is in the worst shape it’s           been in for years.

b) In point of fact, neither candidate for the Nazim’s office is well qualified.

c) The truth of the matter is that frozen meat tastes         as good as fresh meat.

At the first glance, the above statements appear as statements of fact but a closer examination will show that they are statements of opinion.

 

iii) Value-words often represent opinions.

Value-words are generally subjective, not objective and they express judgment while factual statements report on observed reality while subjective statements interpret reality for instance.  

            Some Value-Words

 

 

           

good                bad                  great

            best                  worst                terrible

            better               lovely               wonder

            worse               disgusting         

 

 

If someone says, “it’s raining outside”. Now, this observation is an objective one. It can be verified, but if someone says, “it’s bad weather”, this is a subjective statement - a personal interpretation of reality – some people consider rain to be good weather!

(iv) Much of what we read and hear is a mixture of fact and opinion:

Recognizing facts and opinions is important because a lot of information that we read and hear is really OPINION.

 

 

You might,for instance, read or hear the following:

- A politician may say,“my record in the national assembly is outstanding”.

- An advertisement may claim that a particular model of a car “is the most economical on the road”. Both statements are opinions. In the first one, the word “outstanding” needs to be probed. What does the politician exactly mean? The second statement seems very factual. But what is meant by “economical? The car might be offering more miles per litre of petrol but if it offers the worst record for expensive repairs  Then, surely,s it is not economical.

So far, you have read single statements; now you will read a passage. Be on the look out for opinion.

 

1- There were several queens of Egypt by the name of Cleopatra, which also includes

the one who ruled in the time of Caesar and Antony, rulers of Rome.

2- She is one of the most interesting figures in world and Egyptian history.

3- According to historical records she was born in 69BC and died almost forty years later.

4- The story of how she died is very fascinating and easy to believe.

5- Reports say that she killed herself by letting a cobra bite her.

6- As the Egyptian cobra was a symbol of royalty, so it was a good way for a queen to end her life.

.

18

Sentence 2. expresses an opinion – to some Cleopatra may not be

an interesting figure.

 Sentence 3. facts – historical

Sentence 4 - opinion: how fascinating and easy to believe will differ from person to person.

Sentence 5 - fact

Sentence 6 - mixture of fact and opinion.

19

1- Although weeds are also plants, there is something negative about the name.

2- R. W. Emerson, an American poet once described a weed as “a plant whose virtues have not yet been discovered.”

3- Weeds aren’t really so bad after all.

4- For instance, they can replenish

depleted top soil with minerals.

5- Also, some weeds contains vitamins and are edible.

 

 

Facts Versus Opinion

Read the following statements and decide whether they are facts or opinions :

1. Edgar Allan Poe is the greatest writer of horror          stories in the world._________________

2. Poe had to leave the University of Virginia because he couldn’t pay his debts.__________

3. Edgar Allan Poe should not have drunk so much.___________________

4. Lovecraft has often been compared to Edgar Allah Poe.___________________

5. When Lovecraft died, he was practically  unknown.___________________

 

6. Lovecraft died in conditions of shameful neglect.________________

 

7. Lovecraft’s stories are far more horrible than those of Edgar Allan Poe.______________

 

8. Edgar Allan Poe’s stories reflect his powerful imagination and his love for analysis.________

 

9. Baudelaire wrote that Edgar Poe ‘pursued imagination and subjected it to the most stringent analysis’.____________________

10.It is because of Baudelaire that Edgar Allan Poe became famous in France__________________

 

 

Grellet, Francoise Developing Reading Skills,CUP,1981,page239

1 a) You might like to ask why the Sun is able to supply its own light, heat, and energy, whereas the Earth and the other planets only shine feebly with the aid of borrowed light. Strange as it may seem, it is best to start this problem by Strange as it may seem, it is best to start this problem by considering the interior of the Earth.  

 

   b)The morrow brought a very sober-looking morning, the sun making only a few efforts to appear; and Catherine augured from it everything most favourable to her wishes. A bright morning so early in the year, she allowed, would generally turn to rain; but a cloudy one foretold improvement as the day advanced.

c)Your mother and I were so happy then. It seemed as though we had everything we could ever want. I think the last day the sun shone was when that dirty little train steamed out of that crowded, suffocating Indian station, and the battalion band playing for all it was worth. I knew in my heart it was all over then. Everything. 

 

FOCUS G

The Sequences

IN Focus on Listing in lesson 11 which is there on the course’s web site we looked at some of the markers used for enumerating the order in which things are to be said when making lists or giving instructions. However, it didn’t mention those markers which outline the time sequence in which events occur. It is equally important to recognize the sequence of events, especially in such activities as scheduling, recounting historical facts, doing routine activities and conducting and describing experiments.

As we know, events do not simply occur, they occur either before, during or after other events. This time sequence may be chronological, logical or causal. Once a time-reference has been established, certain adjective and adverbials may order subsequent information in relation to it. The following tables are examples of time relaters.

 

Table 1

Previous to given time-references, i.e. before

                           

                       TIME RELATERS

Adjectives                      earlier                  preceding

former                            previous

Adverbials                     already                 earlier/previous

prior                               first                      so far

before                            formerly                yet

before that                      up to now/then     in the beginning

before then                      until now/then      (long) ago

 

 

Examples

1. The memory storage capacity of earlier computers was not as large as these day

2. When the first digital computer was developed, the first analog computer had already been in use for some time.

3. Up to now, computers have not created too much unemployment.

 

 

 

Table 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TIME RELATERS

Subsequent to time-reference, i.e. after

 

           

Adjectives                    Contemporary              Simultaneous

           

Adverbials                    at present                                 meaning

                                                at this point                   meanwhile

                                                now                                          in the meantime

                                                today                                        when

                                                for the time being                      at the same time

                                    at the moment

 

 

 

 

 

Examples

1. Computers might be used in the future as simultaneous translating machines.

2. At present, computers are used for printing newspapers.

3. In future, computers will probably replace most of our daily activities, but in the meantime scientists are still trying to develop computers to their full potential.           

 

 

 

TIME RELATERS

 

            Adjectives        following                later             next

            Adverbials        afterwards             since                        by the end

                                    after that                since then                soon

                                    eventually              by the time               next     

 

Examples

1. Since the development of the chip, computers have become cheaper and more compact.

2. You should have a good basic understanding of computers by the time you finish this reading

course.

3. After the development of transistors, the later computers were much faster.

34

N.B. Time sequence is also shown by the different verb tenses.

Examples

1. Vannevar Bush had built the first analog computer long before Professor Aiken and some men at IBM invented the first digital computer.

2. At the rate computer technology is growing, computers, as we know them today, will soon become obsolete.

 

 

Sample Paragraph 

Computers, as we know them today, haven’t been around for a long time. It wasn’t until the mid-1940s that the first working digital computer was completed. But since then, computers have evolved tremendously. Vacuum tubes were used in the first-generation computers at the beginning of the 1960s. By the end of the 1960s transistors were replaced by tiny integrated circuit boards and, consequently, a new generation of computers was on the market. Fourth-generation computers are now produced with circuits that are much smaller than before and fit on a single chip. Soon fifth-generation computers will be produced, and these will no doubt be better than their predecessors.

Exercise

Read the following paragraph and as you read, underline the time relaters. 

There are some who say that computers have a very short history but, because they are machines that manipulate numbers, others disagree. More than 5000 years ago, a need to count was recognized, and somebody had the idea of using first his fingers, then pebbles to keep track of the count. 

History is not clear as to whether the need was recognized before or after the idea occurred. Since that time, the abacus was invented and some form of it was used well into the 16th century. During the 17th and 18th centuries many easy ways of calculating were devised. Logarithm tables, calculus and the basis for the modern slide rule were born out of that period of time. It was not until the early 1800s that the first calculating machine appeared and not too long after, Charles Babbage designed a machine which became the basis for building  today’s computers.

A hundred years later the first analog computer was built, but the first digital computer was not complete until 1944. Since then computers have gone through four generations from digital computers using vacuum tubes in the 1950s, transistors in the early 1960s, integrated in the mid-60s, and a single chip in the 190s. At the rate computer technology is growing now, we can expect more changes in this field by the end of this decade.

 

 

Exercise (Answer Slide)

Read the following paragraph and as you read, underline the time relaters.

There are some who say that computers have a very short history but, because they are machines that

manipulate numbers, others disagree. More than 5000 years ago, a need to count was recognized, and somebody had the idea of using first his fingers, then pebbles to keep track of the count.

 

History is not clear as to whether the need was recognized before or after the idea occurred. Since

that time, the abacus was invented and some form of it was used well into the 16th century. During the 17th and 18th centuries many easy ways of calculating were devised. Logarithm tables, calculus and the basis for the modern slide rule were born out of that period of time. It was not until the early 1800s that the first calculating machine appeared and not too long after, Charles Babbage designed a machine which became the basis for building today’s computers.

 

A hundred years later the first analog computer was built, but the first digital computer was not complete until 1944. Since then computers have gone through four generations from digital computers using vacuum tubes in the 1950s, transistors in the early 1960s, integrated in the mid-60s, and a single chip in the 1970s. At the rate computer technology is growing now, we can expect more changes in this field by the end of this decade.

Lesson -13

Reading: Assessing the Text

 

 

In this lesson we will be looking at different ways of determining fact from opinion. In the second half we will be looking at different ways of indicating time sequences in practical scientific texts.

 

Distinguishing Facts from Opinion Being able to dissociate facts from opinions is an essential first step in acquiring a critical ability. When most writers or speakers communicate they include their opinions of a subject. What they say is therefore at least partly biased. While bias is unavoidable, writers do try to remain as objective as possible. Scientific reports are examples of writing in which authors try to be as factual as they can. However, there are other types of materials, such as newspaper editorials, political speeches, advertisement, etc… where opinions are central to the 4

writing. In such writings the writer/author tries to convince readers to change their minds and share

their view points. This means that facts and opinions are valuable to writers. But readers ought to know the difference between the two in order to evaluate what they read In other words, a skilled reader must be able to distinguish fact from fiction. I am sure this is something we do already without realizing. Most of the time when we talk we mix facts with opinion. In today’s lesson you will learn to sift fact from opinion.

 

What is a fact? A fact is a statement that can be proved true through objective evidence. Now, this

evidence may be physical proof, or the testimony of witnesses (spoken or written). The following are some facts which can be checked for accuracy and thus can be proved true:

1. The neem tree in our garden is 25 feel tall. (Anyone can measure & confirm or disprove the fact.)

2. The Lahore Museum is the oldest museum in Pakistan (Any researcher can check with historical publications/documents) 6

3. Pakistan won the 1992 World Cup. (Anyone can check sports record to confirm this)

Now we turn to opinion:

An opinion is a statement that cannot be objectively proved true or false. Opinions usually express

beliefs, feelings, judgments that a person may have on or about a subject. Here are some opinions:

1. The Alhmara Arts Council building is the most beautiful building in Lahore.

Now, there is no way this statement can be proved because people can look at the same building and come to different conclusions about its beauty.

 

“Beautiful” is a value-word – a word we use to express our judgment. Now remember value-words

are signals that an opinion is being expressed.These value-words by their very nature represent opinions, not facts. e.g.

1. The Prime Minister should have willed his property to the nation (That’s your opinion).

2. Pakistan cricket team is the best in the world. This, again, is an opinion. ‘Best’ is debatable.

 

To sharpen your understanding about fact and opinion, read the following statements and decide whether they are facts (F) or opinions (O)

1. My brother Aslam is very handsome.

2. Last night there was an accident on the highway.

3. Mohammad Ali Bogra was the worst Prime Minis

our country had ever had.

4. Ostriches do not hide their heads in the sand. (Contrary to popular opinion, this is a fact which can be

checked through observation or reports of observations.

 

 

Some more points about fact and opinion.

When separating fact form opinion keep in mind that:

 

i) A statement of fact may be found to be un- true.

Sometimes, evidence may show a fact is not really true.

 

ii) Opinions may be masked as facts.

People sometimes present their opinions as facts. e.g.

a) The economy, in fact, is in the worst shape it’s           been in for years.

b) In point of fact, neither candidate for the Nazim’s office is well qualified.

c) The truth of the matter is that frozen meat tastes         as good as fresh meat.

At the first glance, the above statements appear as statements of fact but a closer examination will show that they are statements of opinion.

 

iii) Value-words often represent opinions.

Value-words are generally subjective, not objective and they express judgment while factual statements report on observed reality while subjective statements interpret reality for instance.  

            Some Value-Words

 

 

           

good                bad                  great

            best                  worst                terrible

            better               lovely               wonder

            worse               disgusting         

 

 

If someone says, “it’s raining outside”. Now, this observation is an objective one. It can be verified, but if someone says, “it’s bad weather”, this is a subjective statement - a personal interpretation of reality – some people consider rain to be good weather!

(iv) Much of what we read and hear is a mixture of fact and opinion:

Recognizing facts and opinions is important because a lot of information that we read and hear is really OPINION.

 

 

You might,for instance, read or hear the following:

- A politician may say,“my record in the national assembly is outstanding”.

- An advertisement may claim that a particular model of a car “is the most economical on the road”. Both statements are opinions. In the first one, the word “outstanding” needs to be probed. What does the politician exactly mean? The second statement seems very factual. But what is meant by “economical? The car might be offering more miles per litre of petrol but if it offers the worst record for expensive repairs  Then, surely,s it is not economical.

So far, you have read single statements; now you will read a passage. Be on the look out for opinion.

 

1- There were several queens of Egypt by the name of Cleopatra, which also includes

the one who ruled in the time of Caesar and Antony, rulers of Rome.

2- She is one of the most interesting figures in world and Egyptian history.

3- According to historical records she was born in 69BC and died almost forty years later.

4- The story of how she died is very fascinating and easy to believe.

5- Reports say that she killed herself by letting a cobra bite her.

6- As the Egyptian cobra was a symbol of royalty, so it was a good way for a queen to end her life.

.

18

Sentence 2. expresses an opinion – to some Cleopatra may not be

an interesting figure.

 Sentence 3. facts – historical

Sentence 4 - opinion: how fascinating and easy to believe will differ from person to person.

Sentence 5 - fact

Sentence 6 - mixture of fact and opinion.

19

1- Although weeds are also plants, there is something negative about the name.

2- R. W. Emerson, an American poet once described a weed as “a plant whose virtues have not yet been discovered.”

3- Weeds aren’t really so bad after all.

4- For instance, they can replenish

depleted top soil with minerals.

