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Population - Essay Details of Population Commercial Geography

Details of Population

Since Independence the population of Pakistan has increased four-fold from 32.5 million in 1947 to 117.32 million on January 1,1992 of which : 
47,063,000 live in Punjab 
19,029,000 live in Sindh 
11,062,000 in NWFP 
4332,000 live in Baluchistan 
2,198,00 live FATA 
340,000 live in Islamabad 
(FATA-Fedrally Administered Tribal Area) 


Rate of Population Growth

The growth of Population depends upon the net addition of the people which is related to the behavior of three factors,migration,birth rate and death rate. 
Pakistan being a developing country provides no attraction for the people from the other parts of the world and so the influence of migration on its population growth is almost negligible .It is therefore clear that the rate of population growth in the country is influenced by the difference between the birth and death rates. 
Therefore, the high rate of growth is due to natural increase, that is,the excess of births over deaths.Pakistan has one of the highest rates of Population growth in the World.The population is increasing at the rate of 3.1% per anum as against 3.5% for Mexico,2.3% for India,2% for China,1.6% for U.S.A ,2% for Asia and Africa ,1% for Europe and average rate 1.8% for the whole world.At this speed of growth ,the total population by the year 2000 will touch 150 million. 


Population Density

Density of population refers to the number of people living per square km.Its study is important because through it the pressure on the land can be measured and also magnitude of the requirements of the people can be assessed .It also becomes the base for economic planning. 
The density of population in Pakistan,according to the 1981 census,is estimated at 106 persons per sq.km.as against 82 persons in 1972 census.The density,however,varies widely between provinces.The Punjab has the highest density of 230 persons,compared to 12 persons per sq.km.for Baluchistan,135 for Sindh,148 for NWFP ,81 for FATA and 376 for Islamabad. 


Causes of Difference in Density of Population

1.The more densely populated centres of Pakistan are situated in the Urban areas,which are the busiest centres of trade and commerce.Besides,so many industries have also developed around these areas.The surrounding areas,around Lahore,Faisalabad and Gujranwala,are very fertile.The irrigation facilities are available ,so the necessities of life can be had easily.The employment facilities in different industrial and commercial units are also available.That is why the population of rural area is migrating towards these Urban centres and their population is increasing very rapidly. 
2.The areas situated in the plains are more densely populated than the mountain,regions,because the mountains having pugged topography are not suitable for agricultural activities.Besides,in winter, due to intense cold,snowfall is common and the mean of transportation become ineffective the establishment of industries not possible in these areas due to scarcity of resources.That these areas are thinly populated. 
3.In the plains ,the density if population also differs in various regions.The areas of Punjab and Sindh there irrigation facilities and other resources are available,density of population is more than the dry Barani areas.Lahore,Faisalabad,Gujranwala,Multan districts are more dense than Attock,Jhelum and Dera Ghazi Khan districts.Similarly in Sindh,Hyderabad,Larkana,Nawabshah districts are more densely populated than Tharparkar,Thatta,Dadu and Sanghar Districts. 
4.Those areas which are situated far away and where climate is intense,irrigation facilities are not available ,rain is meager and there is scarcity of resources,even the water for drinking purpose has to be brought from long distances,there density of population is very low. 
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Birth and Death Rates

1.Birth Rate

Birth rate in Pakistan also figures highest in the World.In 1988 it stood at 41 per 100 persons.Factors responsible for the high birth rate in our country are : 
(i) Climatic Conditions 
(ii) Poverty 
(iii) Ill-Literacy 
(iv) Social Convention 
(v) Psychology of the people 
(vi) Economic Conditions and to marry in the early age and 
(vii) Religious minded people. 
2.Death Rate

Death rate in Pakistan ,particularly of women and infants is very high.In 1988 it stood at 11 per 100 persons.It is because of this factor that the average age in Pakistan is below 30 years. 


Distribution of Population in Pakistan

(A)Rural/Urban Distribution

The basis of Urbanity of settlement in Pakistan is its administrative organization (metropolitan, municipality,town committee,cantonment, civilizations,satellite town) and size (5,000 persons or over).Pakistan is pre-dominantly an agricultural country,inspite of the developments of the last more than three decades in the field of industry and commerce.Hence,the vast majority of the population lives in rural areas. 

