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( Marks: 3 ) 

What did Muslim gain from the
Lucknow Pact?
ANS: The most significant achievement of this pact for the Muslims was that for the first time the Congress had recognized the Muslim League as a representative body of the Muslims of the sub-continent and they were granted separate electorates in the provincial as well as in Imperial Legislative Council.

Question No: 17    ( Marks: 2 )

 Write a very short note on Pakistan National Movement in 1940?

ANS:   The Pakistan Movement  refers to the independence movement of Pakistan from the British Indian empire and its emergence as a sovereign country. It has its origins in the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh.  The movement was led by lawyer Muhammad Ali Jinnah and such leaders as Allama IqbalLiaqat Ali KhanFatima Jinnah,Bahadur Yar JungMaulana Mohammad Ali JauharHuseyn Shaheed SuhrawardyA.K. Fazlul Huq, and Sardar Abdur Rab NishtarSir Ziauddin Ahmed.

   

Question No: 19    ( Marks: 3 )

 What were the main points of Lucknow Pact?

ANS: The main clauses of the Lucknow Pact were:

1. There shall be self-government in India.

2. Muslims should be given one-third representation in the central government

3. There should be separate electorates for all the communities until a community demanded for joint electorates.

4. System of weightage should be adopted.

 

Question No: 20    ( Marks: 5 )

 Write a note on The Communal Award, 1932?

Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald announced the Communal Award:

1. Separate electorate for all minorities ofIndia.

2. Weightage to minorities

3. No Muslim majorities in Punjab and Bengalas was followed in Lucknow Pact

4. One third representation for Muslims in Central legislature

5. One fourth representation for Muslims in services

6. Sind to be made a province

 

 

Question No: 17    ( Marks: 2 )

 Express Gandhi-Jinnah Talks, September 1944

 MK Gandhi did not accept the Hindus and Muslims as Two Nations and emphasized on the freedom of united India. Jinnah told him that the Muslims could never budge even a single inch from their ideological and constitutional demand.  

    

 Write down the partition process for Bengal?

ANS: The Partition of Bengal in 1947 divided Bengal into the two separate entities of West Bengal belonging to India, and East Bengal belonging to Pakistan. This was part of the Partition of India and officially took place during August 14-August 15, 1947. East Bengal was renamed East Pakistan, and later became the independent nation of Bangladeshafter the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971.

 

 Write a short note on The Quit India Movement 1942?

 

ANS: The Quit India Movement (Bharat Chhodo Andolan or the August Movement) was a civil disobedience movement launched in India in August 1942 in response to Mohandas Gandhi's call for immediate independence. Gandhi hoped to bring the British government to the negotiating table. Almost the entire Indian National Congress leadership, and not just at the national level, was put into confinement less than twenty-four hours after Gandhi's speech, and the greater number of the Congress leaders were to spend the rest of World War II in jail...

Question No: 20    ( Marks: 5 )

 Explain the Evolution of Two-Nation Theory in the Subcon?

 

ANS: The Two-Nation Theory was the basis for the Partition of India in 1947. It stated that Muslims and Hindus were two separate nations by every definition, and therefore Muslims should have an autonomous homeland in the Muslim majority areas ofBritish India for the safeguard of their political, cultural, and social rights, within or without a United India. The Two-Nation Theory is the ideology that the primary identity of Muslims in the Indiansubcontinent is their religion, rather than their language or ethnicity, and therefore Indian Hindus and Muslims are two distinct nationalities, regardless of ethnic or other commonalities.This Theory was a founding principle of the Pakistan Movement (i.e. the Ideology of Pakistan), and the Partition of India in 1947.

 

What were Delhi Muslim Proposals? Discuss in detail.?

ANS:  Important Muslim leaders on the initiative of the Quaid met in Delhi to discuss constitutional and political issues. The major demands were:

_ Punjab and Bengal: statuary Muslim majorities

_ No Weightage in provinces

_ Sind to be separated from Bombay

_ Constitutional Reforms in NWFP

_ One-third seats for Muslims in Central Legislature

_ On communal issues, no law will be passed if three-fourth members of the

concerned community oppose it. If these demands are accepted, they will give up ‘separate electorate.’ Subsequently, the Muslim League was divided in the Punjab, Shafi League and Jinnah League. Sir Muhammad Shafi opposed Jinnah on the issues: _ Separate electorate _ Attitude towards the Simon Commission. Jinnah continued his unremitting efforts to promote Hindu-Muslim unity.

