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Allama Iqbal 135th Birth Anniversary (Iqbal Day on November 9, 2012)
(9 November,2012) – Allama Muhammad Iqbal, Pakistan Great National Poet was born in Sialkot. He awaken the Muslim nation through his revolutionary poetry. 135th birth anniversary of poet philosopher Dr. Allama Muhammad Iqbal is being observed.
On Iqbal Day, Main event will be held at Mazar-E-Iqbal in Lahore where Pakistan fresh guards will assume duties at the Mazar.
This Content Originally Published by a member of VU Students.
Iqbal is the best articulated Muslim response to Modernity that the Islamic world has produced in the 20th century. His response has three dimensions:
A creative engagement with the conceptual paradigm of modernism at a sophisticated philosophical level through his prose writings, mainly hisThe Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam which present his basic philosophic insights
His Urdu and Persian poetry which is the best embodiment of poetically mediated thought, squarely in the traditional continuity of Islamic literature and perhaps the finest flowering of wisdom poetry, or contemplative poetry or inspired poetry in the modern times.
As a political activist/ social reformer― rising up to his social responsibility, his calling at a critical phase of history.
BRIEF LIFE SKETCH
Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938) is one of the preeminent writers of the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent. Indeed, the attention he has received from numerous writers, translators, and critics from Western as well as Islamic countries testifies to his stature as a world literary figure. While his primary reputation is that of a poet, Iqbal has not lacked admirers for his philosophical thought. He has in fact been called “the most serious Muslim philosophical thinker of modem times.” The frequently used appellation of “poet-philosopher” is thus well deserved. The hyphen in the phrase is all-important: Iqbal’s poetry and philosophy do not exist in isolation from each other; they are integrally related, his poetry serving as a vehicle for his thought. Iqbal wrote poetry in Urdu and Persian, and several collections in each language exist. In the following page a life-sketch of Iqbal is followed by a brief treatment of some of the major themes and literary features of his poetry.
Iqbal was born in Sialkot, in the present-day province of the Punjab in Pakistan, in 1877. He received his early education in that city, where one of his teachers was Mir Hasan, an accomplished scholar who commanded a knowledge of several Islamic languages. Mir Hasan gave Iqbal a thorough training in the rich Islamic literary tradition. His influence on Iqbal was formative. Many years later (1922), when the English governor of the Punjab proposed to the British Crown that Iqbal be knighted in acknowledgment of his literary accomplishments, Iqbal asked that Mir Hasan also be awarded a title. To the governor’s remark that Mir Hasan had not authored any books, Iqbal responded that he, Iqbal, was the book Mir Hasan had produced. Mir Hasan received the title of Shams al-’Ulama’ (“Sun of Scholars”).
For higher education Iqbal went to Lahore (1895), where he enrolled in Government College, getting, in 1899, an MA in philosophy; he had already obtained a degree in law (1898). In Lahore, a major center of academic and literary activity, Iqbal soon made a name for himself as a poet. One of the teachers of Government College Iqbal admired most was Sir Thomas Arnold. Arnold, too, had great affection for Iqbal, he helped Iqbal in his career as a teacher and also encouraged him to undertake several research projects. When Arnold returned to England in 1904, Iqbal wrote a touching poem in which he expressed his resolve to follow Arnold to England. The very next year, in fact, Iqbal left for study at Cambridge. His choice of Cambridge was probably dictated by the fact that Cambridge was reputed for the study not only of European philosophy but also of Arabic and Persian. In his three years of stay abroad, Iqbal obtained a BA from Cambridge (1906), qualified as a barrister at London’s Middle Temple (1906), and earned a PhD from Munich University (1908).
After returning to Lahore in 1908, Iqbal taught philosophy at Government College for a few years. In 1911 he resigned from government service and set up legal practice. Meanwhile he continued to write poetry in Urdu and Persian, Asrar-i Khudi (Persian) was published in 1915. Translated into English as The Secrets of the Self (1920) by Professor Reynold Nicholson of Cambridge, the book introduced Iqbal to the West. Asrar-i Khudi was followed by several other volumes: Rumuz-i Bikhudi (1918), Payam-i Mashriq (1923), Bang-i Dara (1924), Zabur-i ‘Ajam (1927), Javid Namah(1932), Musafir (1936), Zarb-i Kalim (1937), and Armaghan-i Hijaz (1938, posthumously). Iqbal wrote prose also. His doctoral thesis, The Development of Metaphysics in Persia, was published in 1908, and hisReconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam (with a 7th chapter added to the original set of six lectures, first published in 1930), in 1934. Many of Iqbal’s poetical works have been rendered into foreign languages, including English, German, Italian, Russian, Czechoslovakian, Arabic, and Turkish. His works have also spawned a vast amount of critical literature in many languages.
Although his main interests were scholarly, Iqbal was not unconcerned with the political situation of the, country and the political fortunes of the Muslim community of India. Already in 1908, while in England, he had been chosen as a member of the executive council of the newly established British branch of the Indian Muslim League. In 1931 and 1932 he represented the Muslims of India in the Round Table Conferences held in England to discuss the issue of the political future of India. And in a 1930 lecture Iqbal suggested the creation of a separate homeland for the Muslims of India. Iqbal died (1938) before the creation of Pakistan (1947), but it was his teaching that “spiritually ... has been the chief force behind the creation of Pakistan.” He is the national poet of Pakistan.
A detailed discussion of the thematic and literary features of Iqbal’s poetry is not be undertaken here. A few general points may, however, be made.
A reader of Iqbal’s poetry is struck by its sheer thematic variety. Iqbal was deeply interested in the issues that have exercised the best minds of the human race—the issues of the meaning of life, change and constancy, freedom and determinism, survival and progress, the relation between the body and the soul, the conflict between reason and emotion, evil and suffering, the position and role of human beings in the universe—and in his poetry he deals with these and other issues. He had also read widely in history, philosophy, literature, mysticism, and politics, and, again, his catholic interests are reflected in his poetry.
Iqbal celebrates humanity, in more than one sense. On one level he shows broad acceptance for humanity. In “The Story of Adam”, the protagonist, Adam, plays a variety of roles-those of prophet, thinker, reformer, scientist, inventor, astronomer, martyr, and iconoclast. Adam in this poem is not simply a religious figure belonging to a certain tradition, but represents the whole of humankind. On another level, Iqbal takes pride in being human and has no desire to partake of the godhead of God. To be God is to have concerns and worries that would give one a headache, but to be human is to have that sweet pain called heartache. Humans can hold their heads high in view of their achievements in the world to which they were banished from paradise: if God has made the night, then humans have made the lamp, and if God has made deserts and mountains, then humans have made parks and meadows (“A Dialogue Between God and Man,”). Humans must, therefore, strive to be perfect qua humans, and that is a goal yet to be achieved.
The theme of humanity is closely linked in Iqbal with that of khudi(literally, “selfhood”). Khudi is a complex thought in Iqbal. Broadly speaking, it represents the principle of the inner self with an urge to manifest itself Societies as well as individuals have khudi, and it is on the development or suppression of one’s or failure in the world depends,khudi that one’s success the khudi of slaves, for example, is moribund.
Recognition, discovery, cultivation, and assertion of their khudi should, therefore, be the aim of humans. Iqbal’s critique of Muslim societies is predicated on the assumption that these societies have lost their khudi or have allowed it to become seriously impaired. The best way to understand Iqbal’s concept of khudi is by reading poems in which he discusses the subject.