5- Also, some weeds contains vitamins and are edible.

 

 

Facts Versus Opinion

Read the following statements and decide whether they are facts or opinions :

1. Edgar Allan Poe is the greatest writer of horror          stories in the world._________________

2. Poe had to leave the University of Virginia because he couldn’t pay his debts.__________

3. Edgar Allan Poe should not have drunk so much.___________________

4. Lovecraft has often been compared to Edgar Allah Poe.___________________

5. When Lovecraft died, he was practically  unknown.___________________

 

6. Lovecraft died in conditions of shameful neglect.________________

 

7. Lovecraft’s stories are far more horrible than those of Edgar Allan Poe.______________

 

8. Edgar Allan Poe’s stories reflect his powerful imagination and his love for analysis.________

 

9. Baudelaire wrote that Edgar Poe ‘pursued imagination and subjected it to the most stringent analysis’.____________________

10.It is because of Baudelaire that Edgar Allan Poe became famous in France__________________

 

 

Grellet, Francoise Developing Reading Skills,CUP,1981,page239

1 a) You might like to ask why the Sun is able to supply its own light, heat, and energy, whereas the Earth and the other planets only shine feebly with the aid of borrowed light. Strange as it may seem, it is best to start this problem by Strange as it may seem, it is best to start this problem by considering the interior of the Earth.  

 

   b)The morrow brought a very sober-looking morning, the sun making only a few efforts to appear; and Catherine augured from it everything most favourable to her wishes. A bright morning so early in the year, she allowed, would generally turn to rain; but a cloudy one foretold improvement as the day advanced.

c)Your mother and I were so happy then. It seemed as though we had everything we could ever want. I think the last day the sun shone was when that dirty little train steamed out of that crowded, suffocating Indian station, and the battalion band playing for all it was worth. I knew in my heart it was all over then. Everything. 

 

FOCUS G

The Sequences

IN Focus on Listing in lesson 11 which is there on the course’s web site we looked at some of the markers used for enumerating the order in which things are to be said when making lists or giving instructions. However, it didn’t mention those markers which outline the time sequence in which events occur. It is equally important to recognize the sequence of events, especially in such activities as scheduling, recounting historical facts, doing routine activities and conducting and describing experiments.

As we know, events do not simply occur, they occur either before, during or after other events. This time sequence may be chronological, logical or causal. Once a time-reference has been established, certain adjective and adverbials may order subsequent information in relation to it. The following tables are examples of time relaters.

 

Table 1

Previous to given time-references, i.e. before

                           

                       TIME RELATERS

Adjectives                      earlier                  preceding

former                            previous

Adverbials                     already                 earlier/previous

prior                               first                      so far

before                            formerly                yet

before that                      up to now/then     in the beginning

before then                      until now/then      (long) ago

 

 

Examples

1. The memory storage capacity of earlier computers was not as large as these day

2. When the first digital computer was developed, the first analog computer had already been in use for some time.

3. Up to now, computers have not created too much unemployment.

 

 

 

Table 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TIME RELATERS

Subsequent to time-reference, i.e. after

 

           

Adjectives                    Contemporary              Simultaneous

           

Adverbials                    at present                                 meaning

                                                at this point                   meanwhile

                                                now                                          in the meantime

                                                today                                        when

                                                for the time being                      at the same time

                                    at the moment

 

 

 

 

 

Examples

1. Computers might be used in the future as simultaneous translating machines.

2. At present, computers are used for printing newspapers.

3. In future, computers will probably replace most of our daily activities, but in the meantime scientists are still trying to develop computers to their full potential.           

 

 

 

TIME RELATERS

 

            Adjectives        following                later             next

            Adverbials        afterwards             since                        by the end

                                    after that                since then                soon

                                    eventually              by the time               next     

 

Examples

1. Since the development of the chip, computers have become cheaper and more compact.

2. You should have a good basic understanding of computers by the time you finish this reading

course.

3. After the development of transistors, the later computers were much faster.

34

N.B. Time sequence is also shown by the different verb tenses.

Examples

1. Vannevar Bush had built the first analog computer long before Professor Aiken and some men at IBM invented the first digital computer.

2. At the rate computer technology is growing, computers, as we know them today, will soon become obsolete.

 

 

Sample Paragraph 

Computers, as we know them today, haven’t been around for a long time. It wasn’t until the mid-1940s that the first working digital computer was completed. But since then, computers have evolved tremendously. Vacuum tubes were used in the first-generation computers at the beginning of the 1960s. By the end of the 1960s transistors were replaced by tiny integrated circuit boards and, consequently, a new generation of computers was on the market. Fourth-generation computers are now produced with circuits that are much smaller than before and fit on a single chip. Soon fifth-generation computers will be produced, and these will no doubt be better than their predecessors.

Exercise

Read the following paragraph and as you read, underline the time relaters. 

There are some who say that computers have a very short history but, because they are machines that manipulate numbers, others disagree. More than 5000 years ago, a need to count was recognized, and somebody had the idea of using first his fingers, then pebbles to keep track of the count. 

History is not clear as to whether the need was recognized before or after the idea occurred. Since that time, the abacus was invented and some form of it was used well into the 16th century. During the 17th and 18th centuries many easy ways of calculating were devised. Logarithm tables, calculus and the basis for the modern slide rule were born out of that period of time. It was not until the early 1800s that the first calculating machine appeared and not too long after, Charles Babbage designed a machine which became the basis for building  today’s computers.

A hundred years later the first analog computer was built, but the first digital computer was not complete until 1944. Since then computers have gone through four generations from digital computers using vacuum tubes in the 1950s, transistors in the early 1960s, integrated in the mid-60s, and a single chip in the 190s. At the rate computer technology is growing now, we can expect more changes in this field by the end of this decade.

 

 

Exercise (Answer Slide)

Read the following paragraph and as you read, underline the time relaters.

There are some who say that computers have a very short history but, because they are machines that

manipulate numbers, others disagree. More than 5000 years ago, a need to count was recognized, and somebody had the idea of using first his fingers, then pebbles to keep track of the count.

 

History is not clear as to whether the need was recognized before or after the idea occurred. Since

that time, the abacus was invented and some form of it was used well into the 16th century. During the 17th and 18th centuries many easy ways of calculating were devised. Logarithm tables, calculus and the basis for the modern slide rule were born out of that period of time. It was not until the early 1800s that the first calculating machine appeared and not too long after, Charles Babbage designed a machine which became the basis for building today’s computers.

 

A hundred years later the first analog computer was built, but the first digital computer was not complete until 1944. Since then computers have gone through four generations from digital computers using vacuum tubes in the 1950s, transistors in the early 1960s, integrated in the mid-60s, and a single chip in the 1970s. At the rate computer technology is growing now, we can expect more changes in this field by the end of this decade.

Lesson -14

Reading: Assessing Texts

 

In today’s lesson we are going to begin by looking at how writers bring their characters to life by employing different descriptive and other techniques. In the second half we will go back to practical texts pertaining to your field of study related to computers.

Characters

Characters

Almost every example of imaginative writing has to do with people in some way or the other. We are going to look at some of the ways in which a writer is able to translate his vision of the people he is writing about to the reader by means of words. In some ways, a painter or photographer has an easier task in that he is able to present his ideas directly to us in visual terms-though, of course,interpretation is necessary here too. How, then ,does an author achieve the same effect

using only works?

1.action 2.actual words put into characters mouth 3.direct statement 4.comparison & association

5.associating with one particular point of view or action by which they can easily and quickly be identified 6.by choice of words and by picking out a particular feature or detail that calls character vividly to mind.

1.In Action. One of the ways a writer does

1.In Action. One of the ways a writer does

this is by showing the character performing some action which is typical of him or performing an action in a particular way that reveals the kind of person he is. Here is another example, a description of Pip’s sister, Mrs. Gargery, from Charles Dicken’s Great Expectations.

ome action which is typical of him ord

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

My sister had a trenchant way of cutting our bread-and-butter for us, that never varied. First, with her left hand she jammed the load hard and fast against her bib-where it sometimes got a pin into it, and sometimes a needle, which we afterwards got into our mouths. Then she took some butter (not too much) on a knife and spread it on the loaf, in an apothecary kind of way, as if she were making a plaister-using both sides of the knife with a slapping dexterity,

and trimming and moulding the butter off round the crust. Then, she gave the knife a final smart wipe on the edge of the plaister, and then sawed a very thick round off the loaf; which she finally, before separating from the loaf, hewed into two halves, of which Joe got one, and I the other.  

                        (CHARLES DICKENS, Great Expectations)

What does this account of Mrs Gargery cutting bread tell us about her?

What impression does the use of words like ‘trenchant’ ‘jammed’, ‘slapping dexterity’, ‘a final smart wipe’, ‘sawed’ and ‘hewed’ build up?

Write your answers to these and the following questions in your notebook: it is good practice.

2.In Speech. Another way in which writers can indicate character is through the words they put into their character’s mouths. This is, of course, an important-possibly the most important-element of the dramatist’s art, to reveal his characters through their speech, but other writers employ the device as well.

Study the following passage from P.G. Wodehouse’s ‘Thank you, Jeeves’.

‘Jeeves’, I said, ‘do you know what?’

No sir.’

 ‘Do you know whom I saw last night?

‘no, sir.”

‘J. Washburn Stoker and his daughter, Pauline.’

‘ ‘Indeed, sir?.

‘Awkward, what?’forming an action in a particular way that

r‘I can conceive that after what occurred in New York it might be distressing for you to encounter Miss Stoker, sir. But I fancy the contingency need scarcely arise.’  

I weighed this.

 

‘When you start talking about contingencies arising, Jeeves, the brain seems to flicker and I rather miss the gist. Do you mean I ought to be able to keep outof her way?

 

‘Yes, sir.’

‘Avoid her?

 

‘Yes, sir.’

                                    (P.G. WODEHOUSE, Thank You, Jeeves)

‘Look at Jeeves’s answers. Apart from one speech, they are very economical. What can we deduce about the kind of person Jeeves is and his attitude towards his master from this economy of speech, from what Jeeves actually says and from what is implied?

3.By Direct Statement. Some writers tell us about their characters directly instead of showing them and allowing us to draw our own conclusions. They build detail on detail until we have a clear picture of their appearance, their habits, their opinions, their life history. Here is an account of a character called Miss Arkwright.

She was in no way a remarkable person. Her appearance was not particularly distinguished and yet she was without any feature that could actively displease.

She had enough personal eccentricities to fit into the pattern of English village life, but none so absurd or anti-social that they could embarrass or even arouse gossip beyond what was pleasant to her neighbors. She accepted her position as an old maid with that cheerful good humor and occasional irony which are essential to English spinsters since the deification of Jane Austen, or more sacredly Miss Austen, by the upper middle classes, and she attempted to counteract the inadequacy of the unmarried state by quiet, sensible and tolerant social work in the local community. She was liked by nearly everyone, though she was not afraid of making enemies where she knew that her broad but deeply felt religious principles were being opposed. Any socially pretentious or undesirably extravagant conduct, too, was liable to call for  her an unexpectedly caustic and well-aimed snub.

She was invited everywhere and always accepted the invitations.. Quietly but well dressed, with one or two very fine old pieces of jewellery that had come down to her from her grandmothers, she would pass from one group to another, laughing or serious as the occasion demanded.

’ She listened with patience, but with a slight twinkle in her eye, to Mr Hodson’s endless stories of life in Dar-es-Salaam or Myra Hop’s breathless accounts of her latest system of diet. John Hobday in his somewhat ostentatiously gentleman-farmer attire would describe his next novel about East Anglian life to her before even his beloved daughter had heard of it.

 

Richard Trelawney, just down from Oxford, found that she had read and really know Donne’s sermons, yet she could swoop detective stories with Colonel Wright by the hour, and was his main source for quotations when The Times cross-word was in question.It she was who incorporated little Mrs Grantham into village life, when that underbred, suburban woman came there as Colonel Grantham’s second wife, checking her vulgar remarks about ‘the lower classes’ with kindly humor, but defending her against the formidable battery of Lady Vernon’s antagonism. Yet she it was also who was fist at Lady Vernon’s when Sir Robert had his stroke and her unobtrusive kindliness and real services gained her a singular position behind the grim reserve of the Vernon family.

 

She could always banter the vicar away from his hobby horse of the Greek rite when at parish meetings the agenda seemed to have been buried for ever beneath a welter o Euchologia and Menaia. She checked Sir Robert’s anti-bolshevik phobia from victimizing the Country Librarian for her Fabianism but was fierce in her attack on the local council when she thought that class prejudice had prevented Commander Osborne’s widow from getting council house.

 

She led in fact an active and useful existence, yet when anyone praised her she would only laugh-’My dear’, she would say’ hard work’s the only excuse old maids like me have got for existing at all, and even then I don’t know that they oughtn’t to lethalize the lot of us.’ as the danger of war grew nearer in the thirties her favorite remark was ‘Well, if they've got any sense this time they’ll keep the young fellows at home and put us useless old maids in the trenches,’ and she said it with real conviction.

                                    (ANGUS WILSON, A Little Companion)

Sum up in a few sentences the main points of Miss Arkwright’s character.

In what way are the reported comments that Miss Arkwright makes typical of her?

4. By Comparisons and Associations. Sometimes  writers tell us about their characters by comparing them to something else which calls up an image in our minds or by associating them with some idea or object that is related or which is significant.

Here is a description of Miss Murdstone.

It was Miss Murdstone who was arrived, and a gloomy-looking lady she was; dark, like her brother, whom she greatly resembled in face and voice; and with very heavy eyebrows, nearly meeting over her large nose, as if, being disabled by the wrongs of her kind from wearing whiskers, she had carried them to that account.

She brought with her two uncompromising hard black boxes, with her initials on the lids in hard brass nails. When she paid the coachman she took the money from a hard steel purse, and she kept the purse, and she kept the purse in a very jail of a bag which hung upon her arm by a heavy chain, and shut up like a bite. I had never, at that time, seen such a metallic lady altogether as Miss Murdstone was.(CHARLES DICKENS, David Copperfield)

Pick out the words or objects that directly suggest metal. Which words in the description of Miss Murdstone suggest characteristics of metal? How is this association with metal appropriate?

5.         By associating the character with one particular point of view or action by which they can be easily and quickly identified.

Who can ever forget, for instance, Uriah Heep in Charles Dickens’s David Copperfield being ‘ever so humble’ and rubbing his hands together, words and an action that are forever associated with him?It was no fancy of mine about his hands, I observed; for he frequently ground the palms against each other as if to squeeze them dry and warm, besides often wiping them, in a stealthy way, on his pocket handkerchief.

