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Replies to This Discussion


4 types of anomalies: page 170


insertion anomaly

deletion anomaly

updation anomaly

Subtype discriminator:

This is tool or technique which provides us a methodology to determine that to which suctype one instance of a subtype belongs.

to determine the relation we place an attribute in the entity supertype which can specify through its value, that to which entity subtype it belongs. page 108

 saira abbas thanks for sharing 

Subtype discriminator: Attribute of the supertype whose values determine the target subtype(s)

sub students 2,3 New MCQs jo past paper ma na hu wo b note kar liya karo :( n 3,4 short answer :(

plz jis ka paper ho jaye wo inform karta jaye

3,4 e new note kar laitay. na honay se kuch hona bytar ha. mostly MCQs kis topic k thy?

also revise quiz mcqs file. maybe in ma se MCQs aa jain


chk this link. is shared some past midterm paper


  1. what is meant by degree in relation?

Answer: No. of column in that relation. Page 133

relationship: Link between one or more entity type. Like in ERD model.

Cardinality: No of rows in that relation.

  1. Which functional dependency lies between Cgpa and student name? page164

Answer:  Normalization is based on the concept of functional dependency. A functional dependency is type of relationship between attributes.

  1. Scenario was given. Draw ERD.
  2. Define domain attributes?
  3. Two name of anomalies?

fall 2012 question. prepare them also.


  1. constraints of foreign nd primary key
  2. Mapping
  3. complete disjoint, partial or overlap rule
  4. Normal form



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