Perfection, or rather limitless perfection, is a frequently occurring motif in Iqbal’s poetry. “I seek the end of that which has no end,” says Iqbal in “The Houri and the Poet”, and, in the same poem: “From the spark I seek a star, from the star a sun.” Iqbal sees no end to human potentialities. He wishes humans to embark on a never-ending journey of discovery, and to this end emphasizes the importance of action. Constant action and perpetual movement are in fact the only guarantee of survival in the world. Nations fall behind when they cease to be dynamic and start preferring a life of idle speculation over one of purposive action.
But the quest for perfection can give rise to irony. Irony, in fact, fills human life, for while they have been imbued with the desire to achieve perfection, humans have been denied the ability to achieve it in practice. The poems “Man”, “Solitude”, and “The Dew and the Stars” discuss several aspects of the irony of human life. The poem, “The Story of Adam,” though it ends on a more optimistic note, yet implies that it takes humans a long time to discover the most important secret of existence.
“The heart has its reasons, of which reason is ignorant,” says Pascal. Iqbal, who frequently speaks of the conflict of the head and the heart, would agree, though he would add that while the conflict exists, it does not have to. More often than not it is reason (or the intellect) that belittles the heart (or intuition), but both are essential to a harmonious life; ideally, then, reason and the heart should cooperate rather than clash.
Although he has wide-ranging interests, Iqbal essentially belongs to, and speaks from within, the Islamic tradition, employing, for his purposes, the historical, religious, philosophical, and literary resources of that tradition. A full appreciation of Iqbal requires an understanding of these resources, and the notes and commentaries in this volume elucidate Iqbal’s use of them.
Iqbal held to the doctrine of art for life’s sake. Acutely aware of the problems of Muslim decadence and backwardness, Iqbal takes it upon himself to shake the Muslims of India and other countries out of their lethargy, urging them to take the path of progress, so that they can gain an honorable position in the polity of nations, He uses the medium of poetry to arouse socio-religious consciousness among Muslims. As a result, Islamic religious and social themes predominate in his poetry. But Iqbal’s vision of a revived religion is far from conservative. He is sharply critical of many of the institutions of historic Islam (of the institution of monarchy, for example), and his vision of a new world derives from the Islamic notions of egalitarianism and social justice. He rejects dogmatism in religion, advocates rethinking of the Islamic intellectual heritage, and stands for the establishment of a forward-looking community. But the conviction of art for life’s sake never allows Iqbal’s poetry to degenerate into bland or crass propaganda. The worldwide acclamation he has won is proof that Iqbal’s strength consists in writing purpose poetry of the highest artistic standards.
Ultimately, however, the secret of the appeal of Iqbal’s poetry lies in the personality behind that poetry. Whether he is dealing with a broadly humanistic or a specifically Islamic theme, Iqbal views it from a unique perspective. Consider his boldly critical attitude toward certain aspects of the received tradition, an attitude reflected, for example, in the poems referred above. Unlike almost any other poet in the Islamic tradition, Iqbal enters into a dialogue with God, raising issues the orthodox would consider disturbing. He asks whether Adam’s expulsion from heaven has turned out to be Adam’s loss or God’s own; he challenges God to speak to him face to face rather than through messengers, and, noting the discrepancy between the boundlessness of human ambition and the limitedness of the resources put at humans’ disposal, he asks God whether His experiment involving Adam is to be taken seriously. Iqbal’s view of the role of Satan in the world is also highly intriguing and, as one would expect, highly unconventional (see “Conquest of Nature” and “Gabriel and Iblis”).
A notable thing about Iqbal’s perspective is ambiguity, a typical modem quality. Especially when he is talking about metaphysical issues, Iqbal raises some difficult questions, without providing a single “valid” answer. In “Paradise Lost and Regained” the question whether Adam should have sinned or not (each scenario being theoretically defensible) is not answered by Iqbal. In “Gabriel and Iblis” we are left to wonder about Iqbal’s own view of Iblis’ self-justification. And in “Solitude” we cannot be certain why God smiles.
In several places Iqbal talks about himself about his Eastern background and Western education, and the contradictions of his own personality; his conviction that his study of historic Islam had furnished him with certain valuable insights which he must share with his people; his hope that his message will spread across the Muslim world, and his apprehension that he will be misunderstood or appreciated for the wrong reasons. Here it may be added that the various attempts made to identify (or label) Iqbal as a Sufi or an orthodox Muslim, as a radical or a reactionary are wide of the mark because Iqbal is too large a figure to fit any narrow, procrustean category; he demands and deserves attention on his own terms.
Iqbal had a fine sense of the dramatic, and in his poetry he frequently employs dramatic techniques. Many of his poems are structured like a play, with the first half of the poem building a tension or conflict that is resolved, or raising a question that is answered, in the second half Examples are “Gabriel and Iblis”, “The Dew and the Stars”, “The Houri and the Poet” and “Fatimah bint ‘Abdullah”. Many poems are dialogues, with well-argued positions taken by the interlocutors (“A Dialogue Between God and Man”, “The Dew and the Stars”, “Reason and Heart” and “A Dialogue Between Knowledge and Love”; also the fables). Some poems are one-sided dialogues or monologues (“Give Me Another Adversary”, “The Falcon’s Advice to Its Youngster”). Again, Iqbal carefully weaves the “plot” of a poem, arousing the reader’s curiosity, dropping seemingly casual hints that turn out to be prophetic, providing flashback, and saving his masterstroke for the end. Two excellent examples are “The Night and the Poet” and “The Houri and the Poet”.
Iqbal has some favorite images and motifs. The eagle is Iqbal’s favorite bird, and the tulip his favorite flower. We will here say a few words about the tulip. The tulip is a pretty flower, but, when it grows in the desert (Lala’-i sahra’), it combines strength with beauty, for it then represents the assertion of one’s self (khudi) in the face of hostile circumstances. The tulip owes its splendor not to an outside source but to the “scar” inside its heart, its glow being indigenous to it, as befits a flower with akhudi of its own. The tulip is thus a “model” for individuals and nations to follow. In one of his quatrains (“Freedom and Determinism and Philosophy of History”), speaking of the difficult circumstances that alone give birth to new nations, Iqbal says: “From mountains and deserts do nations arise.” Although Iqbal does not mention the tulip in this quatrain, it would not be far-fetched to suggest that, conceptually, Iqbal here has the desert tulip in mind. The cup-shaped flower suggests to Iqbal’s mind several analogies, and in one piece (“Locke, Kant, and Bergson,”) Iqbal, makes consistent use of the tulip image to describe and analyze complex philosophical ideas. It is in view of the deep significance of the flower in Iqbal’s poetry that I have chosen Tulip in the Desert as the title of my volume of translations (Mustansir Mir, Tulip in the Desert,Hurst and Company, London, 2000). The images of the eagle and the tulip illustrate how Iqbal adds to the native literary tradition or makes an innovative use of that tradition (the tulip). Another example in this connection is that of the moth. In Persian and Urdu poetry the moth represents the devoted and self-immolating lover. Like the moth, which keeps circling the light, the lover (a male) desires to stay close to the beloved (a female). But in Iqbal, typically, the moth often represent a reprehensible rather than a praiseworthy quality: the shining light it is in love with is not its own. The moth is to be contrasted with another, the firefly, which, though it has a weak light, can at least call this light its own. The firefly, in other words, is possessed of khudi, but the moth has no khudi. Iqbal often uses a series of images to convey a thought, producing a cumulative effect. In “Fatimah bint -Abdullah,” for example, he uses no fewer than four images to express the idea that, even in its present age of decadence, the Muslim Community can produce individuals of exceptional caliber:
O that our autumn-stricken garden had
A flower-bud like this!
O that in our ashes would be found, O Lord,
A spark like this!
In our desert is hidden many a deer still.
In the spent clouds lies dormant still
Many a flash of lightning.