 

Here is a lesser known character from Hard Times:

Thomas Grandgrind, sir. A man of realities. A man of facts and calculations. A man who proceeds upon the principle that two and two are four, and nothing over, and who is not to be taled into allowing for anything over. Thomas Gradgrind, sir-peremptorily Thomas-Thomas Gradgrind.

With a rule and a pair of scales, and the multiplication table always in his pocket, sir, ready to weight and measure any parcel of human nature, and tell you exactly what it comes to. It is a mere question of figures, a case of simple arithmetic. You might hope to get some other nonsensical belief into the head of George Gradgrind, or Augustus Gradgrind, or John Gradgrind, or Joseph Gradgrind (all suppositious, non-existent persons), but into the head of Thomas Gradgrind-no sir!

                                    (CHARLES DICKENS, Hard Times)

Underline the words that reinforce the idea that Thomas Gradgrind is a man of facts and calculations. What does the use of word ‘sir’ add to the passage?

6.         By choice of words and picking out a particular feature or detail that calls the character vividly to mind. Here are some examples taken from Edward Blishen’s A Cackhanded War:

 

‘He was a tiny fellow, with a leathery white face under black hair, and tied to the case he’d brought were the most enormous gumboots I’d ever seen.’

‘Mrs Goss was a widow, a neat little woman of over seventy: and witchlike.’

‘He was a deeply depressed man, this farmer, who always wore a white coat and cloth cap, and was always peppered with a white-and-black bristle.’

‘He was a tall, silent, dark man, very gentle, who would tut over his machine as if it were some moody woman.’‘On the strawstack was a boy: a short, stout boy with a kind of naked pertness about his eyes and a very runny nose.’Describe five varied characters, using one sentence of or each, and try to make them alive by the way you use] words or by giving to each a particular descriptive detail that defines him 

 

for example                              examples of                  shown by

for instance                               instances of                   exemplifies

an example of this                     cases of                        shows

as an example                           illustration of                 illustrates

that is                                       exemplified by  a          second/third

Such as                                    illustrated by                 example etc.

Like                                         seen in              namely

Sample sentences with examples in italics:

1. The switches, like the cores, are capable of being in one of two possible states that is, on or off; magnetized or unmagnetized. 2. Computers have circuits for performing arithmetic operations such as: addition subtraction, division, multiplication and exponentiation. 3. The computer can only decide three things, namely: Is one number less than another? Are two numbers equal? Is one number greater than another?

4. Computers can process information at extremely rapid rates; for example, they can solve certain arithmetic problems millions of times faster than  a skilled mathematician.

5. Using the very limited capabilities possessed by all computers, the task of producing a university  payroll, for instance, can be done quite easily.

 

 N.B. Sometimes the markers follow the example, separated by commas.

Not all texts present examples explicitly, some exemplifications are given implicitly, in which case, the above markers are not used. With this we come to the end of this lesson. We have looked at how writers use characterization 

Lesson -15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Evaluating Texts: Interpreting Visual Data

 

Interpreting Visual Data

In today’s lesson we will first deal with interpreting visual data and second how to make comparisons. We will show you some means of communications which are primarily visual. Among these means are: graphs, charts, diag rams, tables, and maps. Most textbooks include tables, graphs and maps, etc. They are all aids to help you understand interpret the material you are reading.

Because of the importance of visuals, and the possibility of their being misinterpreted, you will see: i) how words and figures can be converted into visuals of one kind or another, and ii) learn to read accurately these common aids. The following example shows you how  information consisting of words and figures can be converted into a visual.

Our experience is that after listening to an hour’s lecture, students begin very rapidly to forget the information given to them.  Twenty-four hours after the lecture, most of the students will have forgotten 75% of the information. After forty-eight hours, the amount the students remember has usually sunk to 15%. Yet if the students review the information by noting the key points in the first place and then reading over or discussing or using their notes, the retention levels are as high as 70-85%.

Here you have been presented findings in words and numerals. Let’s put these findings into graph form, so that you can ‘see’ them better.

 

Tables: The purpose of a table is to give the reader numerical information at a glance. They are used to show various kinds of information in clear, compact columns. You are all familiar with a time table. You had one in your school and college – it was a plan of the whole week – how classes were scheduled. In the same way you are familiar with airline and train time tables or schedules. You are also familiar with tables in mathematics, physics, or chemistry. Tables are useful for quick reference, but they require careful reading.

When you read a table.

(i)         Read the title of the table first: that will tell you what information, is shown in that table. 

       ii)            Always look at the footnote given at the end or bottom of the table. It will explain or give additional information that is necessary for an accurate interpretation of the data

iii)         Next you must ask yourself if the information given in the table is reliable. For this you must check the source of information in the table.

     iv)            After that look at the heading of each column. Be sure you understand exactly what each heading refers to what is included in each column. Also notice the units that are used. These could be in terms of numbers, money, weights, percentages, dates, sex, etc… The units may also vary from column to column.

      v)            Finally, you must read the figures carefully and   interpret them accurately.

Now look at the following table taken from R.C. Yorkey ‘Study Skills for Students of English’ p. 173. and answer the ten questions that follow by writing true (T) or false (F).

 

 

 

Answer the following by writing true or false.

 

       T            F          

1.This table refers to the percentage of the total United States population.f

                                  

        t                           2.Judging form the table, the annual death rate has been               

 

                                      reduced by slightly less than half since 1900.   

                                  

         t                         3.Heart disease has consistently been the major cause of death.

                                  

        t                         4.The death rate for infants in 1977 was 10.7      percent.

                                  

                       f           5.Typhoid fever has been completely eliminated as a cause of death.

 

6. Since 1940 the annual death rate for automobile accidents has remained about the same.   t

                                   

 

7.The reduction in deaths since 1900 has been greater for tuberculosis than for pneumonia. t

                       

                                   

8.The annual death rate for cancer was bout 2½ times greater in 1977 than in 1900. t

 

                                   

9.The most serious childhood disease in the first part of the twentieth century apparently was typhoid fever. t

 

                                   

10. The abbreviation n.a. means “Not Applicable.” t

 

Another way of showing information is through graphs. A graph illustrates a relationship between at least two things, one of which is measured on a vertical axis, and the other(s) on a horizontal axis.

Look the following graph taken from R.C. Yorkey ‘Study Skills for Students of English’ p. 177. and answer the questions that follow.

 

Answer the first five following questions by writing true of false and the last five by writing the information.

            1.         Specific years are indicated on the vertical axis.f

            2.         The legend (explanatory words on a graph, map, etc…) shows how many

                          men finished elementary school, high school, and college.f

            3.         The mean income of high school graduates is consistently higher than that of                               elementary school graduates. t

            4.         College graduates earn the highest income.t

 

            5.         This graph shows that female college graduates earn more money than male high  

school  graduates. f

            6.         In 1956, the difference in mean income of  elementary school and high school                            graduates was ____1250dollars_________.

            7.         In 1976, this difference became about ______1720__________.

            8.         In 1961, a college graduate earned a mean income of about _________10,000______.

            9.         The mean income of a college graduate in 1966 was about _______12,000__________.

 

            10.       In the years between 1961 and 1976 about how much did the income of college                                    students increase? _____6500________-

           

Bar Graphs

A bar graph is similar to a line graph except that the bars (extending from either the vertical or the horizontal axis) are used instead of dots and lines. Look at the following bar graph which is taken from R.C.Yorkey p. 178. and which gives data from the world Almanac, 1979, and then answer the questions that follow.

 

 

Answer the following questions by writing true or false

     T             F

                                    1.This graph shows the number of speakers of all the important  

                                        languages of  the world. t

                                   

                                    2.The number of speakers is shown on the vertical axis. f

                                   

                                    3.The number of speakers is indicated in millions. e.g, 100 means          100,000,000.t

                                   

                                    4.There are twice as many speakers of English as of French.f    

                                   

                                    5.Two languages are spoken by more than 300 million speakers. T

 

 

Answer the following questions by writing on the lines provided.

 

1.About how many native speakers of English are there in the world?

 

            ______370.,000,000__________ .

           

2. What languages have about as many speakers as Arabic?

 

            __________German and Portuguese_______________.

 

3. What dialect of Chinese has the most speakers?

 

            _________Mandrain_____________ .

 

4. There are about twice as many speakers of Hindi as of _____Malay  Indonesian_____________.

 

5. Which language ranks fifth in total number of speakers?

            _________Urdu_______________.

 

 

1.Japan is composed of four major islands. The biggest island is Honshu. What are the names of the other there? ________ Kyushu, Shikoku, Hokkaido__________________________

Which island is northernmost?Hokkaido

 Southernmost? Kyushu

 

2.Japan is surrounded by an ocean and three seas. Name the ocean Pacific. Name the seas Philippines Sea, Sea of Japan, East China Sea

Which sea is to the west of Japan? Sea of Japan to the southeast?Philippines Sea

3.What is the country nearest to Japan? South Korea. How far is it form Japan? Approx. 150 km

 

4.What other countries are close to Japan? Russia, North Korea

Approximately how far are these countries from Japan? Closest: NK - 400 Km, Russia 300 Km

 What direction are they from Tokyo?___East_.

 

 

5.How far is the island of Hokkaido from the Soviet Union? Approx. 300 Km

 

Which direction is Hokkaido from the Soviet Union? _North___Which direction is Hokkaido from Korea?__North West___On Hokkaido, name one city that is due west of Kushiro: Sapporo and one that is due north of Hakodate: Sapporo

 

6.How many cities in Japan have a population of 1.000.000 or more? __6_____What are their names? Osaka, Tokayo Kobe, Kyoto, Nagoya, Yokohama. How do you know which ones they are? Capitalized

7. Approximately how far is Nagoya from Tokyo? 390 Km. Nagoya is to the  East of Tokyo and to the___North East_________ of Osaka.

 

 

8. The latitude of Tokyo is 35. What is the longitude? 135

9. What are the latitude and longitude of the northern tip of the island of Hokkaido? 0 & 140

 

10. Approximately how far is it from the southern tip of Kyushu to the northern tip of  Hokkaido?Approx. 1890 Km. Mutsu Bay is at the Northern  tip of Honshu. The city of Nagasaki is at the Western  tip of Kyushu.

 

 

A.Which continent/country is the largest producer of hardwood timber? Asia

B.Which continent/country products equal amounts       of hardwood and softwood timber? Europe

C.What percentage of paper pulp is produced by countries other than North America, the USSR, Asia and Europe? 1%

D.Which continent/country produces approximately twice as much hardwood timber as North America, but only one seventh as much softwood? Africa

E.Which continent/country produces softwood timber, but no hardwood timber? USSR

 

True or False:

Study the charts again and say whether the following statements are True or False.

 

                                

                                 A. In Asia the production of softwood timber is more important than the   production of  hardwood timber. f

                                

                                 B. The largest produces three times as much paper pulp as Europe.f

                                

                                 C. Asia produces three times as much paper pulp as Europe.f

                       

                                 

D. The producers of timber are shown on the vertical axis of the graph. t

 

                                

E. The cubic meters of wood produced are indicated in millions; for example, 50 means 50,000,000 cubic meters.t tte will move on to the second half of the lesson

Making Comparisons

1 Formation

There are several ways of showing that similarities or differences exist between or amongst things. The regular comparative and superlative of descriptive words, whether these are adjectives or adverbs, are formed as follows:

 1 Formation

There are several ways of showing that

1.By adding the ending-er and -est to words of one syllable

Examples

 

                

        ABSOLUTE   COMPARATIVE  SUPERLATIVE

 

 

Adjectives            new           newer                        newest

                             old           older                         oldest

                             big            bigger                        biggest

 

 

Adverbs                soon        sooner                     soonest

                             late            later                          latest           

 

 

2.By placing the words more and most in front of words with three or more syllables

 

Example

 

                       ABSOLUTE   COMPARATIVE  SUPERLATIVE

 

 

Adjectives                  interesting                       more                most

                                                                        interesting         interesting

 

 

                                 convenient                       more               most

                        convenient     convenient

 

                      beautiful                          more               most

                                                                        beautiful         beautiful

 

 

 

Adverbs                    easily                               more easily            most easily

                                 carefully                           more

                                                                        carefully                  most carefully

Words with t wo syllables may be

Words with t wo syllables may be like 1 or 2 above in that they will add

the ending -er and -est if they and in –y or-ly, -ow, -le and -er. Most of the remaining words take more and most in front of them.

 ke 1 or 2 above in that they will add

the ending -er and -est if they and in -y

or-ly, -ow, -le and -er. Most of the

remaining words take more and most in

front of them.

 

Example         

            ABSOLUTE   COMPARATIVE     SUPERLATIVE

 

           

-y         happy               happier                        happiest

                        funny                funnier             funniest

 

           

-ly        early                 earlier                          earliest

                        friendly              friendlier                      friendliest

 

           

-ow      shallow shallower                      shallowest

                        narrow             narrower                      narrowest

 

           

-le        able                  abler                            ablest

            gentle               gentler             gentlest

 

           

-er        clever               cleverer                       cleverest

 

 

N.B.     Two-syllable adverbs ending in -ly take more or most.

 
Example

quickly             more quickly                 most quickly

slowly               more slowly                  most slowly

badly                more badly                   most badly

 

 

 

 

Example

                       

           

ABSOLUTE                COMPARATIVE                   SUPERLATIVE

 

 

            careful                          more careful                             most careful

  Remaining                   careless                        more careless                           most careless

  descriptive                  boring                           more boring                              most boring

  two-                           awful                            more awful                               most awful

  syllable                       complex                       more complex                           most complex

  words

 

 

 

4.Some common two-syllable adjectives can have either type of formation.

 
 
Example

 

           

ABSOLUTE                COMPARATIVE       SUPERLATIVE

 

           

common                       commoner                    commonest

                        more common              most common

           

           

handsome                     handsomer                    handsomest

                                                more handsome            most handsome

           

           

polite                            politer                           politest

                        more polite                   most polite

           

           

quiet                             quieter                          quietest

                        more quiet                    most quiet

 

There are a small number of adjectives and adverbs that form the comparative and superlative using a different stem. These irregular comparisons are as follows:

 
Example

 

                       

Absolute                       Comparative                 Superlative

 

 

 Adjectives       bad                              worse                           worst

                        far                                further/farther                furthest/farthest

                        good                            better                           best

                        many                            more                            most

 

 

 Adverbs          badly                            worse                           worst

            fair                               further/farther                furthest/farthest

                        little                              less                               least

                        much                            more                            most

                        well                              better                           best

 

 

2. Use in sentences:

There are many reasons for using comparisons in discourse. They may be used to show:

a. equivalence;

b. non-equivalence; c. one item compared with others; and d. parallel increase.

