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.•°How to Download past papers from study groups°•.

Share Your Current Mid Term Papers (Questions/Pattern) from 17 December 2016 to 29 December 2016 & Solved Past Papers, Solved MCQs as well here to help each other. Thanks 

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30% mcq's from moaz file 

short question 

draw shift logical left diagram and calculate result..

why we use  LES and LDS..

differnce btw base register and accumulator registers ...

some helping material ...

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+ Mя ṿḯ¢кÿ .•♥ thanks for sharing 

1. why does stack remove from a callee instead of caller No. 5
2. difference of AX and BX register No. 2
3. add [num1], [num2] correct the code line No. 3
4. push instruction No. 3
5.

CS401 current midterm paper 17 dec to 29 dec 2016

current papers of cs 401
Q1- Define RET n? 2 marks
Q2- Define Pop? 2mars
Q3-describe CMPS ? 3marks
Q4- Forget…
Q5- write assembly language program to store charcter B in top left of the screen? 5 marks
Q6- write a program to putting first 5 odd value and result put in Dx. 5 marks
1:write the assembly program language to start two arrays using bubble sort
2:how many arguments r required for RET?
3:how STOS works?
4:explain the correlation between interrupt number and interrupt handler?
5:how video divice r viewed by processor?
6: aik que tha us mein AX AND BX ki values di hue the usko calculate krna tha overflow tha kuch...

1. why does stack remove from a callee instead of caller No. 5
Ans : Parameters pushed for a subroutine are a waste after the subroutine has returned. They have to be cleared from the stack. Either of the caller and the callee can take the responsibility of clearing them from there. If the callee has to clear the stack it cannot do this easily unless RET n exists. That is why most general processors have this instruction. Stack clearing by the caller needs an extra instruction on behalf of the caller after every call made to the subroutine, unnecessarily increasing instructions in the program. If there are thousand calls to a subroutine the code to clear the stack isrepeated a thousand times. Therefore the prevalent convention in most high level languages is stack clearing by the callee; even though the other convention is still used in some languages. If RET n is not available, stack clearing by the callee is a complicated process. It will have to save the return address in a register, then remove the parameters, and then place back the return address so that RET will function. When this instruction was introduced in processors, only then high level language designers switched to stack clearing by the callee. This is also exactly why RET n adds n to SP after performing the operation of RET. The other way around would be totally useless for our purpose. Consider the stack condition at the time of RET and this will become clear why this will be useless. Also observe that RET n has discarded the arguments rather than popping them as they were no longer of any use either of the caller or the callee. The strong argument in favour of callee cleared stacks is that the arguments were placed on the stack for the subroutine, the caller did not needed them for itself, so the subroutine is responsible for removing them. Removing the arguments is important as if the stack is not cleared or is partially cleared the stack will eventually become full, SP will reach 0, and thereafter wraparound producing unexpected results. This is called stack overflow. Therefore clearing anything placed on the stack is very important.
2. difference of AX and BX register No. 2
Accumulator There is a central register in every processor called the accumulator. Traditionally all mathematical and logical operations are performed on the accumulator. The word size of a processor is defined by the width of its accumulator. A 32bit processor has an accumulator of 32 bits.
Pointer, Index, or Base Register The name varies from manufacturer to manufacturer, but the basic distinguishing property is that it does not hold data but holds the address of data.
Flags Register or Program Status Word This is a special register in every architecture called the flags register or the program status word. Like the accumulator it is an 8, 16, or 32 bits register but unlike the accumulator it is meaningless as a unit, rather the individual bits carry different meanings. The bits of the accumulator work in parallel as a unit and each bit mean the same thing. The bits of the flags register work independently and individually, and combined its value is meaningless.
Program Counter or Instruction Pointer Everything must translate into a binary number for our dumb processor to understand it, be it an operand or an operation itself. Therefore, the instructions themselves must be translated into numbers. (the symbols are called instruction
Mnemonic) For the processor 152 might be the add instruction. Just this one number tells it that it has to add, where its operands are, and where to store the result. This number is called the opcode
INSTRUCTION GROUPS Usual opcodes in every processor exist for moving data, arithmetic and logical manipulations etc. However, their mnemonics vary depending on the will of the manufacturer. Some manufacturers name the mnemonics for data movement instructions as “move,” some call it “load” and “store” and still other names are present. But the basic set of instructions is similar in every processor. A grouping of these instructions makes learning a new processor quick and easy. Just the group an instruction belongs tells a lot about the instruction.
3. add [num1], [num2] correct the code line No. 3
4. push instruction No. 3
PUSH : PUSH decrements SP (the stack pointer) by two and then transfers a word from the source operand to the top of stack now pointed to by SP. PUSH often is used to place parameters on the stack before calling a procedure; more generally, it is the basic means of storing temporary data on the stack.
current papers of cs 401
Q1- Define RET n? 2 marks
RET RET (Return) transfers control from a procedure back to the instruction following the CALL that activated the procedure. RET pops the word at the top of the stack (pointed to by register SP) into the instruction pointer and increments SP by two. If RETF (inter segment RET) is used the word at the top of the stack is popped into the IP register and SP is incremented by two. The word at the new top of stack is popped into the CS register, and SP is again incremented by two. If an optional pop value has been specified, RET adds that value to SP. This feature may be used to discard parameters pushed onto the stack before the execution of the CALL instruction.
Q2- Define Pop? 2mars
POP :- POP transfers the word at the current top of stack (pointed to by SP) to the destination operand and then increments SP by two to point to the new top of stack. POP can be used to move temporary variables from the stack to registers or memory. Observe that the operand of PUSH is called a source operand since the data is moving to the stack from the operand, while the operand of POP is called destination since data is moving from the stack to the operand.