Iqbal is capable of writing biting satire. Two examples are: “Give Me Another Adversary”, in which Satan argues that he deserves a better rival than Adam, and “Scorpion Land,” which criticizes slave mentality.
Dr ALLAMA IQBAL BIOGRAPHY
Iqbal was an heir to a very rich literary, mystic, philosophical and religious tradition. He imbibed and assimilated all that was best in the past and present Islamic and Oriental thought and culture. His range of interests covered Religion, Philosophy, Art, Politics, Economics, the revival of Muslim life and universal brotherhood of man. His prose, not only in his national language but also in English, was powerful. His two books in English demonstrate his mastery of English. But poetry was his medium par excellence of expression. Everything he thought and felt, almost involuntarily shaped itself into verse.
His first book Ilm ul Iqtisad/The knowledge of Economics was written in Urdu in 1903 . His first poetic work Asrar-i Khudi (1915) was followed by Rumuz-I Bekhudi (1917). Payam-i Mashriqappeared in 1923, Zabur-i Ajam in 1927, Javid Nama in 1932, Pas cheh bayed kard ai Aqwam-i Sharq in 1936, and Armughan-i Hijaz in 1938. All these books were in Persian. The last one, published posthumously is mainly in Persian: only a small portion comprises Urdu poems and ghazals.
His first book of poetry in Urdu, Bang-i Dara (1924) was followed by Bal-i Jibril in 1935 and Zarb-i Kalim in 1936.
Bang-i Dara consist of selected poems belonging to the three preliminary phases of Iqbal's poetic career. Bal-i Jibril is the peak of Iqbal's Urdu poetry. It consists of ghazals, poems, quatrains, epigrams and displays the vision and intellect necessary to foster sincerity and firm belief in the heart of the ummah and turn its members into true believers. Zarb-i Kalim was described by the poet himself "as a declaration of war against the present era". The main subjects of the book are Islam and the Muslims, education and upbringing, woman, literature and fine arts, politics of the East and the West. In Asrar-i Khudi, Iqbal has explained his philosohy of "Self". He proves by various means that the whole universe obeys the will of the "Self". Iqbal condemns self-destruction. For him the aim of life is self-relization and self-knowledge. He charts the stages through which the "Self" has to pass before finally arriving at its point of perfection, enabling the knower of the "Self" to become the viceregent of Allah on earth/Khalifat ullah fi'l ard. In Rumuz-i Bekhudi, Iqbal proves that Islamic way of life is the best code of conduct for a nation's viability. A person must keep his individual characteristics intact but once this is achieved he should sacrifice his personal ambitions for the needs of the nation. Man cannot realize the "Self" out of society. Payam-i Mashriq is an answer to West-Istlicher Divan by Goethe, the famous German peot. Goethe bemoaned that the West had become too materialistic in outlook and expected that the East would provide a message of hope that would resuscitate spiritual values. A hundred years went by and then Iqbal reminded the West of the importance of morality, religion and civilization by underlining the need for cultivating feeling, ardour and dynamism. He explained that life could, never aspire for higher dimensions unless it learnt of the nature of spirituality.
Zabur-i Ajam includes the Mathnavi Gulshan-i Raz-i Jadid andBandagi Nama. In Gulshan-i Raz-i Jadid, he follows the famous Mathnavi Gulshan-i Raz by Sayyid Mahmud Shabistri. Here like Shabistri, Iqbal first poses questions, then answers them with the help of ancient and modern insight and shows how it effects and concerns the world of action. Bandagi Nama is in fact a vigorous campaign against slavery and subjugation. He explains the spirit behind the fine arts of enslaved societies. In Zabur-i Ajam, Iqbal's Persian ghazal is at its best as his Urdu ghazal is in Bal-i Jibril. Here as in other books, Iqbal insists on remembering the past, doing well in the present and preparing for the future. His lesson is that one should be dynamic, full of zest for action and full of love and life. Implicitly, he proves that there is no form of poetry which can equal the ghazal in vigour and liveliness. In Javid Nama, Iqbal follows Ibn-Arabi, Marri and Dante. Iqbal depicts himself as Zinda Rud (a stream, full of life) guided by Rumi the master, through various heavens and spheres and has the honour of approaching Divinity and coming in contact with divine illuminations. Several problems of life are discussed and answers are provided to them. It is an exceedingly enlivening study. His hand falls heavily on the traitors to their nation like Mir Jafar from Bengal and Mir Sadiq from the Deccan, who were instrumental in the defeat and death of Nawab Siraj-ud-Daula of Bengal and Sultan Tipu of Mysore respectively by betraying them for the benefit of the British. Thus, they delivered their country to the shackles of slavery. At the end, by addressing his son Javid, he speaks to the young people at large and provides guidance to the "new generation".
Pas Cheh Bay ed Kard ai Aqwam-i Sharq includes the mathnaviMusafir. Iqbal's Rumi, the master, utters this glad tiding "East awakes from its slumbers" "Khwab-i ghaflat". Inspiring detailed commentary on voluntary poverty and free man, followed by an exposition of the mysteries of Islamic laws and sufic perceptions is given. He laments the dissention among the Indian as well as Muslim nations. Mathnavi Musafir, is an account of a journey to Afghanistan. In the mathnavi the people of the Frontier (Pathans) are counseled to learn the "secret of Islam" and to "build up the self" within themselves.
Armughan-i Hijaz consists of two parts. The first contains quatrains in Persian; the second contains some poems and epigrams in Urdu. The Persian quatrains convey the impression as though the poet is travelling through Hijaz in his imaginatin. Profundity of ideas and intensity of passion are the salient features of these short poems. The Urdu portion of the book contains some categorical criticism of the intellectual movements and social and political revolutions of the modern age.
Iqbal's English Works
Iqbal wrote two books in English. The first being The Development of Metaphysics in Persia in which continuity of Persian thought is discussed and sufism is dealt with in detail. In Iqbal's view true Islamic Sufism awakens the slumbering soul to a higher idea of life.
The second book, The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam, is the collection of Iqbal's six lectures which he delivered at Madras, Hyderabad and Aligarh. These were first published from Lahore in 1930 and then by Oxford University Press in 1934. Some of the main subjects are "Knowledge and Religious Experience," "The Conception of God and the Meaning of Prayer," "The Human Ego," "Predestination and Free Will," "The Spirit of Muslim Culture," "The Principle of Movement in Islam (Ijtihad)." These issues are discussed pithily in a thought provoking manner in the light of Islam and the modern age. These lectures were translated into Urdu by Sayyid Nazir Niazi.
In addition to these books he wrote hundreds of letters in Urdu and English. Urdu letters have been published in ten different books. He issued statements pertaining to the burning topics of the day relating to various aspects of social, religious, cultural and political problems of India, Europe and the world of Islam. For a few years he served as a Professor of Philosophy and Oriental Learning at the government College, Lahore and the Punjab University Oriental College. Many of his speeches and statements have been compiled and published in book form. Except for the last four years of his life he practised at the Lahore High Court Bar. All his life he was easily accessible to all and sundry and evening sessions at his home were a common feature.
In Spite of his heavy political and social commitments he had time for poetry, a poetry which made philosophy sing. A.K Brohi says:
Dr. Iqbal is undoubtedly a renowned poet-philosopher of Islam and may have in his writings a never failing source of inspiration, delight and aesthetic wonder. He has made signal contribution to our understanding of the Holy Writ of Islam and offered his evaluation of the remarkable example of which the life of the Prophet of Islam (pbuh) has presented to the world at large and the high water-mark of excellence, it provides of how best our earthly lives can be lived here below.