 

Question No: 1 ( Marks: 20 )

 

Write a detailed note on the impacts of Khilaphat Movement on Indian politics.

 

ANS:

The Khilafat movement (1919-1924) was a pan-Islamic, political campaign launched byMuslims in British India to influence the British government and to protect the Ottoman Empire during the aftermath of World War I. The position of Caliph after the Armistice of Mudros of October 1918 with the military occupation of Istanbul and Treaty of Versailles(1919) fell into a disambiguation along with the Ottoman Empire's existence. The movement gained force after the Treaty of Sèvres (August 1920) which solidified the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire[1]. In India, although mainly a Muslim religious movement, the movement became a part of the wider Indian independence movement. The movement was a topic in Conference of London (February 1920). The Lucknow pact showed that it was possible for middle-class, English-educated Muslims and Hindus to arrive at an amicable settlement on Hindu-Muslim constitutional and political problems. This unity reached its climax during the Khilafat and the Non-Cooperation Movements.After World War I, the Ottoman Empire faced dismemberment. Under the leadership of the Ali Brothers, Maulana Muhammad Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali, the Muslims of South Asia launched the historic Khilafat Movement to try and save it. Mohandas Karam Chand Gandhi linked the issue of Swaraj with the Khilafat issue to associate Hindus with the movement. The ensuing movement was the first countrywide popular movement.The Muslims of India had a strong feeling of identity with the world community of Islam. They had seen the decline in the political fortunes of Islam as the European powers conquered the Muslim lands one after the other. The Anglo-Russian convention of 1908 had reduced their next-door neighbor Iran to a mere dependency.Afghanistan also suffered as it was a bone of contention between Russia and Britain, and was now under the latter's sphere of influence.The general impression among the Muslims of India was that the western powers were waging a war against Islam throughout the world in order to rob it of all its power and influence. The Ottoman Empire was the only Muslim power that had maintained a semblance of authority and the Muslims of India wanted to save the Islamic political power from extinction.

As an institution, the Khilafat had a checkered past. It had originally migrated from Medina toDamascus and from Damascus to Baghdad. For sometime it was located in Egypt, then it fell to the lot of Turkey, very much as a prize.The Turkish Sultans had claimed to be the caliphs of the Muslim world. As long as the Mughal Empire had been in existence, the Muslims of India had not recognized their claim. At this critical juncture, when the Muslims of the Sub-continent had no sovereign ruler of their own, they began to see the necessity of recognizing the Sultan of Turkey as their caliph. Tipu Sultan was the first Indian Muslim who, having been frustrated in his attempts to gain recognition from the Mughals, had turned to the Sultan of Turkey to establish a legal right to his throne.

The European powers had played a leading role in reducing the might of Turkey in Europeto Eastern Thrace, Constantinople and the straits in the Balkan Wars (1912-13). To seek revenge, the Turks decided to side with the Germans against the Allied Forces. The Indian Muslims supported this decision.

Muhammad Ali argued that for Muslims to accept mandates over Iraq, Syria andPalestine would amount to a total disregard of the wishes of the Holy Prophet (S. A. W.). Thus the Muslims of India launched the Tehrik-i-Khilafat. The objectives were as follows:

1. To maintain the Turkish Caliphate.

2. To protect the holy places of the Muslims.

3. To maintain the unity of the Ottoman Empire.

Although the Khilafat Movement failed to achieve its declared objectives, it carried political awakening to large masses of Muslims. It was during the Khilafat days that representatives of Indian Muslims came into contact with eminent personages from other Muslims countries to save the semblance of unity in the world of Islam. The Khilafat Movement was an asset for the struggle of Pakistan. It made clear to the Indian Muslims to trust neither the British nor the Hindus, but to look to their own strengths for self-preservation.

 

 (b) 1973 Constitution 5

Constitutional Committee comprising National Assembly (NA) members from all parties was set up in April 1972. Law Minister was the Chairman of this Committee.All parties agreed on the future political system in October 1972. The Committee reported onDecember 31, 1972. After long deliberations and compromises final draft was approved unanimously on April 10, 1973. The new Constitution was enforced on August 14, 1973.