 

 

 

Equivalence:

The following words or constructions are used to show equivalence (i.e. the same).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                  as…as                           are similar                               each

                  as many …as                equal to                                    either

                  as much … as               is like                                       all 

                  the same…as                similar/ly                                   both

                  Similar to                       equal/ly                                   alike

 

                  the same                       compare to/with                        

 

Examples

1. Third-generation computers can do a thousand times as many calculations as first-generation

computers.

2. Microcomputers are as efficient as minicomputers.

3. The term processor is the same as central processing unit.

4. The digital computer is like a huge cash register.

5. An analog computer and a car speedometer are

similar in that they continuously work out

calculations.

6. A microcomputer can sometimes cost as much as a minicomputer.

7. Both minicomputers and microcomputers can have a memory of 32K bytes.

8. A digital computer can be compared to a large cash register.

9. All computers have the same basic characteristics.

10.The time it takes a computer to solve a problem can equal months of work for man.

 

Non-equivalence

The following words and/or constructions are used to show non-equivalence (I.e. not the same).

 

           

not as … as                  greater than                  unequal (ly)

word + er than              not as much… as          unlike

more… than                 neither …nor …as        not the same as

fewer … than               not as many …as          not all

less … than                  not equal to

 

 

 

Examples

1. Learning a computer language is not as difficult as it seems.

2. A mainframe is bigger and more expensive than a microcomputer.

3. For less than $10,000, you could have a very good microcomputer.

4. Ten years ago, there were fewer computers in use than today .

5. Neither minicomputers nor microcomputers are very flexible. 60

6. Unlike minicomputers, microcomputers are not very flexible.

7. An analog computer is not the same as a digital computer.

8. Not all business have computerized their accounting departments.

 

 

The superlative

The following words and/or constructions are used to show one item compared with others (i.e. the

superlative). the word + est the most… the least…

 

Examples

1. Computer technology is the fastest growing technology in the world today

2. Digital computer programming is the most commonly used in data processing for business.

3. BASIC is probably the least difficult computer language to learn.

 

Parallel increase:

The following words and/or constructions are used to show parallel increase (i.e. two comparative ) the (word + er) the … the more … the (word+er) the … the less … 62

 

Examples

1. The bigger the computer, the more complex the operations it can do.

2. The smaller the problem, the less challenging it is to the computer programmer.

63

Exercise 1

Decide whether each sentence expresses equivalence, non-equivalence, or the superlative, then underline the words expressing the comparison.

…………….1. Speeds for performing decision making operations are comparable to those for arithmetic operations.

 

…………….2. Even the most sophisticated computer, no matter how good it is, must be told what to do.

…….. .3. A computer can perform similar operations thousands of times, without becoming bored, tired or even careless.

 

…………….4. For example, modern computers can solve certain classes of arithmetic problems millions of times faster than a skilled mathematician.

66

……………….5. One of the most important reasons why computers are used so widely today is that almost every big problem can be solved by solving a number of little problems.

 

…………….6. Finally a computer, unlike a human being, has no intuition.

 

Exercise 1 Answer slide

Decide whether each sentence expresses equivalence, non-equivalence, or the superlative, then underline the words expressing the comparison.

Equilence 1. Speeds for performing decision making operations are comparable to those for arithmetic operations.

 

Superlative 2. Even the most sophisticated computer, no matter how good it is, must be told what to do.

65

 equivalence . 3. A computer can perform similar operations thousands of times, without becoming bored, tired or even careless.

 

nonequivalence 4.For example, modern computers can solve certain classes of arithmetic problems millions of times faster than a skilled mathematician.

 

superlative. 5.One of the most important reasons why computers are used so widely today is that almost every big problem can be solved by solving a number of little problems.

 

non-equivalence  6. Finally a computer, unlike a human being, has no intuition.

 

 

Exercise 2

Read the text on ‘Microcomputers’ (Which follows this slide), and as you read complete the tale below by writing the sentence or that part of the sentence that expresses a comparison.

This text is about the history of micro computers,and how computers have evolved in to the very fast and efficient machines that they are today.

 

1- The early 1970s saw the birth of the microcomputer, or micro for short. The central processor of the micro, called the microprocessor, is built as a single semiconductor devices; that is, the thousands of individual circuit elements necessary to perform all the logical and arithmetic functions of a computer are manufactured as a single chip. A complete microcomputer system is composed of a microprocessor, a memory and peripheral equipment.

The processor, memory and electronic controls for the peripheral equipment are usually put together on a single or on a few printed circuit boards. Systems using microprocessors can be hooked up together to dot he work that until recently only minicomputer systems were capable of doing. Micros generally have somewhat simpler and less flexible instruction sets than minis, and are typically much slower.

Different micros are available with 4-, 8-, 16- bit word lengths. Similarly, minis are available with word lengths up to 32 bits. Although minis can be equipped with much larger primary memory sizes, micros are becoming more powerful and converging with minicomputer technology.

2- The extremely low price of micros has opened up entirely new areas of application for computers. Only 20 years or so ago, a central processing unit of medium capability sold for a few hundred thousand dollars (U.S.), and now some microprocessors sell for as cheaply as $10. Of course, by the time you have a usable microcomputer system, the price will be somewhere between $500 and $10,000 depending on the display unit, secondary storage, and whatever other peripherals are needed.

3- The available range of microcomputer systems is evolving more rapidly than minicomputers. Because of their incredibly low price, it is now possible to use only a small fraction of the computer’s capability in a particular system application and still be far ahead financially of any other way of getting the job done.

For example, thousands of industrial robots are in use today, and the number is growing very rapidly as this relatively new industry improves the price and performance of its products by using the latest microcomputers.

4- Even though the software available for most microcomputer systems is very-limited - more so than for minis- it does not discourage their use in the many high-volume, fixed applications for which programming is essentially a ‘one shot deal’ as is the case in the space shuttle program.

In addition to their extensive use  in control systems of all types, they are destined for many new uses from more complex calculators to automobile engine operation and medical diagnostics. They are already used in automobile emission control systems and are the basis of many TV game attachments. There is also a rapidly growing market for personal computers whose application potential in education is only just beginning to be exploited.

5- It would seem that the limits for microcomputer applications have by no means been reached. There are those who predict that the home and hobby computer markets will grow into a multi-billion dollar enterprise within a decade or so. It would also appear that performance of microprocessors could well increase ten-fold before 1990 while prices for micros could decrease by as much.

 

 

 

 

 

 

PARA EQUIVALENCE             NON-EQUIVALENCE                                 SUPERLATIVE

  (1)      1. is built as a                  1.

            single semi

            conductor

            2.                                      2.

 

            3.                                      3. micros are becoming

                                                         more powerful

  (2)      1.

 

  (3)                                            1.                                           1.

 

  (4)      1. as is the case

              in the space

              shuttle program

                                               2. from more complex

                                                   calculations to 

   (5)     1.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PARA EQUIVALENCE                       NON-EQUIVALENCE                     SUPERLATIVE

  (1)      1. is built as a                               1. Simpler and less

            single semi                                       flexible instruction set

            conductor

            2.as a single chip                          2.are typically much slower

 

            3.similarly minis                3. micros are becoming

            are available                                    more powerful

 

  (2)      1.as cheaply as$10

 

  (3)                                                         1.more rapidly than mc                    1.using the latest mc

  (4)      1. as is the case                       more so than minis

                in the space

                shuttle program

                                                         2. from more complex

                                                             calculations to 

   (5)     1.micros could

            decrease by as much

Lesson -16

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reading: Evaluating Texts

 

Evaluating Texts

One vital aspect of reading comprehension is the ability to assess and evaluate the text. This

means, first of all, that the reader should be fully aware of the writer’s intention of his point of view, and possible bias. In order to evaluate a text the student must be able to discriminate facts from opinions. It is an important part of reading competence that the reader should be aware of the way his judgement is influenced one way or another.

So far you have had practice in distinguishing facts from opinion. In today's lesson you shall first have practice in distinguishing the writer’s Tone, and second, you shall look at argumentation - which is very central to the material that we read. Writers make a point and then support the point. You as a successful reader must learn to recognize the point and recognize the support for the point.

16

 

TONE

Look at the five statements expressing different attitudes about a ‘shabby house.’ Label each statement by choosing the most appropriate tone from the word bank.

 

           

optimistic          bitter                tolerant

sentimental        humorous         sympathetic

 

1.         This may be a shabby, run-down                       looking house, but since I lived here in   my childhood it has a special place in             my heart. (sentimental)

2.         This may not be the best looking house in the neighborhood, but it’s not really that bad. (tolerant)

3.         If only I had a decent job, I wouldn’t     be reduced to living in this ramshackle   dump. (bitter)

4.         This place is in need of some costly       renovation, and I expect the landlord to             get around to them any day now.                 (optimistic)

5.         When I leave this joint, I plan to empty rubbish bins of all the neighboring          flats      into it so I can leave the place                exactly as I found it. (humorous)

Now I helped you in this exercise. See if you can do the next one on your own. But before you do NNow I helped you in this exercise. See if you can do the next one on your own. But before you do the nNow I helped you in this exercise. See if you can do the next one on your own. But before

you do the next exercise I must tell you something about IRONY. This is a commonly used tone and one which you may not be familiar with. When writing has an ironic tone, it says one thing and means the opposite. Irony is found in everyday conversation as well as in writing. Irony always involves ‘discrepancy’ - meaning that something doesn’t quite fit - and it usually takes two forms situational and verbal.

ext exercise I must tell you something about IRONY. This is a commonly used tone and one writing h(I) Situational irony occurs when the discrepancy lies in the situation itself. You expect something but something else happens. Or a situation calls for an expected response but something unexpected happens instead e.g. there is a house on fire and you expect the fire fighter to aim a water hose / pipe at the fire, but instead he aims a petrol pipe / hose. That would be very ironical.

 

adiscrepancy lies in the situation itself.    You expect something but something     else hOr you may have heard of the situation in a play by the American playwright, William Inge’s ‘A Social Event’ where the proud Hollywood couple’s. Afro- American maid has an invitation to a special event to which the

couple has NOT been invited: very ironical situation indeed.

 

(ii) Verbal irony occurs when there is discrepancy between what is said and what is meant. e.g. Usually the exact opposite, or a near opposite, is what is meant: an eager cricket player looks out of the window and sees that it is raining. “Oh, great!” he says, meaning exactly the opposite. Another example to illustrate this: After seeing a terrible performance by an actor in a movie someone might say “Now that’s an actor who is sure to win the Best Actor Award for this year!” – Both e.gs. Illustrate verbal irony.

 

a Now you will look at three short passages each of which illustrates a tone given in the box. Remember the tone reflects the author’s attitude. To find the tone of a paragraph, ask yourself what attitude is revealed by its words and phrases.

                    

 

 

            caring               pessimistic        objective

            optimistic          angry                critical 

ppens. Or a situation calls for an            expected response but something                      unexpected happens instead e.g. there     is a house on fire and you expect the     fire fighter to aim a water hose / (i) Research on rats has shown that when animals live in crowded conditions they live disorderly, violent lives. Human beings are no exception. Crowded cities are models of lawlessness, and the traffic-clogged roads encourage drivers to be aggressive. As urban areas continue to grow in population density, these types of problems will also grow. That means more violence and more fighting over available resources.

pi

e 13

(ii) Those addicted to drugs probably feel terrible about themselves even if they don’t show it, and harsh judgements only worsen their self-image. What these people need are programs to rehabilitate them in society as well as help rid themselves of their addictions. It is also important we should take a sympathetic view of their problem and open our hearts and minds to these troubled persons.

14

(iii) When I hired Mughal Carpets to install a new wall-to-wall carpet in my drawing room, I relied on the company’s reputation for quality work. However, I was deeply dissatisfied with the dreadful job their

workers did in my room. The carpet is poorly fitted as in one corner it is creased while in the other the floor shows through. I am exasperated with the work of Mughal Carpets and am thinking of asking my lawyer to sue them.

15

ARGUMENT

A good argument is one in which you make a point and then provide support (persuasive and logical evidence) to back it up. For e.g. if you make the statement “My neighbors are inconsiderate” we expect you

to provide supporting details which would enable others to see and judge whether yours neighbors are really inconsiderate or not.

16

Now if you added: “They play loud music at night, their children play and scream loudly outside my house, and their dog barks all day long”. You have provided solid support to your earlier statement “my neighbors are inconsiderate”.

- To help you distinguish between point and support for that point or conclusion and reasons for that conclusion, let us jointly do an exercise.

17

In the following groups of statements, one statement is the point and the others are support for the point. Identify each point with a (P) and identify each statement of support with an (S).

I —Cats refuse to learn silly tricks just to amuse people. — Cats seem to be more intelligent

than dogs.

— Dogs will accept mistreatment, but a cat if mistreated, it runs away. 18

2. If workers go on strike, they now lose their jobs to replacement workers.

Conditions in factories are tougher than they used to be. In many industries workers have had to take wage cuts.

3. - Often you’ll have to wait half an hour for a route no. 5 bus, and then three will turn up at once.

- Sometimes route no. 5 buses will drive past you at a bus stop, even though they aren’t full.

at         the fire, but instead he aims a petrol       pipe / hose. That would be very ironical.

Route no.5 seems to be assigned the most ramshackle buses, ones that rattle and have broken seats.

When ever possible, people should not ride the route no. 5 bus.

.

20

In the first type – fallacies that ignore the issue you will find the writer may change the subject, or indulge in circular reasoning, or give way to personal attack, or may create an imaginary opponent. In the second type – FALLACIES that

overgeneralize/oversimplify issues – the writer may draw hasty conclusions on the basis of insufficient evidence, or assume that because a certain event follows an earlier event, the subsequent event was the cause of the earlier event, or may make false comparison or analogy, or the either-or-fallacy.

21

First I shall show you examples of unsound reasoning and then you shall do a few exercises which will give you practice in

spotting them in your reading.

 

A. FALALCIES THAT IGNORE THE ISSUE (3 types)

a) changing the subject (b) circular reasoning

c) personal attack

a) Changing the Subject

 

In this method of argument the writer tries to divert the audience’s attention from the true issue by presenting evidence that has nothing to do with the argument. e.g. The honorable member of the National Assembly is a capable leader. He has a busy family life and prays daily in the area mosque.