Iqbal The Visionary
Iqbal joined the London branch of the All India Muslim League while he was studying Law and Philosophy in England. It was in London when he had a mystical experience. The ghazal containing those divinations is the only one whose year and month of composition is expressly mentioned. It is March 1907. No other ghazal, before or after it has been given such importance. Some verses of that ghazal are:
At last the silent tongue of Hijaz has
announced to the ardent ear the tiding
That the covenant which had been given to the
desert-dwelles is going to be renewed
The lion who had emerged from the desert and
had toppled the Roman Empire is
As I am told by the angels, about to get up
again (from his slumbers.)
You the dwelles of the West, should know that
the world of God is not a shop (of yours).
Your imagined pure gold is about to lose it
standard value (as fixed by you).
Your civilization will commit suicide with its
A nest built on a frail bough cannot be
The caravan of feeble ants will take the rose
petal for a boat
And inspite of all blasts of waves, it shall cross
I will take out may worn-out caravan in the
pitch darkness of night.
My sighs will emit sparks and my breath will
For Iqbal it was a divinely inspired insight. He disclosed this to his listeners in December 1931, when he was invited to Cambridge to address the students. Iqbal was in London, participating in the Second Round Table Conference in 1931. At Cambridge, he referred to what he had proclaimed in 1906:
I would like to offer a few pieces of advice to the youngmen who are at present studying at Cambridge ...... I advise you to guard against atheism and materialism. The biggest blunder made by Europe was the separation of Church and State. This deprived their culture of moral soul and diverted it to the atheistic materialism. I had twenty-five years ago seen through the drawbacks of this civilization and therefore had made some prophecies. They had been delivered by my tongue although I did not quite understand them. This happened in 1907..... After six or seven years, my prophecies came true, word by word. The European war of 1914 was an outcome of the aforesaid mistakes made by the European nations in the separation of the Church and the State.
It should be stressed that Iqbal felt he had received a spiritual message in 1907 which even to him was, at that juncture, not clear. Its full import dawned on him later. The verses quoted above show that Iqbal had taken a bold decision about himself as well. Keeping in view that contemporary circumstances, he had decided to give a lead to the Muslim ummah and bring it out of the dark dungeon of slavery to the shining vasts of Independence. This theme was repeated later in poems such as "Abdul Qadir Ke Nam," "Sham-o-Sha'ir," "Javab-i Shikwa," "Khizr-i Rah," "Tulu-e Islam" etc. He never lost heart. His first and foremost concern, naturally, were the Indian Muslims. He was certain that the day of Islamic resurgence was about to dawn and the Muslims of the South Asian subcontinent were destined to play a prominent role in it.
Iqbal, confident in Allah's grand scheme and His aid, created a new world and imparted a new life to our being. Building upon Sir Sayyid Ahmed's two-nation theory, absorbing the teaching of Shibli, Ameer Ali, Hasrat Mohani and other great Indian Muslim thinkers and politicians, listening to Hindu and British voices, and watching the fermenting Indian scene closely for approximately 60 years, he knew and ultimately convinced his people and their leaders, particularly Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah that:
"We both are exiles in this land. Both longing for
our dear home's sight!"
"That dear home is Pakistan, on which he harpened like a flute-player, but whose birth he did not witness."
Many verses in Iqbal's poetry are prompted by a similar impulse. A random example, a ghazal from Zabur-i Ajam published in 1927 illustrates his deepseated belief:
The Guide of the Era is about to appear from a
corner of the desert of Hijaz.
The carvan is about to move out from this far
I have observed the kingly majesty on the
faces of the slaves.
Mahmud's splendour is visible in the dust of
Life laments for ages both in the Ka'bah and
So that a person who knows the secret may
The laments that burst forth from the breasts
of the earnestly devoted people. Are going
to initiate a new principle in the conscience of
Take this harp from my hand. I am done for.
My laments have turned into blood and that
blood is going to trickle from the strings of the
The five couplets quoted above are prophetic. In the first couplet Allama Iqbal indicates that the appearance of the Guide of the Era was just round the corner and the Caravan is about to start and emerge from "this" valley. Iqbal does not say that the awaited Guide has to emerge from the centre of Hijaz. He says he is going to appear from a far flung valley. For the poet the desert of Hijaz, at times, serves as a symbol for the Muslim ummah. This means that Muslims of the Indian sub-continent are about to have a man who is destined to guide them to the goal of victory and that victory is to initiate the resurgence of Islam.
In the second couplet, he breaks the news of the dawn which is at hand. the slaves are turning into magnificent masters. In the third couplet he stresses the point that the Seers come to the world of man after centuries. He himself was one of those Seers. In the fourth couplet he refers to some ideology or principle quite new to the world which would effect the conscience of all humanity. And what else could it be, if it were not the right of self-determination for which the Muslims of the sub-continent were about to struggle. After the emergence of Pakistan this right became a powerful reference. It served as the advent of a new principle and continues to provide impetus to Muslims in minority in other parts of the world such as in the Philippines, Thailand and North America.
In the fifth couplet Iqbal indicates that he would die before the advent of freedom. He was sure that his verses which epitomized his most earnest sentiments would stand in good stead in exhorting the Muslims of the sub-continent to the goal of freedom.
Iqbal and Politics
These thoughts crystallised at Allahabad Session (December, 1930) of the All India Muslim League, when Iqbal in the Presidential Address, forwarded the idea of a Muslim State in India:
I would like to see the Punjab, North-West Frontier Provinces, Sind and Baluchistan into a single State. Self-Government within the British Empire or without the British Empire. The formation of the consolidated North-West Indian Muslim State appears to be the final destiny of the Muslims, at least of the North-West India.
The seed sown, the idea began to evolve and take root. It soon assumed the shape of Muslim state or states in the western and eastern Muslim majority zones as is obvious from the following lines of Iqbal's letter, of June 21, 1937, to the Quaid-i Azam, only ten months before the former's death:
A separate federation of Muslim Provinces, reformed on the lines I have suggested above, is the only course by which we can secure a peaceful India and save Muslims from the domination of Non-Muslims. Why should not the Muslims of North-West India and Bengal be considered as nations entitled to self-determination just as other nations in India and outside India are.
There are some critics of Allama Iqbal who assume that after delivering the Allahbad Address he had slept over the idea of a Muslim State. Nothing is farther from the truth. The idea remained always alive in his mind. It had naturally to mature and hence, had to take time. He was sure that the Muslims of sub-continent were going to achieve an independent homeland for themselves. On 21st March, 1932, Allama Iqbal delivered the Presidential address at Lahore at the annual session of the All-India Muslim Conference. In that address too he stressed his view regarding nationalism in India and commented on the plight of the Muslims under the circumstances prevailing in the sub-continent. Having attended the Second Round Table Conference in September, 1931 in London, he was keenly aware of the deep-seated Hindu and Sikh prejudice and unaccommodating attitude. He had observed the mind of the British Government. Hence he reiterated his apprehensions and suggested safeguards in respect of the Indian Muslims:
In so far then as the fundamentals of our policy are concerned, I have got nothing fresh to offer. Regarding these I have already expressed my views in my address to the All India Muslim League. In the present address I propose, among other things, to help you, in the first place, in arriving at a correct view of the situation as it emerged from a rather hesitating behavior of our delegation the final stages of the Round-Table Conference. In the second place, I shall try, according to my lights to show how far it is desirable to construct a fresh policy now that the Premier's announcement at the last London Conference has again necessitated a careful survey of the whole situation.
It must be kept in mind that since Maulana Muhammad Ali had died in Jan. 1931 and Quaid-i Azam had stayed behind in London, the responsibility of providing a proper lead to the Indian Muslims had fallen on him alone. He had to assume the role of a jealous guardian of his nation till Quaid-i Azam returned to the sub-continent in 1935.