 

(c) General Mirza Aslam Beg 5

 

General Mirza Aslam Beg, born 2 August, 1931, is a retired four star rank general who was the Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army succeeding General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, after the latter died in an air crash on August 17, 1988. He continued to hold the powerful post of Army Chief till 1991, when his political ambitions forced the then President Ghulam Ishaq Khan to nominate General Asif Nawaz as the new Army chief three months prior to Gen Beg’s retirement

 

(d) Importance of Cotton export 5

The importance of cotton can hardly be over emphasized in the economy of Pakistan.Pakistan is  the 3rd largest exporter of raw cotton and a leading exporter of yarn in the world. Cotton is not only an export-earning crop but also provides raw material to local textile industry. A profound investment in the form of over1000 ginning factories, over 400, textile mills heavily depends upon cotton. 

 

 (c) The Lahore Resolution http://www.vustudents.net

 The Muslim League held its annual session atLahore on 22-24 March 1940. The Lahore Resolution was moved by Maulvi Fazlul Haq and seconded by Ch. Khaliquzzaman that finally approved on March 24, 1940. Jinnah rightly expressed his valuable remarks about the political circumstances of India and the Muslims stand. He said: “Indian problem is not communal but international. No Constitution can work without recognizing this reality. Muslims of India will not accept a constitution that establishes a government of the Hindu majority on them. If Hindus and Muslims are placed under one democratic system, this would mean Hindu Raj.”

 

(d) Achhut community

 

 

(e) i

: Describe the causes of the division of Bengal and its impact on the Muslim politics in

 

the subcontinent

ANS: United Bengal’s area covered 189,000 sq. miles with 80 million populations. Dr Abdul Hameedwrites in his book, Muslim Separatism in India, that the partition was imperative even if Curzon had not initiated it. A Lt. Governor had problems in looking after the eastern areas. Mainly Muslim suffered because of the rotten administration by the British. Before 1905, many proposals of partition of Bengal had been under consideration but Lord Curzon decided to practicalise this administrative scheme. East Bengal became incidentally a Muslim majority province having 13000000 out of 31000000. West Bengalwas a Hindu majority province. Muslims were very happy on the partition as this had enabled them to promote their life conditions. It was rightly an opportunity for compensation. The Muslim community supported it strongly but Hindus retaliated furiously saying it the division of motherland. The Congress joined the anti-partition movement.They started widespread agitation, violence and boycott of foreign goods. The main reason of Hindu protest was that they had loosened grip over the eastern parts.

 

Explain the Cabinet Mission Plan and reaction of the political parties.

 

ANS: The British Cabinet Mission of 1946 to India aimed to discuss and plan for the transfer of power from the British Raj to Indian leadership, providing India with independence under Dominion status in the Commonwealth of Nations. Formulated at the initiative of Clement Attlee, thePrime Minister of the United Kingdom, the mission consisted of Lord Pethick-Lawrence, the Secretary of State for India, Sir Stafford Cripps, President of the Board of Trade, and A. V. Alexander, the First Lord of the AdmiraltyLord Wavell, the Viceroy of India, did not participate. TheMission's purpose was:

1.     Hold preparatory discussions with elected representatives of British India and the Indian states in order to secure agreement as to the method of framing the constitution.

2.     Set up a constitution body.

3.     Set up an Executive Council with the support of the main Indian parties.

 

The approval of the plans would determine the composition of the new government. The Congress Working Committee had initially approved the plan. However, on 10 July, Jawaharlal Nehru, who later became the first prime minister of India, held a press conference in Bombaydeclaring that the Congress had agreed only to participate in the Constituent Assembly and "regards itself free to change or modify the Cabinet Mission Plan as it thought best."[2] The Congress ruled out the June 16 plan, seeing it as the division of India into small states[citation needed]. Moreover,the Congress was a Centralist party. Intellectuals like Kanji Dawarkadas criticized the Cabinet Plan. Congress was against decentralization and it had been under pressure from Indian capitalists who wanted a strong Center. The plan's strongest opponent was the principal Indian leader Mohandas Gandhi, due to the reason that the territories had been grouped together on the basis of religion[citation needed].

The Muslim League gave its approval to the plan. There was an impression that the Congress also had accepted the scheme and the Plan would be the basis of the future constitution of India[citation needed]Jinnah, in his speech to the League Council, clearly stated that he recommended acceptance only because nothing better could be obtained[citation needed]. However, on declaration from the Congress President that the Congress could change the scheme through its majority in the Constituent Assembly, this meant that the minorities would be placed at the mercy of the majority. The Muslim League Council met at Bombay on 27 July. "Mr. Jinnah in his opening speech reiterated the demand for Pakistan as the only course left open to the Muslim League. After three days' discussion, the Council passed a resolution rejecting the Cabinet Mission Plan.