22

Mention of the member’s family life and religious life sidesteps the issue of just how capable a leader he is.

23

Exercise 1

The proposed new dam is going to be a disaster. The plans were drawn up nearly thirty years ago, when the

affected area was lightly settled. Now, a generation later the area is thickly populated and hundreds of families would be displaced if the dam is built. There are already many forces working for the break up of the family unit in Pakistan these days. The environment will also be negatively affected by the construction of the dam. Hundreds of birds will lose their natural habitat and may die out.

24

-a. Which sentence is not a sound argument in support of the author’s conclusion that the proposed dam is a disaster?

 

b) Circular reasoning. In this the supporting reason is the same as the conclusion. e.g. “Mr. Abid is a great science teacher because he is so wonderful at teaching.” We do not know why Mr. Abid is a great teacher. No real reasons are given – the statement merely repeats itself.

rony is found in everyday conversation as well as in writing. Irony always involves ‘discrepancy’ – ExE

EExercise 2:

Try to spot the circular reasoning in the following arguments.

 

i) Since persons under 18 are too young to vote the voting age should not be lowered below age 18.

ii) Taking vitamin C is healthy, for it improves your well-being.

If you look closely at these arguments you will notice the reasons merely repeat an important part of the conclusion. The careful reader wants to know the reason, supporting evidence, not a repetition.

that something doesn’t quite fit - and it usually takes two forms situational and verbal.

o In the first argument the author uses the idea that persons under 18 are too young to vote as the conclusion and the reason of the argument. No real reason is advanced for why persons under 21 are too young to vote. In the second argument the word healthy, which is used in the conclusion, conveys the same idea as wellbeing. Conclusion and reason are used as one.

w I helped you in this exercise. See if you can do the next one on your own. But before you do the n

c) Personal Attack: This kind of fallacy often occurs in political debate. Here the issue under discussion is ignored and the writer or speaker focuses attention on the opponent’s character. e.g.

“The Honorable Member of National Assembly views on the tax bill are not worthy of consideration. His

father also held similar views when he was a member of the assembly”. As you can see from this example it

ignores he issue - the tax bill – and concentrates on personal character. It is always easy recognizing

personal attack.

28

Exercise

Which one of the following statements contains an example of personal attack.

1. Our cricket team is not going to win the next World Cup. We have acquired the services of a useless

coach.

2. We should support the Zila Nazim’s proposal for tax collection. He has the biggest collection of

wealth by not paying the taxes.

3. The people who oppose the new traffic ticketing system are not concerned about traffic rules.

29

B. FALLACIES THAT OVERGENERALIZE/

OVER SIMPLIFY ISSUES (4 types)

a) Hasty generalization (b) false cause (c) false comparison (d) either- or fallacy

 

a) Hasty generalization:

This is a very common fallacy A person who draws a conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence is making a hasty

generalization. The following example will make this amply clear.

30

 

B. FALLACIES THAT OVERGENERALIZE/

The Iranians are a very stupid people as they have no talent for mathematics. Two Iranian boys took math course with me once, and they were at the bottom of the class. Forming a conclusion about a whole nation on the basis of two examples (boys) is an illogical jump.

ext exercise I must tell you something about IRONY. This is a commonly used tone and one which Exercise

Three statements are given followed by four possible conclusions. Three of these are hasty generalizations which cannot logically be drawn from the evidence given, and the fourth one is a valid conclusion. Choose the one conclusion you think is valid.

 

1. The first time I went to the sea-side at Karachi my face got sun-burnt.

2. The second time I went to the seaside I couldn’t swim because the water was too cold.

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3. The third time I went to the seaside at Karachi I stepped on a star fish and had to go the hospital to have the spikes removed from my foot.

 

Out of the four conclusions given which one would you choose as the most valid.

a) The seaside is unsafe & should be closed to the public.

b) The seaside is a polluted place.

c) I have had a series of bad experiences.

d) The seaside is not a place to visit.

 

Which did you one choose. Obviously the correct answer would be c.

 

b) False Cause: You have probably heard some one says as a joke, “I know there is going to be a dust storm today because I washed my hair”. Now the two events mentioned have no connection whatsoever. Well that was just to tell you how often in life we make such wrong associations – we assume Cause-and-effect situations are not easy to analyze, as people tend to oversimplify them by ignoring other possible causes. To identify an argument using a false cause, look for alternate

 

causes. Look at the following argument:

The Atlas Tyre Company was more prosperous before Mr. Hamid joined it as chairman. Clearly, he is the cause of its decline.

Event A: Mr. Hamid became company chairman.

Event B: The Atlas Tyre Company’s income

declined.

Well, other causes could have been responsible for it.

may not be familiar with. When writing has an ironic tone, it says one thing and means the opposi. May be the policies of the previous chairman have now begun to affect the company, or perhaps the market conditions have changed. It’s easy but incorrect to assume that just because A came before B, therefore A caused B.

.

36

Exercise: Which one of the following statements contains an example of false cause?

 

1. You better get a job soon or face the fact that you are lazy and want to live off others.

2. Murree has terrible weather. I visited there for a week last July and it rained continuously.

3. After visiting my friend today, I came home with a headache. I must be allergic to his house.

Irony is found in everyday conversation as well as in writing. Irony always involves ‘discrepancy’ - m 37

(c) False Comparison: This is the third type of error in reasoning –when you assume that two things are

more alike than they really are. For instance read the following argument:

 

In our village we leave our doors unlocked all the time, so I don’t think its necessary for you in the city to have locks on your front door. To judge whether or not the above statement is a false comparison consider if the two situations are alike. The two situations are not alike-one is in a city where there may be a lack of security.

38

Exercise: Decide which one of the following statements contains an example of false comparison.

 

1. You’ll either have to work hard at the job or face the fact that you’ll be turned out.

2. It doesn’t hurt your colleagues getting to work on foot and it won’t hurt you either.

3. Of course, ban on pillion riding will work in Pakistan. It’s worked in other countries, hasn’t it?

39

(d) Either – or fallacy:

We often assume there are only two sides to a question. Offering only two choices when more actually exist is an either- or fallacy.

 

Consider the following example:

Those who oppose unrestricted speech are in reality in favor of censorship.

This statement ignores the fact that a person can believe in free speech and at the same time believe in laws that prohibit people from making false statements which damage another person’s reputation-i.e. slander. Now remember only some issues/problems have two sides. only- for instance you either pass the exam or you don’t but most issues/problems have several facets or

sides. 40

Exercise: Decide which one of the following statements contains an example of either-or fallacy.

 

1. The maid-servant went off duty early, and then the gold bracelet was discovered missing, so she must have stolen

it.

2. Eat your apple, or you won’t grow up strong, and healthy.

3. As I don’t use a ballpoint pen to write so it’s not necessary for you to use one either.

41

In today’s lesson we looked at different ways to develop effective reading and clear thinking – and these were: identifying purpose and tone and evaluating arguments. These were aimed at developing advanced, critical levels of comprehension. In the next lesson we shall look at an another way of developing comprehension.

Lesson -17

Reading: Cloze for Comprehension

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

So far the main reading activity that you have had practice in has been the usual reading comprehension. It required you to concentrate only on certain sections of the reading passage. In today's lesson you will be introduced to another procedure for developing reading comprehension, known as the CLOZE procedure.

 

What is this cloze procedure? A passage is selected from which words are deleted at regular intervals. You, the reader, have to fill in the missing words. Very easy, you will say. Well let’s see if it is all that easy. The deletion the learner concentrates on a wider proportion of the text. It also requires of words at regular intervals ensures that him / her to make inferences as well.

 

The deleted words usually comprise grammatical and lexical words and it is the student’s choice of words to fill in the gaps that reveals his / her understanding of the passage as well as grasp of the language.

The cloze has several points in its favour.

1. It encourages fluent reading.

2. It requires the reader to use a range of       reading skills to complete the task.

3. It is thought provoking as it trains the student to explore within a semantic field or area for related concepts

4.  It trains the reader to look carefully at all structural clues

Cloze thus helps in developing the habit of concentrated reading, of going beyond the immediate sentence for drawing meaning, in skimming to recap on what has been read and in scanning for unspecified information in order to predict.

 

The cloze is essentially a cognitive / mental task which requires the completion of meaning based on understanding and reason. It involves the reader in active interaction with the text to predict the missing word while making use of context clues. Once you have grasped the basic techniques you will begin to enjoy it as a guessing game - not wild guesses, but informed guesses. Look at the following passage quickly - the whole passage so that you get a rough idea of what it  is about.

Notice the first two sentences and the last sentence do not have any gaps. This is to help you understand the overall meaning of the passage.

-           Discuss the context of the passage.

-           Each gap stands for just ONE word                  that is missing.

-           Explain why certain words are   appropriate.

-           A word can only be accepted if it fits                 in the context without changing the                     meaning of the passage.

 

Ex: 1. A good education should, among other things, train you to think for yourself. The examination system does anything but that. What has to be learnt 1____ strictly laid down by 2 _____ syllabus, so the student 3____ ___ only what is prescribed. Examinations 4 ______ not motivate a student 5______ read widely; they 6_____ his reading. They do 7__ encourage him to seek 8______ knowledge; they narrow the 9______ of study.

They lower 10_____ standards of teaching, for 11______ deprive the teacher of 12_____ freedom. Teachers themselves are 13___ judged by examination  by results, 14_____ instead of teaching their 15,_____ they are reduce to 16____ their students in the 17______ of taking examinations which 18______ despise. The most successful 19_______ are not always the 20_____ educated. They are merely the best trained in the technique of working under stress and strain.

Answer:

Ex: 1. A good education should, among other things, train you to think for yourself. The

examination system does anything but that. What has to be learnt 1__ is__ strictly laid down by 2 ___the__ syllabus, so the student 3____does / learns___ only what is prescribed. Examinations 4 ___do___ not motivate a student 5___to___ read widely; they 6___restrict / curb__ his reading. They do 7__not__ encourage him to seek 8___further / more___ knowledge; they narrow the 9___field___ of study. They lower 10__the___ standards of teaching, for 11___they___ deprive the teacher of 12___all / his / her___ freedom. Teachers themselves are 13__often__ judged by examination by results, 14__so / and___ instead of teaching their 15,__subjects___ they are reduce to 16__training__ their students in the 17___art / technique___ of taking examinations which 18___they___ despise. The most successful 19__students___ are not always the 20__best___ educated. They are merely the best trained in the technique of working under stress and strain.

 

 

Ex : 2. Global warming is by no means a new phenomenon: it has been around since the creation of Planet Earth itself. At fist the process was beneficial: it brought Earth out of the ice ages into a time when humanity could survive on it. Now, however, it has become a problem.  1    ____ has happened in   2 _____ ways, the ‘runway’ 3 ______effect and ozone 4 _____depletion. This is 5 ____ the greenhouse effect 6 ______: ordinarily

energy from 7____ Sun reaches the 8 _____ and is reflected 9 _____ into space, but 10 ____ greenhouse gases forming layer around the planet, the reflection process cannot take place and the energy is trapped, heating up the atmosphere.

                                                            (Saifullah & Ismail)

Ex : 2. Global warming is by no means a new phenomenon: it has been around since

the creation of Planet Earth itself. At first the process was beneficial: it brought Earth out of the ice ages into a time when humanity could survive on it. Now, however, it has become a problem. 1 This

has happened in 2 two ways, the ‘runway’ 3 greenhouse effect and ozone 4 layer depletion. This is 5 how the greenhouse effect 6 works: ordinarily energy from 7 the Sun reaches the 8 Earth and is reflected 9 back into space, but 10 with greenhouse gases forming layer around the planet, the reflection process cannot take place and the energy is trapped, heating up the atmosphere.

(Saifullah & Ismail)

 

These were samples of regular, standard type of cloze where the gaps / blanks occur after a fixed number of words and these blanks may be filled with any word that is appropriate in terms of linguistic and contextual criteria. There are many variations of the standard cloze. Now I shall pace you through some alternative forms.

 

 

Ex : 3  Selected Deletion Cloze

Notice the blanks are not after a fixed number of words.

 

My dear children,

 

It’s hard to believe that I’ve been here for a month. The time passes so quickly and there’s so much to do. I’ve managed to see all the members of the family. I 1 ______as much time as I can with the children. Last week I 2 ____-Mark and Michelle to the circus. 3 ______never been before as they live quite far from the nearest city and their parents 4 _____ have time to drive them there. I 5 ________ that’s what grandmothers are for.At any 6 _____ Susan lent me her car - it’s a brand 7 _____ bright red Mini. We left early in the morning so as to make a day of 8 ____.

In the morning we 9 _____ to the zoo and in the afternoon to the circus.

As 10 _____can imagine, the children were very excited. They loved everything. Mark 11 _____ the wild animals the most exciting and Michelle is 12 _____ to be an acrobat when she grows 13______.

After we’d been there for about two hours we 14 ______ an announcement over the loudspeaker. The owner of the red Mini, number PUR 727V, 15 ______ requested to come to the manager’s office 16 _________. Naturally, I didn’t know the number of 17 ___________ car so I left the children and went to the manager’s office to 18 _____ out if it was our car.

The manager looked very upset and 19______________________. No one else had answered his call so I assumed correctly that it was Susan’s car. 20___________________that I’d left the lights on, or parked in 21 ________way, I wasn’t 22 ________concerned, but I didn’t know why the manager looked so disturbed. He began to 23 _________what happened and it took me some time to understand 24 ______confused explanation.

25 ____appears that the elephants are trained to sit on red boxes. One of the elephants 26 _____escaped and when he saw the 27 ______red car he promptly sat on 28______! As you can imagine the car looked a mess. One side was squashed 29 ________but it was still possible to drive. The manager assured 30 _____that the circus would pay for the 31________. He couldn’t have been more apologetic.

The children were very 32 _______ and giggled about the incident all the way home. 33 __________before we got there, we 34 _________the scene of a serious accident. About a mile 35 _______on a policeman stopped us and asked if we’d 36 _________involved in the accident. I wish I had a 37 _______of his face when I told him what had happened 38 ______the car.

I think he wanted to arrest me for drunken driving! Fortunately the 39 ______were there to back me up.40 ______are you managing without me? please don’t 41 ______to water my plants. I’m planning to leave here 42____ the end of the month.