The League and the Muslim Conference had become the play-thing of petty leaders, who would not resign office, even after a vote of non-confidence! And, of course, they had no organization in the provinces and no influence with the masses.
During the Third Round-Table Conference, Iqbal was invited by the London National League where he addressed an audience which included among others, foreign diplomats, members of the House of Commons, Members of the House of Lords and Muslim members of the R.T.C. delegation. In that gathering he dilated upon the situation of the Indian Muslims. He explained why he wanted the communal settlement first and then the constitutional reforms. He stressed the need for provincial autonomy because autonomy gave the Muslim majority provinces some power to safeguard their rights, cultural traditions and religion. Under the central Government the Muslims were bound to lose their cultural and religious entity at the hands of the overwhelming Hindu majority. He referred to what he had said at Allahabad in 1930 and reiterated his belief that before long people were bound to come round to his viewpoint based on cogent reason.
In his dialogue with Dr. Ambedkar Allama Iqbal expressed his desire to see Indian provinces as autonomous units under the direct control of the British Government and with no central Indian Government. He envisaged autonomous Muslim Provinces in India. Under one Indian union he feared for Muslims, who would suffer in many respects especially with regard to their existentially separate entity as Muslims.
Allama Iqbal's statement explaining the attitude of Muslim delegates to the Round-Table Conference issued in December, 1933 was a rejoinder to Jawahar Lal Nehru's statement. Nehru had said that the attitude of the Muslim delegation was based on "reactionarism." Iqbal concluded his rejoinder with:
In conclusion I must put a straight question to punadi Jawhar Lal, how is India's problem to be solved if the majority community will neither concede the minimum safeguards necessary for the protection of a minority of 80 million people, nor accept the award of a third party; but continue to talk of a kind of nationalism which works out only to its own benefit? This position can admit of only two alternatives. Either the Indian majority community will have to accept for itself the permanent position of an agent of British imperialism in the East, or the country will have to be redistributed on a basis of religious, historical and cultural affinities so as to do away with the question of electorates and the communal problem in its present form.
Allama Iqbal's apprehensions were borne out by the Hindu Congress ministries established in Hindu majority province under the Act of 1935. Muslims in those provinces were given dastardly treatment. This deplorable phenomenon added to Allama Iqbal's misgivings regarding the future of Indian Muslims in case India remained united. In his letters to the Quaid-i Azam written in 1936 and in 1937 he referred to an independent Muslim State comprising North-Western and Eastern Muslim majority zones. Now it was not only the North-Western zones alluded to in the Allahabad Address.
There are some within Pakistan and without, who insist that Allama Iqbal never meant a sovereign Muslim country outside India. Rather he desired a Muslim State within the Indian Union. A State within a State. This is absolutely wrong. What he meant was understood very vividly by his Muslim compatriots as well as the non-Muslims. Why Nehru and others had then tried to show that the idea of Muslim nationalism had no basis at all. Nehru stated:
This idea of a Muslim nation is the figment of a few imaginations only, and, but for the publicity given to it by the Press few people would have heard of it. And even if many people believed in it, it would still vanish at the touch of reality.
Iqbal and the Quaid-i Azam
Who could understand Allama Iqbal better than the Quaid-i Azam himself, who was his awaited "Guide of the Era"? The Quaid-i Azam in the Introduction to Allama Iqbal's lettes addressed to him, admitted that he had agreed with Allama Iqbal regarding a State for Indian Muslims before the latters death in April, 1938. The Quaid stated:
His views were substantially in consonance with my own and had finally led me to the same conclusions as a result of careful examination and study of the constitutional problems facing India and found expression in due course in the united will of Muslim India as adumbrated in the Lahore Resolution of the All-India Muslim League popularly known as the "Pakistan Resolution" passed on 23rd March, 1940.
Furthermore, it was Allama Iqbal who called upon Quaid-i Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah to lead the Muslims of India to their cherished goal. He preferred the Quaid to other more experienced Muslim leaders such as Sir Aga Khan, Maulana Hasrat Mohani, Nawab Muhammad Isma il Khan, Maulana Shaukat Ali, Nawab Hamid Ullah Khan of Bhopal, Sir Ali Imam, Maulvi Tameez ud-Din Khan, Maulana Abul Kalam, Allama al-Mashriqi and others. But Allama Iqbal had his own reasons. He had found his "Khizr-i Rah", the veiled guide in Quaid-i Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah who was destined to lead the Indian branch of the MuslimUmmah to their goal of freedom. Allama Iqbal stated:
I know you are a busy man but I do hope you won't mind my writing to you often, as you are the only Muslim in India today to whom the community has right to look up for safe guidance through the storm which is coming to North-West India, and perhaps to the whole of India.
Similar sentiments were expressed by him about three months before his death. Sayyid Nazir Niazi in his book Iqbal Ke Huzur, has stated that the future of the Indian Muslims was being discussed and a tenor of pessimism was visible from what his friends said. At this Allama Iqbal observed:
There is only one way out. Muslim should strengthen Jinnah's hands. They should join the Muslim League. Indian question, as is now being solved, can be countered by our united front against both the Hindus and the English. Without it our demands are not going to be accepted. People say our demands smack of communalism. This is sheer propaganda. These demands relate to the defence of our national existence.
The united front can be formed under the leadership of the Muslim League. And the Muslim League can succeed only on account of Jinnah. Now none but Jinnah is capable of leading the Muslims.
Matlub ul-Hasan Sayyid stated that after the Lahore Resolution was passed on March 23, 1940, the Quaid-i Azam said to him:
Iqbal is no more amongst us, but had he been alive he would have been happy to know that we did exactly what he wanted us to do.
But the matter does not end here. Allama Iqbal in his letter of March 29, 1937 to the Quaid-i Azam had said:
While we are ready to cooperate with other progressive parties in the country, we must not ignore the fact that the whole future of Islam as a moral and political force in Asia rests very largely on a complete organization of Indian Muslims.
According to Allama Iqbal the future of Islam as a moral and political force not only in India but in the whole of Asia rested on the organization of the Muslims of India led by the Quaid-i Azam.
The "Guide of the Era" Iqbal had envisaged in 1926, was found in the person of Muhammad Ali Jinnah. The "Guide" organized the Muslims of India under the banner of the Muslim League and offered determined resistance to both the Hindu and the English designs for a united Hindu-dominated India. Through their united efforts under the able guidance of Quaid-I Azam Muslims succeeded in dividing India into Pakistan and Bharat and achieving their independent homeland. As observed above, in Allama Iqbal's view, the organization of Indian Muslims which achieved Pakistan would also have to defend other Muslim societies in Asia. The carvan of the resurgence of Islam has to start and come out of this Valley, far off from the centre of theummah. Let us see how and when, Pakistan prepares itself to shoulder this august responsibility. It is Allama Iqbal's prevision.
The Holy Prophet has said:
Beware of the foresight of the believer for he sees with Divine Light.
Muhammad Iqbal was born on November 9, 1877, at Sialkot, Punjab. His grandfather Shaikh Rafiq, a Kashmiri, had jointed a wave of migration to Sialkot, where he made a living peddling Kashmiri shawls. Shaikh Rafiq had two sons, Shaikh Ghulam Qadir and Shaikh Nur Muhammad, Iqbal's father. Shaikh Nur Muhammad was a tailor whose handiwork was quite well known in Sialkot. But it was his devotion to Islam especially its mystical aspects, that gained him respect among his Sufi peers and other associates. His wife, Imam Bibi, was also a devout Muslim. The couple instilled a deep religious consciousness in all their five children.