 

Question No: 17    ( Marks: 2 )

 Express Gandhi-Jinnah Talks, September 1944?

 

ANS: MK Gandhi did not accept the Hindus and Muslims as Two Nations and emphasized on the freedom of united India. Jinnah told him that the Muslims could never budge even a single inch from their ideological and constitutional demand.

 

  Question No: 18    ( Marks: 2 )

 Highlight The Second Roundtable Conference?

 

ANS: Maulana M. A. Jauhar had died after the first conference. Iqbal, Jinnah and others participated in the second conference. Gandhi represented the Congress. The key issues of the session were ‘Federation’ and ‘Minorities.

Question No: 19    ( Marks: 3 )

 Briefly tell The Direct Action Day August 16, 1946?

 

ANS: August 16,1946 The ML’s timely coercive political strategy brought the Congress on table with the British. The Interim Government was formed under Nehru onSeptember 2, 1946 and the ML stayed away.

They joined it on October 25, 1946:

_ Liaquat Ali Khan

_ Sardar Abdur-Rab Nishtar

_ Raja Gazanfar Ali

_ Chundrigar

_ J. N. Mandal

There were a number of problems of smooth functioning of the Interim Government due to the Muslim-Hindu differences.

 

   Question No: 20    ( Marks: 5 )

 Explain the Cancellation of the Partition ofBengal?

ANS: The cancellation of the Partition ofBengal was announced in 1911.The British government revoked the partition to avoid trouble on the visit of King George V. The Muslims were disappointed by the government response to the violent strategy of protests adopted by the Hindus.

   Question No: 21    ( Marks: 2 )

 Briefly tell about the Relations betweenPakistan and Egypt?

 

ANS:    Egypt under Nasser had some reservations due to Pakistan’s ties with the West. Pakistan supported Egypt when it was attacked by Israel in 1956, 1967, 1973. The relations began to improve since 1967 and especially after the death of Nasser in 1970.

 

Question No: 22    ( Marks: 2 )

 Write a very brief note on Land Reforms in Pakistan?

Ans: Land Reforms are introduced from time to time by different governments: in

1959, 1972, and 1977. The aim was to reduce land holding and to strengthen the

position of tenants. It was done for improving yield per acre and poverty alleviation in

agriculture field.

 

   

Question No: 23    ( Marks: 2 )

 What was the total strength of the National Assembly under the 1956 Constitution?

    The President was to be elected by National Assembly (NA)

PM would be appointed by President. President could not remove him unless he was sure that PM did not enjoy the support of majority in the National Assembly.

National Assembly was the only house of the parliament having a membership of 300 plus10 women seats.

All legislative powers were rested with NA.

NA could control the Executive.

 

Question No: 24    ( Marks: 2 )

 Draw attention to Junagarh issue.

    It was a small state with access to sea having about 7 lakh population and 3377 mile area. The ruler was Muslim while the majority of its population was Hindu. The ruler decided to accede to Pakistan and Pakistanalso accepted the accession. In November 1947, the Indian troops entered the state and took its control. The referendum favoured India.

 

Question No: 25  http://www.vustudents.net ( Marks: 3 )

 Briefly tell about the issue of Islamic or Secular status of Pakistan as a State?

From the very beginning of Pakistan Movement there was an agreement that the state will have close relationship with Islam. Muslims defined their national identity with reference to Islam and its heritage. Some opposition came from the Congress members of the Constituent Assembly, and a few secularists.

There was a BROAD AGREEMENT that the state will identify itself with Islam. The Constituent Assembly took time to define the precise relationship between the state and Islam.

 

   

Question No: 26    ( Marks: 3 )

 Write down some line about the educational career of Allama Iqbal.

 Iqbal began his education in a Maktab (Religious School).He passed his matriculation in 1893, and joined the Scotch Mission College (now called Murray College) for his intermediate examination. Iqbal passed intermediate with honour and shifted toLahore and joined the Government College.He graduated cum-laude and was also awarded a scholarship for further study leading towards a master’s degree in Philosophy.

 

Question No: 27    ( Marks: 3 )

 Write a note on the Geographical location of Pakistan.

 

Pakistan is located between 24_37 degrees North latitude 61_75 degrees East longitude. Its area is 796,095 sq Kilometers.