My love to you all

                                                                          

Mom   

(Cloze in Class: Moller & Whiteson)

 

Answer:

Ex : 3  Selected Deletion Cloze

Notice the blanks are not after a fixed number of words.

 

My dear children,

 

It’s hard to believe that I’ve been here for a month. The time passes so quickly and there’s so much to do. I’ve managed to see all the members of the family. I 1 spend  as much time as I can With the children. Last week I 2 took Mark and Michelle to the circus. 3 They’d never been to one before as they live quite far from the nearest city and their parents 4 never have time to drive them there. I 5 suppose / think that’s what grandmothers are for.

At any 6 rate Susan lent me her car - it’s a brand 7 new bright red Mini. We left early in the morning so as to make a day of 8 it.

In the morning we 9 went to the zoo and in the afternoon to the circus.

As 10 you can imagine, the children were very excited. They loved everything. Mark 11 found the wild animals the most exciting and Michelle is 12 going to be an acrobat when she grows 13 up.

After we’d been there for about two hours we 14 heard an announcement over the loudspeaker. The owner of the red Mini, number PUR 727V, 15 was requested to come to the manager’s office 16 immediately. Naturally, I didn’t know the number of 17 the / Susan’s car so I left the children and went to the manager’s office to 18 find out if it was our car.

The manager looked very upset and 19 embarrassed / disturbed. No one else had answered his call so I assumed correctly that it was Susan’s car. 20 Imagining / Thinking / Fearing / Assuming that I’d left the lights on, or parked in 21 someone’s way, I wasn’t 22 too / very concerned, but I didn’t know why the manager looked so disturbed. He began to 23 explain what happened and it took me some time to understand 24 his confused explanation.

25 It appears that the elephants are trained to sit on red boxes. One of the elephants 26 had escaped and when he saw the 27 little red car he promptly sat on 28 it! As you can imagine the car looked a mess. One side was squashed 29 badly / flat  but it was still possible to drive. The manager assured 30 me that the circus would pay for the 31 damage. He couldn’t have been more apologetic.

The children were very 32 amused and giggled about the incident all the way home. 33 Just / But before we got there, we 34 passed the scene of a serious accident. About a mile 35 further on a policeman stopped us and asked if we’d 36 been involved in the accident. I wish I had a 37 picture of his face when I told him what had happened 38 to the car.

I think he wanted to arrest me for drunken driving! Fortunately the 39 children were there to back me up.

40 How are you managing without me? please don’t 41 forget to water my plants. I’m planning to leave here 42 at the end of the month.

My love to you all.

                                                                          

Mom.  

 

Ex : 4. Multiple Choice Cloze

Here words are provided and you have to choose and write in each blank the word you think belongs there.

Over population is one of the most serious problems facing the world today. The world’s exploding population -----------------,   even more growing pains --------------- for already crowded areas. ---------------new United Nations study -------------   that by the year-----   

five billion persons will -----------------added to the 6.5 ________in the world today. ------------------more troubling than the-----------------number of inhabitants are ---------------estimate of where they will be concentrated.                                                                                                    (Advanced Reading Skills)

aaaOAver population is one of the most serious p

Over population is one of the most serious problems facing the world today. The world’s exploding population experiences, signals, predicts, even more growing pains before, now, ahead for already crowded areas. The, Some,A new United Nations study signals, forecasts, tells that by the year 2000, 2001, 2015 five billion persons will have, be, not be added to the 6.5 billion, million, thousand in the world today. Even, Far, No more troubling than the big, small, increasing number of inhabitants is

an, the, estimate of where they will be Concentrated.

(Advanced Reading Skills)

Markstein & Hirasawa

The world’s exploding population

Ex : 5. Inflectional Cloze

Here the inflectional endings of words are deleted. E.g. plural endings of nouns, past form of regular verbs, etc…This type of cloze is good for practicing grammar in a connected passage. e.g.

37

If there were a perfect robot, what would it be like? Imagine a ______able to wax the_____, wash the_____, and iron the _____,not to mention the fact that it would be able to entertain, learn, and perform several other____. What a timesaver a self-ambulatory robot would be. Who wouldn’t want to sit back and relax while a robot did the house chores?

aANIf there were a perfect robot, what would it be like? Imagine a machine able to If

If there were a perfect robot, what would it be like? Imagine a machine able to wax the car, wash the dishes and iron the clothes, not to mention the fact that it would be able to entertain, learn, and perform several other jobs. What a timesaver a self-ambulatory robot would be. Who wouldn’t want to sit back and relax while a robot did the house chores?

ere were a perfect robot, what would

If I were to design my own robot it would need to do more than just the everyday house _____like making the ____ and dusting the ____. First of all, it would need to be intellectual. It would need to be able to reason, understand, and carry out other _____ of mental activity, such as helping me complete difficult math _____ or proofreading my English ______ for grammatical or spelling _____. Intellect would be the key quality of my personalized robot.

 

Ex : 6. Cloze with Phrases

 

This type requires phrases instead of single words to fill in the blanks which occur at random. This is a more difficult exercise and is used in the development of creativity in language use.

In the following passage there are blanks which may be filled with a word or a phrase. Insert the word or phrase that makes sense according to the meaning of the passage.

 

Oliver is a film about an orphan 1 _____ . The story  2 _______ Charles Dickens, the famous novelist. It  3 ________ in England during the 4__________. Oliver, 5________ escapes from a workhouse and  6_________ London.  7__________ he meets the villian, Bill Sykes, and Nancy, his girl friend, the pickpocket, artful Dodger, and Fagin, the old beggar.

8___________, the beggar and the pickpocket teach him 9_________ to survive, but then the police. 10________ The judge lets him 11____________ with his uncle, Mr. Brownlow, a 12__________ man. 13___________ Bill sykes is killed, and Oliver goes to 14_____________ happily 15___________ uncle. It’s such an 16_________ and 17__________ story about a boy’s 18___________ for 19________ that nobody should 20______.

 

Ex :     7          Cloze without Blanks

 

This is an advanced level exercise. Here a word is omitted from each line / sentence without a blank marked on the page.  You are required to first mark the place where you think the word has been omitted with a stroke (/), and then write the word that has been omitted in the right hand margin. The first two have been done for you. I can give you a clue - there are ten insertions to be made.

 

A robot is a machine designed to do tasks usually / by people.  …done...

Robots already do / jobs. They   …many... weld parts and spray paint in car   …...

factories. They do dangerous  work  1…... as handling explosives. Some even  …...

in space and under the ocean.           2…...hard working machines usually      3…...

don’t have human shapes. If  I            …... were to design my own robot             …...

it would need to do than just 4 …...household chores. My robot will be   …...

a masterpiece, to perform almost      5 …...any task with agile precision.  It will …...

be able to solve tough problems a      6…..matter of seconds that would     …...

normally human beings hours to   7…... complete. It will use intelligence and …...

agility to perform numerous tasks.     …...My robot will be maid, my business   8…...

partner and my library rolled into       9…...unique  machine. There is but  10….

problem. How many decades until     …...this ideal robot is actually built?         …...

Lesson -18

Reading: Skimming and Scanning

 

 

In today’s lesson we will be looking at  a reading text which will talk about primary and secondary memory in a computer.  We are  following the same pattern as established earlier. You are required to listen carefully as I read the text and then together we will do the exercises that follow the reading passage.

 

Primary and Secondary memory

[1] The term ‘memory’ is usually used to refer to the internal storage locations of a computer. It is also called real storage or primary memory, and is expressed as quantities of K. For example, computers are advertised as having memories of 16K or 152k, depending on their storage capacity. Each k is equal to 1,024 bytes, and each byte is equal to 8 bits.

 

[2] Primary memory is closely associated with the CPU because it stores programs and data temporarily, thus making them immediately available for processing by the CPU. To facilitate processing, two things are needed: random access and speed. The former means that any part of the memory may be read, or  accessed, equally quickly. This is made possible by the system of addresses in primary memory, where the storage locations are like a series of tiny compartments, each having its own address.

 

These addresses are like the addresses of houses, in that they do not change. Because they are always fixed, the control unit knows where to find them at a very high speed. When it finds them, it puts into the compartments whatever must go there and wipes out whatever was stored there. The information present in these compartments is called the contents of the memory.

 

[3] Most primary memory is costly, and therefore it is used transiently, which means that a program, or parts of it, is kept in internal storage while the program is being executed. This, however, is not true for mini and micro applications where the computer performs the same function, referred to as a dedicated function, all the time. But since computers must process vast quantities of data and programs, a lot of storage space is required. For this reason various secondary memory technologies have been developed.

 

[4] Secondary memory devices fall into two categories: sequential devices and random-access devices. Sequential devices permit information to be written onto or read off some storage medium in a fixed sequence only. In order to get at a particular data item, it is necessary to pass over all the data preceding it. An example of such a device is the magnetic tape. It’s cost is low, but access to specified data may take a considerable length of time.

 

On the other hand, random-access devices are designed to permit direct, or almost direct, access to specified data. These devices bypass large quantities of irrelevant data and therefore reduce access time considerably. An example of this technology is the magnetic disk, which is faster than the magnetic tape and also more expensive.

When disks are hooked up to the computer and used as an extension of internal storage in order to increase the capacity of primary memory, this is called virtual storage. For example, a computer with 256K bytes of real storage may seem to have 512K bytes of virtual storage by using disks to provide additional storage.

 

1 Main idea :

 

Which statement best expresses the main idea of the text? Why did you eliminate the other choices?

1. There are two types of memory: primary and secondary.

2. Primary memory is more important than secondary memory.

3. Secondary memory devices are unimportant in a computer system.

Answer Slide

Main idea of the passages

The text mentions that primary memory is very costly.

It doesn’t state that it is more important than

secondary memory, neither does it state that the later is

unimportant in a computer system.

secondary memory, neither does it stat

2 Understanding the passage:

 

Indicate whether the following ideas were stated or not stated (S/NS) in the text.

     S     NS

                       

1. The term ‘memory’ can be expressed in other ways.S

                       

2. Computers are often advertised according to their memory                            capacity.S SS

 

 

                        3. The CPU can easily access information from internal storage.S

 

4. Minicomputers and microcomputers have a similar memory                           capacity.NS

 

5. The control unit needs to know the location where information is                    stored or needs to be stored.NS NS

 

           

            6. Primary memory is more expensive than secondary memory.S

 

7. There are two types of secondary memory device.S

                       

8. Information stored on magnetic disk can be retrieved faster than if that same information were on tape.S S

                       

9. Disks and tapes can be stored in a library.NS

 

           

            10. Computers can process information even if complete programs        are not put in internal storage.NS

 

3 Locating Information

Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expressed. Give the paragraph  reference.

……….1. Speed and random access are important in processing information.

……….2. Random-access devices are more efficient than sequential devices.

……….3. The CPU and primary memory  work closely together.

 

……….4. Virtual storage increases the memory capacity of a computer.

……….5. Real storage, internal storage, and primary memory are all the same

……….6. Information is stored in memory in compartments with a specific location.

……….7. There are two classes of secondary memory device.

……….8. Only parts of programs are kept in primary storage while a program is being run through.

Answer:

3 Locating Information

Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expressed. Give the paragraph  reference.

…Para 2…….1. Speed and random access are important in processing information.

… Para 4…….2. Random-access devices are more efficient than sequential devices.

… Para 2…….3. The CPU and primary memory  work closely together.

 

… Para 4…….4. Virtual storage increases the memory capacity of a computer.

… Para 1…….5. Real storage, internal storage, and primary memory are all the same

… Para 2…….6. Information is stored in memory in compartments with a specific location.

… Para 4…….7. There are two classes of secondary memory device.

… Para 3…….8. Only parts of programs are kept in primary storage while a program is being run through.

 
 
4 Contextual reference

Look back at the text and find out what the words in bold typeface refer to.

1. It is also called         ………...

2. depending on their   ………...  storage capacity

3. Thus making them     ………...

4. The former means that ………..

5. where the storage ………..  locations

6. each having its own ………  address

7. in that they do not ……... change

8. where to find them ……….

9. whatever must go there ……….

10. or parts of it ……….

 

Answer:

Contextual reference

Look back at the text and find out what the words in bold typeface refer to.

1. It is also called                             (p.1)… memory

……...

2. depending on their                       (p.1)… Memories computers

storage capacity

 

3. Thus making them                        (p.2)… Memories computers

 

4. The former means that                 (p.2)… Random access

 

5. where the storage                          (p.2)… Primary memory

locations

 

6. each having its own                         (p.2)… Compartment……

Address

 

7. in that they do not                            (p.2)… Address of houses…...

Change

 

8. where to find them                           ( p.2)… Addresses…….

 

9. whatever must go there                   (p.2)…… Compartments….

 

10. or parts of it                                     (p.3)…… Program….

 

5 Understanding words

Refer back to the text and find synonyms for the following words.

1. represented              ………...

2. erases                                   ………...

3. carried out                ………...

4. before                                  ………...

5. very much                 ………...

Answer:

5          Understanding words

Refer back to the text and find synonyms for the following words:

1.         represented                  (p.1)… Expressed

2.         erases                           (p.2)… Wipes out

3.         carried out                    (p.3)… Executed

4.         before                          (p.4)… Preceding

5.         very much                     (p.4)… Considerably

 

Now refer back to the text and find antonyms for the following words.

6.         latter                 ………...

7.         disallow                        ………...

8.         unnecessary                  ………...

9.         go through                    ………...

10.       imaginary                      ………...

 

Answer:

Now refer back to the text and find antonyms for the following words.

6.         latter                              … former

7.         disallow                        …… permit

8.         unnecessary                  …… required

9.         go through                    … bypass

 

10.       imaginary                      ……real…...

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6 Word forms

First choose the appropriate form of the words to complete the sentences. Then check the differences of meaning in your dictionary.

1. expression, expressive, express, expressed

a. Information sent via a computer is      faster than using the… ……….system of airlines or postal services.

 

b. An……….such as ‘He or she has a computer of a brain’ means that he or she is a fast-thinking person.

c. Computers understand commands ………in the form of  0 and 1.

 

2. equality, equal, equally, equalize

 

a. The symbol # means that two things are not……………… .

 

b. A microcomputer doesn’t…………….a minicomputer in flexibility.

c. The two computer languages Pascal and PL1 are…………….difficult.

 

3. consideration, consider, considerable, considerably

 

a.There is a………….difference between written and spoken English.

b. It is important to………….the          capabilities and limitations of a computer before buying     one.

c.       New printers can print results…...…….faster than previously.