IQBAL IN YEARS
|Year||Date and Month||Event|
Towards the end of the eighteenth or the beginning of the nineteenth century Iqbal's ancestors migrated from Kashmir and settled down in Sialkot, in Mohalla Khatikan.
Iqbal was born in Sialkot.
He obtained his early education in the maktab of Maulana Ghulam Hasan and Allama Syed Mir Hasan.
He was admitted to Mission High School, Sialkot.
"While he was at school he started composing verses." (Sir Abdul Qadar).
As a student of Mission High School, Sialkot, he passed the Anglo-Vernacular Middle School Examination from the Punjab University. 1892
Started composing verses in a regular way. His ghazal was published in the November issue of Zaban, Delhi; This ghazal is so far considered his earliest published ghazal.
He went to Gujrat to take the Entrance (High School) Examination.
Passed the High School Examination in the First Division from Scotch Mission High School, Sialkot, and was awarded medal and scholarship.
Married Karim Bibi (the mother of Aftab Iqbal the daughter of Khan Bahadur Ata Mohammed Khan, the civil surgeon of Gujrat.
|7 May||Was admitted to the First Year (class XI) in Scotch Mission High School.|
As a student of Scotch, Mission High School he passed the Intermediate Examination of the Punjab University in the Second Division.
Came to Lahore was admitted to B.A. class in Government College stayed in the Oriental Hostel (now Iqbal Hostel) in Room No. 1.
Participated in -Urdu Bazm-i-Mushaira", held in Andaroon-i-Bhati Darwaza.
Became a member of the Anjuman-i-Kashmiri Musalmanan, Lahore.
Passed his B.A. Examination in the Second Division; stood First in Arabic and was awarded the Khan Bahadur F. S. JaIaluddin Medal.
Was admitted to the First Year class of Lahore Law School. He took the Law Examination but failed in Fiqah (Religious Jurisprudence).
Did M.A. in Philosophy and was placed in the 'third Division.
Shifted from Quadrangle Hostel, Room No 1, to a house in Andaroon-i-Bhati Gate, Koocha Jalootian.
Was appointed Macleod Arabic Reader in Oriental College, Lahore.
Became a member of the Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam, Lahore.
Aftab Iqbal was born.
Recited his famous poem "Nala-i-Yateem" in the annual meeting of the Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam.
Was appointed to teach English at Islamia College, Lahore, for six months.
Recited the poem "Dard-i-Dil" in the annual meeting of the Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam.
The poem "Himala" was published in the first issue of Makhzan.
Iqbal came back to his old job in Oriental College, Lahore.
|*||Took the Extra Assistant Commissionership Examination but was rejected by the Medical Board.|
Participated in the Kashmiri Conference which was presided over by Nawab Sir Saleemullah.
|1902||23 February||Recited the poem "Islamia College Ka Khitab Punjab Ke Musalmanon Ko" in the annual meeting of the Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam. The Chairman of the meeting, Miyan Nizamuddin, Sub-Judge, Rawalpindi, bestowed upon him the title of "Malik-ul-Shuara."|
|August||Iqbal thought of going to America for higher studies.|
|3 October||was appointed to teach English at Government College, Lahore, for six months.|
|1903||1 March||Recited the poem "Faryad-i-Ummat" in the annual meeting of the Anjunian-i-Himayat-i-Islam.|
|3 April||The term of his services at Government College, Lahore expired.|
|3 June||Iqbal was appointed Assistant Professor of Philosophy in Government College, Lahore.|
|*||His first book Ilumul Iqtisad was published.|
|1904||August||Visited his elder brother, Sheikh Ata Mohammad, in Abbotabad in the summer vacations. There, on the request of friends, Iqbal gave a lecture on "National Life." To this visit we owe the poem "Abr" in Bang-i-Dara.|
|1905||*||Took Study Leave from Government College, Lahore.|
|1 September||Proceeded to Europe for higher studies.|
|2 September||Arrived at Delhi; visited the shrine of Nizamuddin, Aulia and the tomb of Ghalib.|
|3 September||Left Delhi.|
|4 September||Arrived at Bombay.|
|7 September||Left Bombay by ship for London.|
|24 September||Reached London.|
|25 September||Reached Cambridge.|
|*||Admission to Trinity College, Cambridge.|
|1907||*||Took the B. A. Degree of Cambridge University.|
|1 June||Attended Professor Arnold's Dinner at Cambridge.|
|July||Proceeded to Germany in the third week.|
|*||Completed his Ph.D. thesis, "The Development of Metaphysics in Persia," during his stay at Heidelberg and Munich. Was awarded Ph. D. degree by the Munich University.|
|1908||*||Taught Arabic at London University for some time.|
|1 July||Was called to the Bar.|
|27 July||On his return to Lahore, Sheikh Gulab Din gave a Reception Dinner in his honour at Bagh Bairoon-i-Bhati Darwaza.|
|*||Iqbal Stayed in a house in Mohan Lal Road (now Urdu Bazar).|
|1 August||In Sialkot, the citizens gave him a warm Reception.|
|October||He shifted his residence to a house in Anarkali.|
|30 October||The Chief Court of the Punjab gave him permission to practise law.|
|*||The Anjuman-i-Kashmiri Musalmanan, Lahore, was revived and Iqbal was appointed its Secretary.|
|December||A delegation of the Anjuman-i-Kashmiri Musalmanan was led by Iqbal to meet Nawab Sir Saleemullah at Amritsar.|
|*||The Development of Metaphysics in Persia was published.|
|1909||6 February||Iqbal was elected General Secretary of the Anjuman-i-Kashmiri Musalmanan, Lahore.|
|24 February||Was appointed a member of the Anjuman-i Himayat-i-Islam for three years.|
|May||Was appointed the Acting Professor of Philosophy at Government College, Lahore.|
|1910||2 February||Was appointed a member of the General Council of the Anjuman-i-Himayat-i- Islam.|
|18 March||Proceeded on a journey to the South.|
|*||At Hyderabad he met Maharaja Sir Kishan Prasad "Shad" and Sir Akbar Haideri.|
|29 March||Returned to Lahore.|
|April||Recited his poem "Shikwa" in presence of his father, Sheikh Noor Mohammed, at the annual meeting of the Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam.|
|*||Presided over the third meeting of the All India Mohammedan Educational Conference, at Delhi.|
|1912||16 April||Recited the poem -Shama aur Shair" at the annual meeting of tile Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam.|
|1913||7 September||Arrived at Kanpur; met the Collector. Kanpur, in connexion with the demolition of a mosque-Khwaja Hasan Nizami accompanied him.|
|8 September||Arrived at Allahabad; met Akbar Allahabadi. Arrived at Delhi; met Hakim Ajmal Khan.|
|*||Tarikhi-i-Hind was published-for which Iqbal collaborated with Lala Ram Prasad, Professor, Government College, Lahore.|
|*||Iqbal recited the poem "Jawab-i-Shikwa" in a public meeting held at Bagh Bairoon-i- Mauchi Darwaza, Lahore.|
|1914||*||Married Sardar Begum (mother of Javed Iqbal) - his second marriage.|
|9 November||Iqbal's mother, Imam Bibi, expired in Sialkot.|
|December||Married Mukhtar Begum - his third marriage.|
|1915||17 January||Letter to Maulana Girami "I am losing interest in writing poetry in Urdu. I feel more disposed towards writing poetry in Persian, and the reason is that I cannot fully express the pent-up feelings of my heart in Urdu."|
|17 October||Iqbal's daughter, Miraj Begum, born of his first wife, died.|
|*||Asrar-i-Khudi was published.|
|1916||30 January||Iqbal was elected member of the General Council of the Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam.|
|14 July||Letter to Syed Fasihullah Kazmi regarding the reaction of certain circles to Asrar-i-Khudi "I am of the opinion that the poetry of Hafiz, in particular, as well as Persian poetry, in general, has had a very depressing effect on the character and general life of the Muslims. For this reason I have written against Hafiz, I expected that people would oppose and abuse me, but my conscience would compel me to speak out the truth."|