 

.Question No: 29    ( Marks: 5 )

 What do you know about the River/Cannal System in Pakistan?

    The river system of Pakistan is consisted ofIndus and other associated rivers. We have a well defined Canal system. The most important one is the Indus Basin project.

What we require is the proper management of water, its conservation, effective use, storage,dams and flood control. Water is dangerous if it is too much, it become a problem if it is too little.It is used for Agriculture where it is the backbone of agro-economy. It is also a cheapest source of hydroelectric Power generation.

Question No: 30    ( Marks: 5 )

 Write a note on the industrialization inPakistan during Bhutto and Zia’s regimes.

    New democratic government of PPP after assuming power adopted the policy of nationalisation.Ten basic industries were nationalised. Later some others were also taken over to have a greater state role. Initial euphoria ended and industrial output suffered. It also caused flight of capital from the country.

 

 Write down the names of the members of Simla Deputation?

  The Simla deputation comprised 35 Muslims from all over India.it was the most representative Muslim delegation. This delegation was led by Sir Agha Khan and Nawab Mohsin ul Malik served as a secretary.

 


Question No: 31    ( Marks: 2 )

 Define Constitution?

    Constitution is a set of basic principles and framework for governance and exercise of political power and legal authority. It clarifies the scope of power, relationship among various institutions within the government and society. It has precedence over ordinary laws and cannot be changed like ordinary laws.

 

  Question No: 34    ( Marks: 3 )

 In recent geopolitical scenario what rolePakistan's foreign policy should perform?

    The main aims of features of ‘Foreign Policy’ are protection of- independence, Sovereignty and Territorial Integrity. Primary concern is the SECURITY through diplomacy and military security arrangements. National mobilization regarding Pakistan’s security vis-à-vis India influenced foreign policy options. Strong defense is indispensable for survival.

 

 Question No: 36    ( Marks: 3 )

 Write note on Islamic Research Institute under the 1962 Constitution?

Islamic Research Institute It was designed for the Research and instructions in Islam for assisting the reconstruction of Muslim society on truly Islamic lines.

 

    Question No: 38    ( Marks: 5 )

 What were the Islamic Provisions introduced in the Constitution of 1962?

    Islamic Provisions

Objectives Resolution was the Preamble of the Constitution. Other Islamic provisions were a part of Principles of Policy and not the constitution.

 

Question No: 40    ( Marks: 10 )

 Comment on the importance of Education and why Pakistan’s position is low down in Literacy?

Importance of Education:

Education is a key to development for individual, society and state. It shapes natural qualities and talents of the individuals. It has positive relevance to family and society. It also confers citizens’ confidence to deal with environment, a sense of purpose. Education provides a goal orientation and is helpful to others by educating them. Education provides entitlement to job and professions. It gives effective tanning to the citizens about their rights and duties. It plays a more constructive role in character building of the person and in turn society as a whole. Education should be integrated to nation building and should be able to transmit the primary values. Education should be responsible for the formation of attitude.

It should transmit socialization among individuals. Education system is designed according to the ideology of the state and its identity. Education is the indicator of socio-economic development. For the real progress proper educational facilities should be provided. Literacy rate should be enhanced. Trained and qualified human power can make a nation success. Only such educated people can better be equipped to deal with changing situations and challenges of the time. Education provides better understanding of international environment that affects all of us. Islam asks Muslims to get education. Other religions also value education. Resource allocation for education is far from satisfactory. It is much less than what a large number of countries spend on education, especially those having developed after World War II. Most of these allocations go to salaries and administration. Fewer amounts are given for infrastructure, facilities of research and development.

 

    Low Literacy:

In Pakistan literacy rate is 46 per cent. While meaningful literacy is far less. Female literacy is lower. In rural areas literacy is much low.

 

Question No: 32    ( Marks: 2 )

 Who was Justice Shahabuddine?

He was the former chief justice; he was the chairman of a constitutional commission in 1960.

 

Question No: 33    ( Marks: 2 )

 Very shortly describe Pakistan's Literacy Rate?

    In Pakistan literacy rate is 46 per cent. While meaningful literacy is far less. Female literacy is lower. In rural areas literacy is much low.

 

Question No: 35    ( Marks: 3 )

 Draw attention to the Criticism on the 2nd Basic Principles Committee Report 1952?

The politicians particularly from the Punjabdeplored the Report because formation of the UH on the basis of representation was not acceptable. It was declared against the principle of federation. The WP favoured equality only for Upper House. The political crisis removed Prime Minister Nazimuddin and attention diverted from the core issue.