 

4. design, designed, designation, designer, designing

 

a. Due to the advances in computer  technology, computer………..are faced with a more challenging job.          

b. Computers are…………to process information accurately and quickly.

c. Computer architects are constantly trying to improve on the…………..of      computers.

 

5. advertisement, advertise, advertised

 

a. There are many computer-related jobs…………..in The New York Times.  

b. The Computers Center will soon………..for more operators and programmers.

c. Career opportunities in computer science and related fields can usually be found in the………….section of    newspapers. 

 

Answer:

6 Word forms

First choose the appropriate form of the words to complete the sentences. Then check the differences of meaning in your dictionary.

1. expression, expressive, express, expressed

a. Information sent via a computer is      faster than using the… express……….system of airlines or postal services.

 

b. An… expression……….such as ‘He or she has a computer of a brain’ means that he or she is a fast-thinking person.

c. Computers understand          commands… expressed………in the form of  0 and 1.

 

2. equality, equal, equally, equalize

 

a. The symbol # means that two things are not……equal………… .

 

b. A microcomputer doesn’t…equal……….a minicomputer in flexibility.

c. The two computer languages Pascal and PL1 are…equally………….difficult.

 

3. consideration, consider, considerable, considerably

 

a.There is a…considerable……….difference between written and spoken English.

b. It is important toconsider……….the        capabilities and limitations of a computer before buying     one.

c.       New printers can print results…considerably...…….faster than previously.

 

4. design, designed, designation, designer, designing

 

a. Due to the advances in computer  technology, computer…designers……..are faced with a more challenging job.      

b. Computers are…designed………to process           information accurately and quickly.

c. Computer architects are constantly trying to improve on the…designe………..of computers.

 

5. advertisement, advertise, advertised

 

a. There are many computer-related jobs…advetised………..in The New York Times.          

b. The Computers Center will soon… advetise ……..for more operators and programmers.

c. Career opportunities in computer science and related fields can usually be found in the…advetisment……….section of newspapers. 

 

 

7 Content review

Match the words in column A with the words or statements in column B.

A                                                      B

d    1. internal storage                         a. means any part of memory can be read equally                        quickly

 

            f    2. real storage                                 b. the information contained in the storage  

                                                                           locations

 

                        a   3. random access                          c. are  storage locations in internal storage

 

           

 c   4. addresses                                d. refers to memory contained in the storage  

                                                           locations

 

            b    5. Contents                       e. hooking up secondary memory devices onto                                                                               memory to increase their capacity

 

            g   6.sequential access                      f. sometimes called primary memory

 

            e     7. Virtual storage                     g. information must be read from secondary               

                                                                     memory   devices in a fixed pattern

8 Focus review

 

We learnt in earlier lesson how to use examples to explain a point or to illustrate an idea in a given text. It is important to learn to differentiate between the idea and the illustration of the idea with examples. Writers often say explicitly which things are examples by using connectives like for example, such as, etc...

Complete the following table by referring back to the text on ‘Primary and Secondary Memory’, and locating connectives used for illustrations and examples.

 

 

 

 

Para     Items(s) to be     Example Marker           Example

            Exemplified

 

[1]        quantities of K        For example    Memories of16k or 152k

 

 

[4]a.Sequential devices  an example           Magnetic tape

 

 

[4]b.   Random access an example          

         devices                                               Magnetic disk                                                                   

 

 

[4]c.     virtual storage   for example           256k of  real storage may be seen or have  512k   

 

 

9. Adding Information.
9. Adding Information.

There are many reasons why people read ,but in an academic setting , reading is primarily done to get information on a particular subject .It is important for the reader to understand the relationship between the information given and the information which preceded it .Often information is presented in such a way as to suggest a REINFORCEMENT of what has been said ,or to show a SIMILARITY to what has been said before.

 T 9. Adding Information.

When writers give explanations about something ,they usually offer examples to support there argument in favor of a particular viewpoint.They may choose to present the information

DEDUCTIVELY, in which case a generalization is given first and then examples are given in support of the general statement or principle .Other prefer to provide examples first ,and then

make the generalization .This form of presentation is INDUCTIVE.

 There are many reasons why people read ,

Reinforcement (e.g )
1. In addition to their speed ,computers are accurate and can do repetitive operations over and over again without becoming tired or bored .
2. Microcomputers are cheaper than mainframes , as well as being compact and portable .
Similarity (e.g)
1. Microcomputers  can have a storage capacity of up to 32k, likewise minicomputers .
2.Many minicomputers are used merely for a fixed application and run only a single  program . Microcomputers operate in much the same way as is the case in automobile emission control systems.

 


Lesson -19

Reading: Scanning and Language Functions

 

In today’s lesson you are going to read about types of memory to be found in a computer. We will follow the usual pattern of reading followed by comprehension exercises, scanning

for information vocabulary exercise and content review exercises. This will be followed by exercises on how language functions operate in English.

 

Types of memory

 

(1) As mentioned previously, one of the most important characteristics of a computer is its capability of storing information in its memory long enough to process it. Not all computers have the same type of memory. In this section, three types of memory will be discussed: core memory, semiconductor memory (or chip), and bubble memory.

 

[2]        The memory of the first computers was made up of a kind of grid of fine vertical and horizontal wires. At each intersection where the wires crossed, there was a small ferrite ring called a core (hence the name ‘core memory’) which was capable of being either magnetized or demagnetized. Every intersection had its unique address; consequently, when an electrical current was passed through the wires, the magnetized as well as the unmagnetized cores were identified by their respective addresses.

 

(2a].Each core represented a binary digit of either 0 or 1, depending on its state. Early computers had a capacity of around 80,000 bits; whereas now, it is not surprising to hear about computers with a memory capacity of millions of bits. This has been made possible by the advent of transistors and by the advances in the manufacture of miniaturized circuitry. As a result, mainframes have been reduced in both size and cost. Throughout the 1950s, 1960s and up to the mid-1970s, core memory dominated the market.

[3]        In the 1970s, there was a further development which revolutionized the computer field. This was the ability to etch thousands of integrated circuits onto a tiny piece (chip) of silicon, which is a non-metallic element with semiconductor characteristics. Chips have thousands of identical circuits, each one capable of storing one bit because of the very small size of the chip, and consequently of the circuits etched on it, faster.

 

[3a].Moreover, the size of the components containing the circuitry can be considerably reduced, a step which has led to the introduction of both minis and micros. As a result, computers have become smaller, faster, and cheaper. There is one problem with semiconductor memory, however: when power is removed, information in the memory is lost-unlike core memory, which is capable of retaining information during a power failure.

 

4] Another development in the field of computer memories is bubble memory. The concept consists of creating a thin film of metallic alloys over the memory board. When this film is magnetized, it produces magnetic bubbles, the presence or absence of which represents one bit of information. These bubbles are extremely tiny, about 0.1 micrometer in diameter.

 

[4a].Therefore, a magnetic bubble memory can store information at a greater density than existing memories, which makes it suitable for micros. Bubble memories are not expensive, consume little power, are small in size, and are highly reliable. There is probably a lot more to learn about them, and research in this field continues.

 

 

Main idea:1

 

Which statements do not express the main idea of the text?

 

1. Core memory was the first type of  computer memory developed.

2. There are at least three different kinds of memory used in computers.

3. Bubble memory is the latest development in computer memory.

2 Understanding the passage:

Decide whether the following statements are true or false (T/F) by referring to the information in the text. Then make the necessary changes so that the false statements become true.

T          F

1. The most important function of a computer is to hold  information in its memory in order to process it. ttTttt

                            t

2. Minicomputers, microcomputers, and mainframes all have the same kind of memory. ttttt

 

                        t

3. Semiconductor memory was developed before core memory and after bubble memory.  

 

                               f 

4. Core memory uses small metal rings which can be magnetized or unmagnetized.

                           t

                        5. The state of the core can be represented by either 0 or 1.

                                t

6. Early computer memories had less storage capacity than newer ones.

                              t

            7. A transistor and a chip are the same kind of device.  ffF

 ff         fff

                     fff    ffff

 

8. The development of chips make it possible for minicomputers and microcomputers

 to be invented.           ttt

                                        t

                        9. Bubble memory is smaller than a chip.   

 

                               t   

            10. Bubble memory doesn’t have very many advantages.f

3 Locating information

 

Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expressed. Give the line references.

…p1……….1. First there is core memory.

…p3……….2. Further to this development, chips evolved.

……p1…….3. There are three types of  memory board.

……p3…….4. This consists of producing a thin film over a memory board.

……p4…….5. Then semiconductor memory  was developed.

 

…p4……….6. There is still a lot to learn about this process.

……p2…….7. This is made up of thin wires and rings.

……p4…….8. Finally, bubble memory was invented.

4 Contextual reference

 

Look back at the text and find out what the words in bold typeface refer to.

1. Long enough to process it     (1.3)……….

2. where the wires crossed       (1.7)……….

3. which was capable of being  (1.9)……….

4. By their receptive addresses            (1.12)……...

5. This has been made possible            (1.6)………

6. which revolutionized the computer field (1.21)……….

7. each one capable of storing one bit  (1.25)……….

8. of the circuits etched on it     (1.26)……….

9. it produces magnetic bubbles            (1.37)……...

10. of which represents one bit (1.38)……….

5 Understanding words

Refer back to the text and find synonyms for the following words.

1.said                           (1.1)…………mentioned...

2.own                           (1.2)…………...respective…

3.progress                    (1.17)…………...advances….

4.keeping                     (1.33)…………...retainings….

5.appropriate                (1.42)…………...suitabble…..

Now refer back to the text and find antonyms for the following words.

6.         neither … nor   (1.1)…………...either  or…..

7.         bypassed                      (1.2)…………...passed through……

8.         increased                      (1.17)…………...reduced…..

9.         Not producing  (1.33)…………...creating…..

10.       don’t use up                 (1.42)…………...consume…

6.Words forms

First choose the appropriate form of the words to complete the sentences. Then check the differences of meaning in your dictionary.

1. alteration, alter, altered

 

a.When a program doesn’t work properly, it is often necessary to make…alteration…..to it.

 

b.The omission of data from a program can……alter…….its results drastically.

 

c. The use of the computer in business has……altered…..the workload of many people.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. electricity, electric, electrical, electrically

a.A lot of……electricity…….is needed to operate large computer systems.

b. Alexander Graham Bell invented the……electric………light bulb.

c.Many students today are studying to become…electrial…………engineers.

 

3. reduction, reduce, reduced

 

a.The introduction of the computer in the workplace has…reduced………..the workload of many people.

b. There will probably be a great………reduction…….in the consumption of oil in the next decade due to the use of computer technology.

4. creation, create, created, creative

 

a.A programmer usually has a…crrative……….as well as a logical mind.

 

b.It takes a lot of inspiration and hard work to come up with a new……creation…….in computer technology.

 

c.         Computers have certainly ………created…….few opportunities for fraud. 

 

7.Content review

 

Use the information in the text on ‘Types of Memory’ to complete the table.

 

Type   Developed        Size      Composition     Memory Capacity

 

 

1.                                 Large                           80,000 bits

 

 

2.                                             Integrated

                                                circuits on

                                                non-metallic

                                                element

 

3.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8. Focus review

 

Focus G           Time sequence

Complete the following table by referring back to the text on ‘Types of Memory’.

 

 

 

Para     Time Sequence Marker            Information

 

[2]        The computer                           had memories up of a kind of

                                                            grid of fine vertical and

horizontal wires

 

[2]        computers                                had a capacity of around                                                                                                           80,000 bits

 

[2]        whereas                                    it is not surprising to hear                                                                                                           about computers with a

memory capacity of millions                                          of  bits

 

[2]                                                        core memory dominated the

                                                            market

 

[3]                                                        there was further

development which                                                       revolutionized computer field

 

Focus I Adding information:

 

Complete the following sentences by referring back to the text on ‘Types of Memory’.

1. In the 1970s there was a ………further…………. development which revolutionized the computer field. (Para. 3)

2. ……moreover……………., the size of the components containing the circuitry can be considerably reduced… (Para. 3)

3. …………another……….development in the field of computer memories is bubble memory. (Para. 4)

FOCUS J 

Giving an explanation or a definition 

In texts similar to those in this book, authors often give definitions to new or unfamiliar terms, or vocabulary items and concepts, or ideas specific to the subject being discussed. Not only are definitions given, but explanations are often supplied, either implicitly or explicitly, to avoid confusion in the mind of the reader.

 

1. Some expressions or markers used to define or explain a statement explicitly are:

            means             by … we mean*

            is taken to be  by … is meant*

            denotes                       in other words

            refers to                      that is (to say)*

            is defined as

            * occurs in initial position

                                   

Examples

1.         The term computer refers to the processor plus the internal memory.

2.         A chip is defined as a tiny square piece of silicon upon which several layers of an           integrated circuit are etched or imprinted, after           which the circuit is encapsulated in 

          plastic, ceramic, or metal.

3.         By peripherals we mean those devices which are attached to the computer.

 

2. There are other methods used to define or explain, depending on the style used. One very common method is to give the term being defined and say what it is without repeating the term, i.e. X is/are Y.

Examples

  1. 1.      A computer is an electronic device.
  2. 2.      Tapes and disks are memory devices.
  3. Printers are output devices.

 

3. Another very common method is to use the same pattern as in 2 above and also give some distinguishing characteristics.

Examples

  1. 1.      A computer is an electronic device which/that processes information.
  2. Tapes and disks are memory devices which/that can be stored away for future use.
  3. 3.      A programmer is a person who prepares programs to solve problems.

 

 

N.B.     The relative pronouns used in this type of definition will be who or that for people, when for a period of time, where for place or location, and that or which for things.

 

4.         One of the most frequent forms of definition or explanation is to use two nouns (or noun phrases) in apposition, separated by commas.

 

Examples

1.         Computers, electronic devices for processing information, are now used in practically every aspect of life.

2.         Systems software, programs, direct the computer to perform tasks.

3.         Turnkey systems, complete hardware/software products, may be provided along with the hardware by a systems supplier.

 

Exercise 1

Study the following definitions. A definition usually includes all three parts: the term to be defined, the group it belongs to, and the characteristics which distinguish it form other members of the group.

 

   TERM                       GROUP                       CHARACTERISTICS

 

    A core                      is a ferrite ring               which is capable of being

either magnetized or                                                      demagnetized

 

     Silicon                     is a nonmetallic             with semiconductor

                        element             characteristics

 

 

 

 

 

Now analyse the following definitions and identify the different parts by highlighting the term; by underlining the group once, and by underlining the characteristics twice.

