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cs302 gdb perfect solution

BCD is very common in electronic systems where a numeric value is to be displayed, especially in systems consisting solely of digital logic, and not containing a microprocessor. By employing BCD, the manipulation of numerical data for display can be greatly simplified by treating each digit as a separate single sub-circuit. This matches much more closely the physical reality of display hardware—a designer might choose to use a series of separate identical seven-segment displays to build a metering circuit, for example. If the numeric quantity were stored and manipulated as pure binary, interfacing to such a display would require complex circuitry. Therefore, in cases where the calculations are relatively simple, working throughout with BCD can lead to a simpler overall system than converting to and from binary. Most pocket calculators do all their calculations in BCD.

The same argument applies when hardware of this type uses an embedded microcontroller or other small processor. Often, smaller code results when representing numbers internally in BCD format, since a conversion from or to binary representation can be expensive on such limited processors. For these applications, some small processors feature BCD arithmetic modes, which assist when writing routines that manipulate BCD quantities

Encoder

An Encoder functional device performs an operation which is the opposite of the

Decoder function. The Encoder accepts an active level at one of its inputs and at its output

Generates a BCD or Binary output representing the selected input. There are various types of

Encoders that are used in Combinational Logic Circuits.

Binary Encoder

The simplest of the Encoders are the 2n-to-n Encoders.

Priority Encoders

Priority Encoders remove the problem highlighted earlier with simple Binary Encoders.

Priority Encoders have necessary logic to activate the outputs corresponding to the highest

Priority input when multiple inputs are asserted simultaneously.

Boolean expressions for the three outputs O2, O1 and O0 of an 8-to-3 Priority Encoder

Are can be written in terms of variables.

Cascading Priority Encoders

The 74XX148 Priority Encoder has active-low inputs and active-low outputs. The

Encoder also has an active-low enable input E1 which enables or disables the outputs. The

Group Select GS active-low output is asserted when any one of the inputs is asserted. The

Enable output EO signal is used to cascade multiple Encoders to form larger Encoders. The

EO output is connected to the EI input of the Encoder which handles lower priority inputs.

BCD is very common in electronic systems where a numeric value is to be displayed, especially in systems consisting solely of digital logic, and not containing a microprocessor. By employing BCD, the manipulation of numerical data for display can be greatly simplified by treating each digit as a separate single sub-circuit. This matches much more closely the physical reality of display hardware—a designer might choose to use a series of separate identical seven-segment displays to build a metering circuit, for example. If the numeric quantity were stored and manipulated as pure binary, interfacing to such a display would require complex circuitry. Therefore, in cases where the calculations are relatively simple, working throughout with BCD can lead to a simpler overall system than converting to and from binary. Most pocket calculators do all their calculations in BCD.

The same argument applies when hardware of this type uses an embedded microcontroller or other small processor. Often, smaller code results when representing numbers internally in BCD format, since a conversion from or to binary representation can be expensive on such limited processors. For these applications, some small processors feature BCD arithmetic modes, which assist when writing routines that manipulate BCD quantities

Binary Encoder
The simplest of the Encoders are the 2n-to-n Encoders.


Priority Encoders
Priority Encoders remove the problem highlighted earlier with simple Binary Encoders.
Priority Encoders have necessary logic to activate the outputs corresponding to the highest
Priority input when multiple inputs are asserted simultaneously.
Boolean expressions for the three outputs O2, O1 and O0 of an 8-to-3 Priority Encoder are can be written in terms of variables.

Cascading Priority Encoders
The 74XX148 Priority Encoder has active-low inputs and active-low outputs.
The Encoder also has an active-low enable input E1 which enables or disables the outputs.
The Group Select GS active-low output is asserted when any one of the inputs is asserted.
The Enable output EO signal is used to cascade multiple Encoders to form larger Encoders.
The EO output is connected to the EI input of the Encoder which handles lower priority inputs

7-Segment Display
An LED or Light Emitting Diode is a solid state optical PN-junction diode which emits light energy in the form of “photons” when it is forward biased by a voltage allowing current to flow across its junction, and in Electronics we call this process electroluminescence.
In most practical applications, 7-segment displays are driven by a suitable decoder/driver IC such as the CMOS from a 4-bit BCD input. Today, LED based 7-segment displays have been largely replaced by liquid crystal displays (LCDs) which consume less current.
Priority Encoders cannot be used because it requires more time for process which encoding mechanism will be used by the institute for automating this task.

Encoder
An Encoder functional device performs an operation which is the opposite of the
Decoder function. The Encoder accepts an active level at one of its inputs and at its output
Generates a BCD or Binary output representing the selected input. There are various types of
Encoders that are used in Combinational Logic Circuits.
Binary Encoder
The simplest of the Encoders are the 2n-to-n Encoders.
Priority Encoders
Priority Encoders remove the problem highlighted earlier with simple Binary Encoders.
Priority Encoders have necessary logic to activate the outputs corresponding to the highest
Priority input when multiple inputs are asserted simultaneously.
Boolean expressions for the three outputs O2, O1 and O0 of an 8-to-3 Priority Encoder
Are can be written in terms of variables.
Cascading Priority Encoders
The 74XX148 Priority Encoder has active-low inputs and active-low outputs. The
Encoder also has an active-low enable input E1 which enables or disables the outputs. The
Group Select GS active-low output is asserted when any one of the inputs is asserted. The
Enable output EO signal is used to cascade multiple Encoders to form larger Encoders. The
EO output is connected to the EI input of the Encoder which handles lower priority inputs.

Solution:

Cascading Priority Encoders

The 74XX148 Priority Encoder has active-low inputs and active-low outputs. The

Encoder also has an active-low enable input E1 which enables or disables the outputs. The

Group Select GS active-low output is asserted when any one of the inputs is asserted. The

Enable output EO signal is used to cascade multiple Encoders to form larger Encoders. The

EO output is connected to the EI input of the Encoder which handles lower priority inputs.

7-segment Display

An LED or Light Emitting Diode is a solid state optical PN-junction diode which emits light energy in the form of “photons” when it is forward biased by a voltage allowing current to flow across its junction, and in Electronics we call this process electroluminescence.

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