 

Question No: 38  http://www.vustudents.net ( Marks: 5 )

 Describe the Background of the Constitution of 1962?

Background Military took over on 7 October 1958 and consequently Ayub Khan became Chief Martial Law Administrator. One major task was to frame a new Constitution. The administration was critical of Parliamentary system because it caused instability in the past. They sought stability of the nation in the gradual development of democracy.

 

   

Question No: 39    ( Marks: 10 )

 What were the main constitutional issues which Pakistan had to face at the beginning?

Major Issues

The major issues, the first constituent assembly faced, were about:

1. Federalism

2. Representation

3. Separate or Joint Electorate

4. The National Language Issue

5. Parliamentary or Presidential system

6. The Islamic or Secular State

1: Federalism

There was consensus on federalism but yet there were many issues to be settled. The main was that Pakistan consisted of two territorial parts,East Pakistan (with more population, less territory but administratively one unit) and West Pakistan (administratively 4 units). Federalism is meant to accommodate such kind of diversity maintaining the unity of the state or country. Division of power: It was the most difficult question that how the power would be divided between Centre and the Provinces. The heritage of British rule gave the tradition of a Strong Centre. But the provinces were demanding more Autonomy and Provincial Rights. In the Interim Constitution and the 1956 Constitution tradition of strong centre continued.

2: Representation

Representation at the federal level was another conflicting issue because East Pakistan and West Pakistan were different in population and size. On the other hand there was diversity in Western part of Pakistan. The provinces ofWest Pakistan were also different in population and size. All of them were sensitive to their representation and provincial autonomy. To have a Standard Formula for the representation of units and population the Constituent Assembly (CA) formed a Basic Principle Committee (BPC) on March 12, 1949. The primary task of this committee was to frame a set of basic principles for the future constitution of Pakistan.

 

3: Separate or Joint Electorate

Separate electorate was adopted on the demand of Muslims in 1909 by the British Government. But the minorities did not favour this after independence. Religious elements supported this as a part of heritage. East: decided for Joint Electorate.

West: Separate electorate.

1957: Joint Electorate was adopted for allPakistan by the National Assembly.

4: The National Language Issue

Pre-independence: Muslim elite all over Indiaadopted Urdu. In 1948 Jinnah declared that Urdu would be the national language but provinces could use their languages. Opposition against Urdu was there in East Bengal. This became more pronounced after the death of Jinnah as controversies erupted on constitution making. Language Movement started in East

Pakistan February, 1952.

There was a complaint about anti Bengali language attitude of the federal government. Two-language formula was adopted in 1954. Since 1973 Urdu was adopted as national language along with the support for development of regional languages.

5: Parliamentary or Presidential

There was a consensus for parliamentary system. But there was a limited demand for presidential system. Supporters of Presidential system became dominant after the 1958 military takeover. The 1962 Constitution was a Presidential constitution.

7: The Islamic or Secular State

From the very beginning of Pakistan Movement there was an agreement that the state will have close relationship with Islam. Muslims defined their national identity with reference to Islam and its heritage. Some opposition came from the Congress members of the Constituent Assembly, and a few secularists. There was a BROAD AGREEMENT that the state will identify itself with Islam. The Constituent

Assembly took time to define the precise relationship between the state and Islam.

 Question No: 34 ( Marks: 3 )

Give details about the 1977 Elections and Agitation

1977 Elections and Agitation:

As a result of elections of 1977 PPP won the elections. But joint opposition blamed a mass rigging in the election results. They demanded fresh elections. Bhutto initially was stubborn but later showed inclination to compromise but history has taken a U-turn. As he refused to negotiate the elected majority party in 1971, now opposition refused to compromise and took the case to the streets. Urban shopkeepers, businessmen, students, women and even the intelligentsia joined hands against the government. The result was the third Martial Law and end of democracy.

 

Question No: 35 ( Marks: 3 )

Write a very brief note on the 2nd Constituent Assembly 1955?

2nd Constituent Assembly, June-July 1955

Ghulam Muhammad called a Convention onMay 10, 1955. All its members were to be elected

indirectly (by the provincial assemblies). In this way, the 2nd CA came into existence.

 

Question No: 40 ( Marks: 10 )

Draw attention to the characteristics/features of the constitution of 1973?