The table below gives the percentage of the population of Pakistan by Arban/Rural areas during the last four censuses: 
Census Year -----------------------Percentage of Population Rural 
...................................'Urban..................................Rural 
1951------------------------------17.8%-----------------------------------------82.2% 
1961------------------------------22.50%----------------------------------------77.50% 
1972------------------------------25.48%----------------------------------------74.52% 
1981------------------------------28.28%----------------------------------------71.72% 
Percentage figures of urban population to the total since the beggining of regular censuses in the country,indicate a general acceleration of growth of urban population.The rate of natural increase of urban population has been lower than that of rural population.The higher rate of growth of urban population is,therefore,largely a result of rural-urban migration. 
1.Dense Population

With the passage of time ,the village autonomy and solidarity crumbled under impact of economic forces conductive to rural urban migration.The "freedom" of the city or the availability of greater job opportunities in the town acted as a magnet. 
The process of industrialization has involved marked shifts with the use of material and human resources.It has altered the occupational large-scale movement of population from rural to the urban areas. 
Pakistan is essentially dry with a large area of un-productive and barren land.For example,in the hills and sandy wastes of Sindh and Baluchistan,the population is very sparse.By contrast,the fertile Indus plain supports a fairly dense population.Since,with the help of irrigation.It is possible to grow good crops there.The highest density-over 2,000 persons per square kilometer is in Karachi division and 1,984 persons per sq.km.is found in Lahore division.This is,of course,due to that city's great urban,commercial and industrial development.In the same way,other industrial districts like Faisalabad,Hyderabad,Peshawar,Rawalpindi and Mardan are densely populated. 
In most of the metropoliton centres,improvement of facilities has called to keep pace with the rapid growth of population and these cities can be said overgrown.The distances to be covered are long and the means of transport and the width of the roads in adequate and these cities are also known as city of problems or city of smoke. 
The historical evolution of the cities has been such that they have two distinct parts,the old and the modern.The modern sections have wide roads,impressive lay-out and expensive buildings.The old city suffers from narrow roads and alleys,closest and small buildings and residential over crowding .Also,problems of "Katchi Abadis" are also growing rapidly. 
2.Sparsely Populated Areas

Before the advent of canal irrigation the population of rural areas was very sparse.After the construction of canals,water became available to areas away from the rivers,new settlements grew in the irrigated areas of Sindh and Punjab and there was a continuous rise of population.On the other side ,sparsely populated areas in the country are : 
(i) The Northern and Western hill tracts 
(ii) The dry plateau of Baluchistan 
(iii) The desert areas of Thal,Thar and Cholistan 
In these regions,low rainfall and soll that is either sandy or stone have resulted in barren or waste lands.For these reasons cultivation is difficult.As a result ,the density of population is less than 50 persons per sq.km.In the more barren regions of Kalat Division,there are only 10 persons per sq.km. and in Chaghi and Kharan,where less than three percent of the area is cultivated,the density falls as low as two. 


(B) Distribution of Sex

The last three population censuses estimates and also that of 1992 are as follows: 
Census Year-----------------Total-------------- Male---------------------------------Female 
1961-------------------------- 42,978-------------23,017 -------------------------------19,961 
1972---------------------------65,321-------------34,840--------------------------------30,481 
1981---------------------------84,253-------------44,232--------------------------------40,021 
1992---------------------------11,7310------------61,000--------------------------------56,310 
(estimated) 


(C) Distribution By Age

According to 1981 census the distribution of population by age is as under: 
(1) Under 15 years-44.04% 
(ii) 15 to 54 years-51.84% 
(iii) 65 years and above-4.12% 
It will be observed that people falling in the age group (15 t 54) years may be considered working population which is 51.84%,remaining 48.16% is the dependent population .The high degree of dependency is due to the high proportion of children in the total population. 


(D) Literacy-Wise Population

In Pakistan the literate people in towns is higher than in villages.Similarly it is higher in men than in women.Ratio of educated men and women is 23% and 7.5% respectively.Among the literate persons in Pakistan only 3.15% have been educated upto secondary school level or above.According to the present census report,only 20% of the workers are educated .Only 0.40% of the total population have done their B.A Even fewer are highly educated.

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