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Essay On Power Resources of Pakistan
Energy is the essential need of the present age.Pakistan is selfsuffitient to the extent of about 67% of its energy supply.The rest is being met through imports,mainly of crude petroleum and deficit petroleum products.The following are the main power resources of our country:
2.Petroleum of Mineral Oil
About 42 % of energy in Pakistan is obtained from oil,35% from Natural gas,12% from hydle power and 4% from coal.
Coal is described as the mother of modern Industry.It is at the back of the rapid Industrial development of the great industrial powers which might not have been possible without its presence.
Coal is unique among natural products in the number of uses to which it can be put.The main function of coal is to run the factories ,the locomotives and the steam ships.Supplying heat for domestic purposes is of secondary importance.Apart from these,coal tar,dyes,perfumes,colour films,sewing thread and typewriter ribbons are some of the 200,000 by products derived from coal.
Coal Mines of the Punjab:
1.Salt Range Mines:
The coal found in these areas is of low quality.The main centres of coal in this area are Dandot and Pidh.Besides,some coal is also mined at Ara Katha,Chilaj,Pir Jahania etc.Reserves are estimated at 70 million tonnes.
2.Makarwal Coal Mines:
These are second important coal mines of Baluchistan .The coal found here is of poor quality and reserves are small .
3.Degari Coal Mines:
The coal found here is of low quality,having more ash and sulphur content.Reserves are estimated at 54 million tonnes.
Besides the above mentioned coal mines .Some coal has also been discovered in other areas of Baluchistan such as Pir Ismail,Ziarat,Sinjidi and Kach,but extraction of coal has not been started from those places.
Coal Mines Of Sindh:
1.Lakhara Coal Mines:
The coal found here is of inferior quality lignite and has a high moisture content.Reserves are about 22 million tonnes.
2.Meting Jhimpir Coal Mines:
The seams of coal are thin and are of poor quality.Reserves are about 28 million tonnes.
Besides coal has been discovered in other areas of Pakistan such as Cherat hills.Nowshera in N.W.F.P and at Kotli,Kuiratta,Dandili and Muzaffarabad in Azad Kashmir ,but due to inferior quality and small quantity,mining is uneconomical.
Coal has been the traditional source of energy and its resources are estimated to the tune of 17.77 billion tonnes.
(B) MINERAL OIL OR PETROLEUM
The use of petroleum as a power resource is indispensable.Today,it illuminates the houses and runs ships,locomotives and factories.It is of great significance for automobiles and aeroplanes.As a source of lubricant petroleum has no rival.
It provides a number of by-products e.g.gasoline,petrol,diesel oil,kerosene oil,furnace oil,road oil,wax,naphtha,benzine etc.It remaining dust is used in the cement industries.It is also an important raw material for many chemical textile and pharmaceutical industries.
1.Dhurnal oil Field (Dist.Chakwal,Punjab)
2.Meyal Oil Field (Dist.Attock,Punjab)
3.Toot Oil Field(Dist.Attock ,Punjab)
4.Chak Naurange Oil Field (Dist.Chakwal,Punjab)
5.Joya Mir Oil Field(Dist.Attock,Punjab)
6.Dhulian Oil Field(Dist.Attock,Punjab)
7.Khur Oil Field(Dist.Attock,Punjab)
8.Balkasar Oil Field (Dist.Chacwal,Punjab)
9.Karsal Oil Field(Dist.Chakwal,Punjab)
10.Adhi Oil Field(Dist.Rawalpindi,Punjab)
11.Bhangli Oil Field(Dist.Rawalpindi,Punjab)
1.Laghari Oil Field(Dist.Badin,Sindh)
2.Tando Alam (Dist.Hyderabad,Sindh)
3.Thora Oil Field(Dist.Badin,Sindh)
4.Dhsbi Oil Field(Dist.Badin,Sindh)
5.Khashkheli Oil Field(Dist.Badin,Sindh)
6.Mazari Oil Field(Dist.Badin,Punjab)
7.South MAzari (DIst.Badin,Sindh)
8.Sono Ghotana Central Lashari
Besides the above in Sindh province at Gularchi Bobi Pasakhi,Tajedi Nari,Turk,Hali Pota,Ghunghro,Panero,Kunner,Oil has also been discovered and experimental processes and under progress.
At present,Three refineries are operating in the country.Of these ,Pakistan Refinery Limited (PRL) and National Refinery Limited (NRL) are located at Karachi and Attock Refinery Limited (ARL) at Rawalpindi.PRL and NRL have refining capacity of 1.8 million tonnes per year.In addition to imported crude oil,NRL is also processing indigenous crude from new find at Legari-Khashkheli.
Total Reserves And Production:
The recoverable reserves of crude oil were estimated at 145.69 million barrels on March 31,1992.