 Features of the Constitution

3.1. Parliamentary System

It was a parliamentary constitution having powerful Prime Minister (PM) as head of government with a very weak President. President must act on the advice of PM. All his orders were to be countersigned by PM. Prime Minister to be elected by the NA.

PM exercised all executive authority. PM was answerable to the NA. In 1985, powers of the President were increased. He enjoyed some discretion in appointments of PM. He had power to dissolve the NA. He had the powers of appointment of caretaker PM. He gives his assent to bills passed by the parliament or returns these.

3.2. President: Must be at least 45 years of age, Muslim, qualified to become member of the NA. He is elected by the Parliament and the Provincial Assemblies for 5 years. 3.3. Parliament with two houses: Upper House called Senate. In this house equal representation is given to Provinces. Seats are reserved for the tribal areas, women and technocrats. Its original strength net was 63, which was later raised to 87 and then 100. Senate is elected indirectly. It’s a permanent House as half of its members are elected after three years. Lower House: National Assembly is elected on population basis. Its Original strength was 210 but now it is 342. NA is elected for five years. Senate: Indirect elections National Assembly: Direct elections Voting age for the franchise is lowered from 21 to 18. Parliament under 1973 constitution is a powerful legislative body. It enjoys all

legislative powers. It has control of the executive through questions, resolutions,

parliamentary committees etc. National Assembly is more powerful than the Senate. Budget is presented before NA. Cabinet is answerable to National Assembly.

3.4. Federal System

Federation of Pakistan has four provinces and federally administered areas.

Two lists are given in the constitution: Federal list and Concurrent list. Residuary powers belong to provinces. 3.5. Provincial Structure: Provincial Governors are appointed by the President on the advice of the PM. Elected Chief Minister exercises executive powers. Parliamentary system is there in the provinces.Size of the provincial assemblies varies:

In 2002:

Punjab 371

Sindh 168

NWFP 124

Balochistan 65

Enough provincial autonomy is guaranteed. Tradition of strong centre continues.

Centre has emergency powers. Governor’s rule can be imposed if the government cannot

function in the provinces.

Provinces are dependent on centre for Finances.

3.6. Principles of Policy:

a. Islamic provisions are provided in Principles of Policy. Foreign policy

principles are also given under this heading.

3.7. Fundamental Rights:

b. Fundamental Rights are secured in the constitution and are implemented

through the highest court.

3.8. Islamic Provisions:

c. Title of the state is Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

d. The objectives resolution was the Preamble in the initial constitution but

through article 2-A of 8th amendment it was inserted in the constitution in 1985.

e. Islam was declared the State Religion of Pakistan.

f. Definition of Muslim was included by an amendment.

g. Principles of Policy also carry some Islamic clauses.

h. Council for Islamic Ideology is established under the constitution.

i. Federal Shariat Court was added in 1981.

3.9. National Language:

j. Urdu is declared National Language, however English may be used for

official purposes until arrangements would be made for its replacement by Urdu.

k. Provincial Assembly may prescribe measures for teaching, promotion

and use of a provincial language in addition to the national language.

3.10. National Security Council:

l. National Security Council was added in 2002 in advisory capacity.

3.11. Judiciary:

m. An independent judiciary is given under the constitution. Supreme Court

of Pakistan is the highest court. One High Court is established in each province

and one in Azad Kashmir. A chain of lower courts is there under the high courts.

 

Question No: 32 ( Marks: 2 )

What was the issue of Separate or Joint Electorate in the begining years of

Pakistan?

3: Separate or Joint Electorate

Separate electorate was adopted on the demand of Muslims in 1909 by the British Government. But the minorities did not favour this after independence. Religious elements supported this as a part of heritage.

East: decided for Joint Electorate. 1957: Joint Electorate was adopted for allPakistan by the National Assembly.

 

Question No: 33 ( Marks: 2 )

Who was Khawaja Nazimuddine?

He was the governal general of Pakistanduring Sept. 1948-Oct 1951

He was also the prime minister of Pakistandurig oct1951-apri1953

 

Question No: 34 ( Marks: 3 )

Highlight the Shahabuddine Commission set up by Ayub Khan in 1960?

A Constitutional Commission was established in February 1960 under the chairmanship of Justice Shahabuddin, former Chief Justice. The tasks assigned to the Commission were:

To examine the causes of failure of Parliamentary system.

Recommend a new system keeping in view the

(a) genius of people

(b) standard of education

(c) internal conditions of the country

(d) need of development

 

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