|1917||13 November||Letter to Syed Sulaiman Nadvi ,,Even the very concept of tasawwuf is an alien plant on the soil of Islam, one which has been brought up in the intellectual climate. of Ajamis (non-Arabs, specially Persians)."|
|1918||*||For some time Iqbal taught. Philosophy at Islamia College, Lahore.|
|*||Ramooz-i-Bekhudi was published.|
|1919||14 December||He was appointed the General Secretary of the Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam.|
|30 December||Delivered a speech in favour of the Turks in a public meeting held at Bairoon-i-Mauchi Darwaza and presided over by Miyan Fazal Husain.|
|1920||31 March||Was again elected the General Secretary of the Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam.|
|*||The English Translation of Asrar-i-Khudi, by Professor Nicholson, was published in London.|
|1921||7 September||Letter to Wahid Ahmad ,The truth is that the European ethos made me a Muslim."|
|1922||16 April||Iqbal recited the poem "Khizr-i-Rah" at the annual meeting of the Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam.|
|31 July||He resigned from the post of the Honorary General Secretary of the Anjuman-i- Himayat-i-Islam.|
|1 September||Letter to Ibrahim Hanif "It is a long time since I have given tip the study of Philosophy."|
|14 October||He was elected member of the General Council of the Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam.|
|December||Towards the end of the month he shifted his residence to a house in Macleod Road.|
|*||The first book on Iqbal, A Voice from the East, by Nawab Sir ZuIfiqar Ali, was published.|
|1923||1 January||Iqbal was awarded Knighthood by the British Government.|
|4 January||Letter to Ghulam Bheck Nairang (in connexion with the award of Knighthood) "Such events are too low to arouse any feelings. I have received hundreds of letters and telegrams, and I am wondering why people regard these things as valuable ... By the glorious. God... no power in the world can prevent me from speaking out the truth."|
|17 January||A Reception was given in his honour by the citizens of Lahore at Maqbara-i-Jehangir. He made a speech at a Reception organised by the Philosophical Society of Government College, Lahore.|
|30 March||He recited the poem "Tulu-i-Islam" at the annual meeting of the Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam.|
|24 June||Letter to Zamindar -To have Bolshevik ideas is, in my opinion, to debar oneself from the premises of Islam. Both the Capitalism of the West and the Bolshevism of Russia are results of extremism. The way of moderation is one that has been taught by Quran."|
|8 July||Iqbal was appointed the Secretary General of the Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam for the second time.|
|*||Payam-i-Mashriq was published.|
|1924||19 May||He resigned from the post of the Secretary Gencral of the Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam and was elected the President of the Anjuman.|
|28 July||Resigned from the Presidentship of the Anjuman.|
|September||Bang-i-Dara was published.|
|15 October||Javed Iqbal was born.|
|19 October||Journey to Ludhiana.|
|21 October||His third wife, Makhtar Begum, died in Ludhiana.|
|1926||20 July||While contesting the membership of the Punjab Legislative Assembly, he made the following statement "I have been aloof from all such activities. But now the miseries of the community are compelling me to broaden my sphere of activity. May be, my humble existence is of some use to this community."|
|23 November||Iqbal was elected member of the 'Punjab Legislative Assembly.|
|*||The first Urdu book on Iqbal, Iqbal, by Maulvi Ahmaduddin Vakil, was published.|
|1927||24 March||Iqbal presided over a meeting held at Habibia Hall (Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmood spoke on "Religion and Science").|
|16 April||Iqbal gave a Lecture in English on -The Spirit of Islamic Culture" at the annual meeting of the Anjuman-Islam.|
|May||He was appointed the Convenor of the Relief Committee instituted following the Hindu-Muslim riots of Dabbi Bazar, Lahore.|
|*||The Persian Text Book for High School students, Aina-i-Ajam, was published.|
|June||Zaboor-i-Ajam was published.|
|*||Iqbal actively participated in the functioning of the Punjab Legislative Assembly.|
|1928||8 April||He gave a lecture on -,Islamic Philosophy'' at the annual meeting of the Anjuman-i-Humayat-i-Islam|
|*||Gave his Presidential Address on "A Plea for the Deeper Study Of the Muslim Scientists" at a meeting of the Oriental Congress, Lahore.|
|December||After attending a meeting of the All Parties Muslim Conference, at Delhi, Iqbal made a journey to South India via Bombay From where lie took a sea-route - Chaudhry Mohd. Husain and Abdullah Chughtai were his fellow-travellers.|
|1929||7 January||At Madras he spoke at a Reception organized by the Anjuman-i-Khawatin-i-Islam.|
|9 January||At Bangalore he attended a Reception organized by the members of the Muslim Library and the Anjuman|
|10 January||He arrived at Mysore. At Mysore University lie gave his Lecture on -Knowledge and Religious Experience."|
|11 January||At Mysore Town Hall he attended a Reception organized by the Muslims of Mysore City and the Yateem Khana-i-Islamia.|
|*||Visited the tomb of Sultan Tipu Shaheed.|
|15 January||Arrived at Hyderabad.|
|*||Gave three Lectures on different topics.|
|18 January||Met the Nizam of Deccan.|
|14 April||Back in Lahore he gave a lecture on "The Study of the Quran" at the annual meeting of the Anjuman-iHimayat-i-Islam.|
|May||His name was proposed for the post of Judge, Punjab High Court, but he was not appointed owing to the opposition of the Chief Justice.|
|13 November||He attended a meeting of the Union of the Aligarh Intermediate College.|
|December||Proceeded on a visit to Aligarh in the last week of the month.|
|1930||17 August||Iqbal's father, Sheikh Noor Mohammed, expired.|
|*||The collection of his English lectures, Six Lectures on the Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam was published.|
|29 December||He presented the concept of a federation of the Muslim Majority Provinces at the annual meeting of the All India Muslim League held at Allahabad.|
|1931||April||Attended the All Parties Muslim Conference held at Delhi.|
|8 September||Proceeded to London to attend the Second Round Table Conference.|
|10 September||Arrived at Bombay.|
|12 September||Left for London by the ship Maluja.|
|27 September||Reached London; stayed at St James's Palace (Ghulam Rasool "Mehr" joined him on 1st October).|
|7 October||He attended the Lunch given by the Ex-Prime Minister of Iran, Syed Ziauddin Tabatabai.|
|8 October||Attended the Lunch given by the Secretary of the Iraqi Council, Afzal Bey.|
|9 October||Attended the Dinner given by the Ambassador of Albania.|
|10 October||Attended a Dinner in the company of some distinguished Indians.|
|12 October||Sir Dany Ross called on him.|
|14 October||He attended a Dinner in honour of the Indian Delegation at Ritz Hotel.|
|16 October||Attended the Anniversary Function of the Coronation of King Nadir Shah at the Afghan Embassy. Ghazi Rauf Bey and Saeed Shamul met him.|
|23 October||Attended a Dinner given by the Nawab of Chhatari.|
|4 November||Addressed an academic meeting organized by tile Indian Society.|
|18 November||Visited Cambridge; met Professor Dickinson and his other teachers; and attended a Reception given in his honour.|
|*||Attended a Reception given by the Iqbal Literary Association.|