 

1. A computer is a machine with an intricate network of electronic circuits that operate switches or magnetize tiny metal cores.

 

2. An abacus is a bead frame in which the beads are moved form left to right

 

3. Input is the information presented to the computer.

 

4. The term ‘comupter’ includes those parts of hardware in which calculations and other data manipulations  are performed, and he high-speed interval memory in which data and calculations are stored during actual executions of programs.  

 

 

5. A ‘system’ is a good mixture of integrated parts working together to form a useful whole.

 

 

 

6. Large computer systems, or mainframes, as they are referred to in the field of computer science, are those computer systems fund in computer installations processing immense amounts of data. 

 

7. Although there is no exact definition for a minicomputer, it is generally understood to refer to a to a computer whose mainframe is physically small, has a fixed word length between 8 and 32 bits, and costs less than $100,00 for the central processor.

 

          In today’s lesson  we read about types  of memory to be found in a computer. We did comprehension exercises, scanning  for information vocabulary exercise and content  review exercises and we finally looked at how language functions operate in English.

 

With this we come to the end of the lesson.

 

Lesson -20

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reading: Classifying, Cause and Effect Relationship

 

In today’s lesson you are going to read about Steps in Problem Solving.  We will follow the usual pattern of reading  followed by comprehension exercises, scanning  for information vocabulary exercise and content review exercises. This will be followed by exploring the Cause Effect Relationship between  texts  and working with  language for Classifying in English.

 

Steps in Problem Solving :

Can a computer solve problems? Definitely not. It is a machine that carries out the procedures which the programmer gives it. It is the programmer then who solves the problems. There are a few steps that one has to follow in problem solving:

Step 1. The programmer must define the problem clearly. This means that he or she ha to determine, in a general way, how to solve the problem. Some problems are easy, while others take months of study. The programmer should always start by asking: ‘Do I understand the problem’.

Step 2. The programmer must formulate on algorithm, which is a straightforward sequence of steps of instructions used to solve the problem. Constructing an algorithm is the most important part of problem solving and is usually time-consuming. An algorithm can be described by a flowchart, which may be stated in terms of a sequence of precise sentences, or a block diagram. The latter is a diagrammatic representation of the sequence of events to be followed in solving the problem. The relationship between the events is shown by means of a connecting arrow. A block diagram can show if a process has to be repeated or if there are alternative routes to be taken.

 

Step 3. The programmer must translate the algorithm or flowchart into a computer program. To do so, he or she writes detailed instructions for the computer, using one of the many computer languages available following the exact sequence of the flowchart algorithm. The program is usually written on coding sheets which have a specific format drawn on them.

 

Step 4. The programmer must then keypunch the program, or give the coding sheets to the keypunch Operator to do it. The program is either punched on cards or entered into the computer at a terminal with a visual display unit.

 

Step 5. The program must then be tested. To do so, the computer operator puts the deck of cards in the card reader and presses the ‘read’ button. This transfers the information to the memory of the computer. Next, a printout shows if the program works or if it has errors (called bugs). If the programmer is using a terminal instead of cards to enter the instructions it is possible, with the aid of a few commands, to store the program in the memory of the computer and get a printout.

Step 6. The last step is to add the data to the program and run the job completely. The computer will then perform the calculations necessary to solve the problem. It will follow the instructions in the program to the minutest details. Therefore, one can say that the computer is a robot. It doesn’t think, but simply does what it is told.

Exercises

1. Main idea

Which statement best express the main idea of the text? Why did you eliminate the other choices?

            1.         Constructing an algorithm is the basic step in solving a problem.

           

2.         Solving problems becomes easier if certain steps are followed.

           

  1. The computer does what the programmer tells it to do.

 

2. Understanding the passage

Decide whether the following statements are true or false (T/F) by referring to the information in the text. Then make the necessary changes so that the false statements become true. 

1.  The computer is a great help to people because it solves there problems.f

2.   All problems are equally difficult to solve.f

3.   An algorithm is a sequences of instructions used to solve a problem.t

4. The most important part of problem-solving is defining the problem clearly.f

5. Block diagrams cannot show relationships.f

6. Coding sheets are used for writing programs.t

7. Punched cards are the only way of transferring the program to the computer memory.f

8. If the data is not added to the program, the computer cannot perform calculations.t

9. It is a good idea to test the program before adding the data. t            

10. A computer is very intelligent. It is capable of thinking.f

3. Locating Information

Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expressed. Give the paragraph references.

…p4….. 1.      Programs are usually written on certain lined forms.

…p3……2.     A block diagram can show a decisions with two different outcomes.

…p1……3.     The programmer is the one who solves the problems.

 

…p6……4.     Even if the programmer is using a terminal instead of cards, it is possible             to get permanent copy of his program.

 

…p2……5.     Not all problems are of the same level of difficulty.

4.      Contextual Reference

 

Look back at the text and find out what the words in bold typeface refer to.

 

1. It is a machine                      (l.1)……computer………..

2. which the programmer give it            (l.2)………procedure…..….

3. who solves the problems       (l.3)…………programmer.…..

4. which may be stated             (l.14)………flow chart…….

5. The latter is a diagrammatic representation   (l.15)……blocked diagram…….…

6. operate to do it                    (l.27)………key punch the programme…….

 

7. This transfers the information            (l.32)……reading cards through card readers……….

8. or if it has errors                   (l.33)…………program….

9. It will follow the instructions  (l.40)………computer…….

10. does what it is told                         (l.42)………computer…….

5.Understanding Words

 

Refer back to the text and find synonyms for the following words.

 

1. construct                  (l.10)……formulate………………

2. takes a lot of time     (l.13)…………time consuming…………

3. exact                        (1.15)…………precise…………

4. mistakes                   (l.34) ………………bugs……

5. help                          (l.35)………………aids…….

Now refer back to the text and find antonyms for the following words.

6. ambiguously (l.5)………clearly…………..

7. specific                     (l.6)……general……………..

8. partially                    (l.39)………completely…………

6.Word forms

First choose the appropriate form of the words to complete the sentences. Then check the differences of meaning in your dictionary.

Procedure, proceed, proceeding

 

a) The machine carries out the……procedure…………………. which the programmer gives it.

b) You should …………………proceed……………. with care when using a calculator.

2. program, programmer, programmed, programming

 

a) I would like to ……program……………in COBOL.

 b) There were quite a few errors in my……………program…………..

c) My calculator is ……………programmed………. it plays a tune on the hour.

d) Fortran is one of the many ……………programming………… languages available on the market.

e) Computer…………programming……… is a new field of study at the university.                 

f) He is a good ……………programmer………… because he always constructs algorithm for his problems.

 

3. relationships, relate, related

a. The first two steps in your program are not ……related…………………. they are basically different.

b. In a flowchart the………relationship…………………between events is shown by means of connecting arrows.

c. Assembler is one example of a machine……………………………….

 

4. code, coding

a. Do you have any …coding……………………….. sheet left.

b. I have to ……………code……………. my program.

c. Assembler is one example of a machine……code…………………………..

5. printer, printing, print, printed

a. …………print……………… your name and address          in block letters.

b. ………………printing…………. was introduced by Gutenberg in Germany.

c. The quality of the …………printed…………….. output from a daisy wheel printer is superior to that from a dot matrix.

d. …………printers………………provided a hard copy of the results of data processing operations.

 

 

1. Special forms which are usually used for writing programs are called …coding sheets…………….

2. Another word for program errors is…………bugs…..

3. A number of steps used in solving a program is called an …algorthims………………..

4. A machine which is incapable of thinking but follows instructions is called a …robot…………..

5. A ……………flow chart…………… is either a group of exact sentences to solve a problem or a block diagram.

7a. Content  Review

Try to think of a definition for each of these items before checking them in the Glossary. Then complete the following statements with the appropriate words. Make sure you use the correct form, i.e. singular or plural.

 

 

            algorithm                      coding sheets                flowchart

            robot                            printout             bugs

 

 

7b. Control review

Solving a problem is a process involving various steps. Complete the following diagram to show the sequence of these  steps.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

           

 

 

8.Focus Review

Focus On:  Cause and effect/result

The following sentences were taken from the text on ‘Steps in Problem Solving’. While reading these sentences, underline the cause once, the effect/result twice, then circle the causal-effect/result marker.

1.         If the programmer is using a terminal instead of cards to enter his instructions, he can, with the aid of a few commands, store the program in the memory of the computer and get a printout.

2.         The computer will follow the instructions in the program to the minutest details. Therefore, one can say that the computer is a robot.

 

Classifying

The term ‘classification’ means to separate objects from one another. The simplest classification divides things into those that show groups of characteristics that are shared and those that are not. For example, one would not place fish and birds together in the same class with trees. Classification usually goes from general to specific and is essential in attempting to make sense out of things around us.

Classification, then, is a process of bringing order out of confusion by breaking down the general topic into its related parts in a logical way. Outlining is very closely related to classification, because it organizes information in a logical fashion, going from general to specific, or from least important to most important, or from specific to general.

 

 

1. From general to specific

There are several ways to expressing each of these relationships. By focusing on the large or high-level category and talking about its parts, that is, from general to specific, the following expressions can be used:

            is                                                          is made up of

            can be divided into                    is composed of

            is of                                          comprises

            has                                           consists of

            includes

A general to specific classification will usually have singular main verbs, unless two or more things are being analysed simultaneously.

 

 

Examples

  1. The CPU is divided into three parts: the control unit the arithmetic-logical unit, and memory.
  2. The CPU has three parts: the control unit, the arithmetic-logical unit, and memory.
  3. The CPU includes three parts: the control unit, the arithmetic-logical unit, and memory.
  4. The CPU is made up of three parts: the control unit, the arithmetic-logical unit, and memory.
  5. The CPU is composed of three parts: the control unit, the arithmetic-logical unit, and memory.
  6. The CPU consists of three parts: the control unit, the arithmetic-logical unit, and memory.

 

2.From specific to general

 

A specific  to general classification, what the smaller (or lower-level) components make when they are put together, usually has the following expressions:

            are…. of                      constitute

            make up                       may be

            form                             can be

A specific to general classification will have plural verbs, because two or more lower-level categories are the focus of classification.

Examples:

  1. The control unit, the arithmetic-logical unit, and memory are the three parts of the CPU.
  2. The control unit, the arithmetic-logical unit, and memory are the three parts that make up the CPU.
  3. The control unit, the arithmetic-logical unit, and memory are the three parts that form the CPU.                          
  4. The control unit, the arithmetic -logical unit and memory are the three parts that constitute the CPU.
  5. The control unit, the arithmetic-logical unit, and memory together are classified as the CPU.

N.B.     The active/passive pairs such as made up and make up are not interchangeable.

 

 

 

 

Example:

 

 

 

The CPU is made up of the control unit, the arithmetic-logical unit and memory (from general to specific).

Not: ‘The CPU makes up the control unit, the   arithmetic-logical unit, and memory.’

Not:     ‘The control unit, the arithmetic-logical unit, and memory are made up of the CPU.’

Finally, understanding classification is important for understanding and recognizing definitions.

 

A computer has four basic components: input, processor, memory, and output. The CPU consists of two parts: the …………control unit…………. which directs and controls the signals and commands inside the processor, and the ………arthimetic-logical…………...  unit which does the arithmetic operations and the decision-making operations. While the …control unit………….….……is made up of a ………register…….……., a ………decoder…………., a……counter………………. and a…………clock……………, the …ALU………………….. is composed of ……registers………….., a………binary adders…………. and …circuitry……………..,

which compares information and  makes decision based on the results of the comparisons.

In a computer, internal memory or ……primary memory……………… refers to the storage location inside the computer, whereas………secondary memory……………. refers to the storage embodied in the peripherals…………core……….. can be divided into three types:……chip……………………., ………………… and ………bubble………… on the other hand may be grouped as ……secondary memory…………  (………………) or ……sequential…………….. (…………….).

The …………tape ……………. devices can be either a ………random access………., a …………disk………, a……input………. or a …card reader………………..These devices enter the information into the computer. After the processor has operated on it, the …tape drive…………………. devices display the results of the computations on either a ……………disk drive……… or a ……terminal……………….., or store them on tape or disk for future use.

 
These devices enter the information into the computer. After the processor has operated on it, the ……………output………. devices display the results of the computations on either a ………printer…………… or a …terminal……………………….., or store them on tape or disk for future use.
Exercise 2

Using the diagram below, complete the paragraph that follows.

 

                                            A computer system

                                                CPU

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A computer has four basic Components: input, processor, memory, and output. The CPU consists of two parts: the _____________which directs and controls the signals and commands inside the processor, and the________ unit which does the arithmetic operations and the decision making operations. While the _____is made up of a _____ a_________, a ________, and a ____________,the__________ is composed of __________, a _______and________, which compares information and makes decisions based on the results of the comparisons.

In a Computer internal memory or _______ refers to the storage locations inside the computer, whereas ______refers to the storage embodied in the peripherals __________ can be divided into three types: ____________ , ______________ and_______________ .

_______ on the other hand may be grouped as _____________  ( _______)     or _______ ( ________ ).

The __________ devices can be either a _________, a ______, a _______ or a ______________.

 

These Devices enter in information into the computer. After the processor has operated on it, the ______ devices display the results of the computations on either a ______ or a __________, or store them on tape or disk for future use.

Answer:

A computer has four basic components: input,

processor,memory, and output. The CPU consists of two parts: the Control unit which  directs and controls the signals and commands inside the processor, and the arithmetic- logical which does the arithmetic operations and the decision making operations. While the Control unit is made up of a register,  a  decoder, a  counter, and a clock,the_ALU_ is composed of  registers, a  binary adder and Circuitry, which compares information and makes decisions based on the results of the comparisons.

In a computer, internal memory or  primary memory refers to the storage locations inside the computer,  whereas secondary memory  refers to the storage embodied in the peripherals. Primary memory can be divided into three types: core , chip and bubble .

 Secondary memory ,on the other hand, may be grouped as sequential  (  tape )     or  random access ( disk ).

The input devices can be either a card reader, a tape drive, a disk drive  or a terminal.

These devices enter information into the computer. After the processor has operated on it, the output devices display the results of the computations on either a printer or a terminal, or store them on tape or disk for future use.

 

In today’s lesson you read about steps in Problem Solving. We followed the usual pattern of reading

followed by comprehension exercises, scanning for information vocabulary exercise and content

review exercises. This was followed by exploring the Cause Effect Relationship between texts  and working with  language for Classifying in English.


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