Q3-describe CMPS ? 3marks
CMPS CMPS subtracts the source location DS:SI from the destination location ES:DI. Source and Destination are unaffected. SI and DI are updated accordingly. CMPS compares two blocks of memory for equality or inequality of the block. It subtracts byte by byte or word by word. If used with a REPE or a REPNE prefix is repeats as long as the blocks are same or as long as they are different. For example it can be used for find a substring. A substring is a string that is contained in another string. For example “has” is contained in “Mary has a little lamp.” Using CMPS we can do the operation of a complex loop in a single instruction. Only the REPE and REPNE prefixes are meaningful with this instruction.

Q5- write assembly language program to store charcter B in top left of the screen? 5 marks

Q6- write a program to putting first 5 odd value and result put in Dx. 5 marks

1:write the assembly program language to start two arrays using bubble sort
2:how many arguments r required for RET?
3:how STOS works?
STOS STOS transfers a byte or word from register AL or AX to the string element addressed by ES:DI and updates DI to point to the next location. STOS is often used to clear a block of memory or fill it with a constant. The implied source will always be in AL or AX. If DF is clear, SI will be incremented by one or two depending of whether STOSB or STOSW is used. If DF is set SI will be decremented by one or two depending of whether STOSB or STOSW is used. If REP is used before this instruction, the process will be repeated CX times. CX is called the counter register because of the special treatment given to it in the LOOP and JCXZ instructions and the REP set of prefixes. So if REP is used with STOS the whole block of memory will be filled with a constant value. REP will always decrement CX like the LOOP instruction and this cannot be changed with the direction flag. It is also independent of whether the byte or the word variant is used. It always decrements by one; therefore CX has count of repetitions and not the count of bytes.

4:explain the correlation between interrupt number and interrupt handler?
5:how video divice r viewed by processor?
DISPLAY MEMORY FORMATION: We will explore the working of the display with ASCII codes, since it is our immediately accessible hardware. When 0x40 is sent to the VGA card, it will turn pixels on and off in such a way that a visual representation of ‘A’ appears on the screen. It has no reality, just an interpretation. The video device is seen by the computer as a memory area containing the ASCII codes that are currently displayed on the screen and a set of I/O ports controlling things like the resolution, the cursor height, and the cursor position. The VGA memory is seen by the computer just like its own memory. There is no difference; rather the computer doesn’t differentiate, as it is accessible on the same bus as the system memory. Therefore if that appropriate block of the screen is cleared, the screen will be cleared. If the ASCII of ‘A’ is placed somewhere in that block, the shape of ‘A’ will appear on the screen at a corresponding place. This correspondence must be defined as the memory is a single dimensional space while the screen is two dimensional having 80 rows and 25 columns. The memory is linearly mapped on this two dimensional space, just like a two dimensional is mapped in linear memory. There is one word per character in which a byte is needed for the ASCII code and the other byte is used for the character’s attributes discussed later. Now the first 80 words will correspond to the first row of the screen and the next 80 words will correspond to the next row. By making the memory on the video controller accessible to the processor via the system bus, the processor is now in control of what is displayed on the screen. The three important things that we discussed are. • One screen location corresponds to a word in the video memory • The video controller memory is accessible to the processor like its own memory. • ASCII code of a character placed at a cell in the VGA memory will cause the corresponding ASCII shape to be displayed on the corresponding screen location
6: aik que tha us mein AX AND BX ki values di hue the usko calculate krna tha overflow tha kuch...

Many mcqs were from moaaz files...
Qs..
1. define Pop instruction
2. Bits were given and asked what kind of shift is applied on it
3. Write assembly program to clear the screen
4. Which register is used for arithmetic and multiplication.
5. Change values in a program so that it becomes binary (program code was given)
6. How video memory is processed

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