|21 November||He participated in tile Round Table Conference from 28 September to 20 November, and then departed from London. He halted at Paris for some hours - Sardar Umrao Singh and Iqbal Shaidai met him.|
|22 November||Arrived at Rome; was received by Dr. Scarpa, the Ex-Consul General of Italy in India, who was his great admirer.|
|23 November||Visited the historical monuments of Rome.|
|24 November||Called at the office of The Italian Encyclopedia and met the editor, Professor Gentley.|
|25 November||Met the exiled king of Afghanistan, Shah Amanullah Khan.|
|26 November||Addressed the Royal Academy of Italy (see the text in Letters and Writings of Iqbal by Bashir Ahmad Dar, pp. 80-82).|
|27 November||Met Mussolini and gave him the following advice "Turn away from Europe towards the East."|
|28 November||Went to Naples and saw the ruins of Pompeii.|
|29 November||Arrived at Brindisi.|
|30 November||Left Brindisi by the ship Victoria.|
|1 December||Arrived at Alexandria and met the members of the Shabanul Muslimin Society; arrived at Cairo in the evening; stayed at the Metropolitan Hotel; met Egyptian scholars and nobles; went to see the Pyramids.|
|3 December||Met Dr. Mohd. Husain Haikal and other important persons.|
|4 December||Visited the Egyptian museums and historical monuments.|
|5 December||Left Cairo for Jerusalem by train.|
|6 December||Reached Jerusalem; stayed at the Grand Hotel; attended the Inaugural Session of the Motamar Alam-i-Islami.|
|7 December||Was elected the Vice-President of the Motamar.|
|14 December||Was engaged for the whole week in the activities of the Motamar. Visited the holy places. His last speech at the Motamar "When you return to your country, spread the spirit of brotherhood everywhere, and pay special attention to the youth."|
|15 December||Left Jerusalem for India via Port Said.|
|28 Decernber||Arrived at Bombay; met Atiyya Faizi at Aivan-i-Rifat in the evening; left Bombay by train.|
|30 December||30 December|
|1932||1 March||Iqbal spoke at a Reception organized by the Islamic Research Institute (Secretary Khwaja Abdul Waheed) in the garden of the Lahore Town Hall.|
|6 March||The first Iqbal Day was celebrated under the auspices of the Islamic Research Institute, Lahore, at Y.M.C.A. Hall.|
|21 March||Gave his Presidential Address at a meeting of the All India Muslim Conference held at Bagh Bairoon-i-Mauchi Darwaza.|
|20 June||Resigned from the Presidentship of the All India Kashmir Committee.|
|August||Maulana Anwar Shah Kashmiri called on him.|
|17 October||Iqbal proceeded to London to attend the Third Round Table Conference.|
|24 November||A Reception was given in his honour by the National League at London.|
|30 December||After participating in the Conference he left London.|
|1933||*||Met Bergson in Paris.|
|January||Reached Spain in the first week of the month. Visited Masjid-i-Qartaba "My visit to the Mosque elevated me to such a height of feeling as I had never attained to before" (Letter to Sheikh Mohd. Akram).|
|24 January||Gave a Lecture oil "The Intellectual World of Islam and Spain" at Madrid University.|
|26 January||Reached Paris.|
|1 February||Left Paris.|
|February||Came back to Lahore.|
|18 March||Presided over a meeting at Jamia Millia Islamia, Dehli - the speech of Ghazi Rauf Pasha.|
|15 April||Gave a speech- at Jamia Millia Islamia attended the Dinner given by Professor Mohammed Mujeeb.|
|20 October||On the invitation of King Nadir Shah a threemember delegation proceeded to Afghanistan; it consisted of Iqbal, Syed Sulaiman Nadvi and Sir Ross Masood Barrister Ghulam Rasool accompanied Iqbal as his Secretary and Ali Baksh as his servant.|
|23 October||Reached Kabul; stayed at the Royal Guest House, Darul Aman.|
|*||Met King Nadir Shah.|
|26 October||Attended the Dinner given by Sadr-i-Azam (the Grand Vizier), Sardar Hashim.|
|27 October||Offered the Juma Prayers at Jama Masjid Pull Khisti; met Mulla Shor Bazar.|
|28 October||Attended a Tea Party given by the Defence Minister, Shah Mahmood Khan. Spoke at a Reception organized by Anjuman-i-Adabi, Kabul.|
|29 October||Met the Foreign Minister, Sardar Faiz Mohd. Khan.|
|30 October||Left Kabul. Reached Ghaznain and visited the tombs of Hakim Sanai, Mahmood Ghaznavi and the father of Data Ganj Baksh.|
|3 November||Came back to Lahore via Quetta.|
|4 December||Was awarded D.Litt. degree by the Punjab University-was the first Indian to get this Degree.|
|1934||10 January||On I'd Day, the weather being very cold, Iqbal took Sivayyan with curd. He got throat trouble-the beginning of his long illness.|
|11 June||Went to Delhi to consult Hakim Nabina.|
|29 June||Visited Sarhind and took Javed Iqbal with him.|
|1 July||Was elected the President of the Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam.|
|5 December||Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru visited him.|
|22 December||Reached Delhi, and then Aligarh.|
|1935||January||Bal-i-Jibril was published.|
|29 January||Proceeded on his way to Bhopal to undergo electric therapy|
|30 January||Arrived at Delhi. Presided over a meeting at Jamia Millia Islamia - the meeting was addressed by Khalida Adib Khanam. Left Delhi that evening.|
|31 January||Reached Bhopal; stayed at Riaz Manzil.|
|10 March||Returned to Lahore after undergoing electric therapy at Bhopal.|
|*||Nawab Hameedullah Khan of Bhopal awarded a monthly Pension of Rs. 500 to Iqbal.|
|11 May||Letter to Lama "At your instance Tagore came to Lahore to meet me and enquire after my health, but I was not there and therefore I could not meet him."|
|*||Iqbal shifted his residence to his own house, Javed Manzil, in New Road (Now Allama Iqbal Road).|
|25 May||His wife (mother of Javed Iqbal) died.|
|7 July||Letter to Lama "My health is all right, but I feel I am running down day by day."|
|15 July||Proceeded to Bhopal for a second course of the electric therapy; Javed Iqbal and Ali Baksh accompanied him.|
|17 July||Reached Bhopal, stayed at Sheesh Mafial.|
|30 August||Returned to Lahore after undergoing electric therapy in Bhopal.|
|October||Attended the Birth Centenary Celebrations of Hali at Panipet.|
|11 December||Letter to Ross Masood "The money settled on me by the Nawab of Bhopal is sufficient for me ... An undue desire for money is avarice which does not become a Muslim in any way. I feel shy to accept this amount (which the Agha Khan had offered to settle on him)."|
|1936||*||Zarb-e-Kalim was published.|
|29 February||Proceeded to Bhopal for a third course of the electric therapy.|
|2 March||Reached Bhopal, stayed at Sheesh Mafial.|
|9 April||Returned to Lahore after undergoing electric therapy in Bhopal.|
|12 April||Attended the function of rhe Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam for the last time and recited his poem "Naghma-i-Sarmadi."|
|April||Mr Mohammad Ali Jinnah came to Lahore to meet him. Iqbal was elected the President of the Punjab Muslim League.|
|1937||15 January||Letter to Ross Masood "It was my intention to visit the shrine of the Holy Prophet this year; but certain circumstances have prevented me. I hope that next year I shall be doing Haj and also presenting myself at the shrine of the Holy Prophet."|
|27 January||Iqbal gave a Dinner in honour of the visiting Egyptian scholars at Spencer Hotel (Montgomery Road).|
|28 April||Was elected the President of the Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam.|
|13 June||Letter to Sir Akbar Haideri "The only- desire that keeps pricking my heart is that I may go to Mecca for Haj and thence proceed to' present myself at the shrine of that being whose infinite devotion to God has been a source of solace and inspiration for me."|