The production of oil increased from 53,481 barrels per day in 1989-90 to 64,348 barrels per day in 1990-91.However,during the period July-March ,1992 the production declined on an average to 62,500 barrels per day.
(C) NATURAL GAS
Natural Gas is an important means of energy,especially for countries like Pakistan which are deficient in the production of mineral oil and coal.
The country is well endowed with natural gas.Following are some of the important gas fields:
(a) Natural Gas Deposits At Sui:
It is the biggest deposit of natural gas in our country.It is situated in Sibbi district of Baluchistan.This gas field is considered as one of the biggest gas fields of the world and gas is being supplied to different parts of our country from this field through pipe lines.
(b) Dhullian Gas Field:
Mineral oil has been discovered at this place in 1937,so Attock Oil Company ,while searching for more oil,found natural gas at this field in 1994.
(c) Meyal Gas Field(Dist.Attock ,Punjab):
Pakistan Oil Field Ltd.Company discovered both oil and gas at this place in 1968.Gas is being supplied through a pipe line for the industrial areas around Rawalpindi.
(d) Mari-Sari -Hundi:
Mari-Sari-Hundi are also the gas fields from which gas is being supplied for various other purposes and also to three fertilizer factories.
(e) Toot Gas Field (Dist.Attock,Punjab):
Natural gas has also been found at toot and it is being used since 1980.
Recently gas has been discovered at Dhabi South Sonoro,Bukhari,Matil and Jabo in Sindh and at Makhdompur in Punjab.
Total Reserved And Production:
The recoverable reserves of natural gas are estimated at 542.505 billion cubic meres.During the first nine months of 1991-92 the production was 11543.19 million cubic mores as against 10932.92 million cubic meres during the same period in the previous year showing an increase 5.58% .The country produces about 1.5 billion cubic feet of gas per day.
(D) HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER
The hydro-electric potential of Pakistan,substantial part of which has now been harnessed, is mostly located in the hilly north-western areas,where the different lated terrain provides natural sites for dams.Some sites in the plains have also been developed by utilizing fall in rivers and canals.While the use of the three eastern rivers has,as a result of the Indus Water Treaty,passed to India,the hydro-electric potential of the three western rivers,the Indus,the Jhelum and the Chenab has been estimated at 30 million Kw.Following are the main hydro projects of our country:
1.The Tarbela Power Station:
When it comes into full operation it will have the largest capacity and generation.The installed capacity of our units presently in operation 700 MW,and generation 4,129 MKWHS.
2.The Mangla Power Station:
This power station will ultimetly have an installed capacity of 1,000 million watts in ten sets of 100,000 KW each.The first three generating sets,each of 100,000 KW,were installed as part of the Indus Basin Plan and the other four have been added later by WAPDA.
3.The Warsak Power Station:
It has six units with a total capacity of 240 MW.The turbines are fed by a concrete lined tunnel from the 46 metre high dam.This station was one of the major sources of hydro-electric power before the completion of Mangla and Tarbela.
4.The Malakand And Dargai Power Stations:
They produced electricity from falls in the upper Swat Canal.Water is taken back into the canal from the Malakand station to feed the power house at Dargai.Malakand station was completed in 1938 ,with an installed capacity of 16,700 KW, and this was to 80,000 KW in 1952.Dargai also has an installed capacity of 80,000 KW.
5.The Rasul Project:
This project was started in 1946,with the limited purpose of feeding 1860 tube -wells in Gujrat and Sargodha.The scheme was later modified to meet the requirements of the Punjab,before the completion of Warsak power station.The water in the 3-km power channel is taken from the Upper Jhelum Canal,and after passing through the turbine,joines the Lower Jhelum Canal.
6.The Chichoki Mallian Power Station:
This station is located on the upper Chenab Canal about 48 km from Lahore,and in the event of a power failure on the main grid,can be isolated to supply the city.
7.The Shadiwal Power Station:
is located on the upper Jhelum Canal near Gujrat.
8.The Nandipur Power Station:
It is located on the upper chenab canal,about 7 miles north-west of Gujrat.
9.The Kurram and Garhi Station:
These stations are on the irrigation canal taken out from the kurram River .About 40,000 KW of electricity is being produced from this project which is providing the needs of Kohat and Dera Ismail Khan divisions.
Energy Generationmillion Kwh)
1989-90 - 16925
1990-91 - 18298
1991-92 - 13724
(July to March)
Future Hydro Plans of WAPDA:
Detailed engineering of the Kalabagh Dam Project is in progress. The Kalabagh Hydle Power Station will be built about 12 miles upward from Kalabagh city on River Indus;It will have a capacity of about 1800 MW.Stage-I of 880 MW is planned to be completed in 1993 and stage-II in 1996.A reservoir at Thal has been planned to firm Tarbela Power by about 200 MW in the low-water months.Besides,hydro potential estimated at 60 MW available on the Chashma-jhelum link Canal is also planned for exploitation.
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