Latest Activity In Study Groups

Join Your Study Groups

VU Past Papers, MCQs and More

We non-commercial site working hard since 2009 to facilitate learning Read More. We can't keep up without your support. Donate.

All Current Final Term Papers Spring 2013

From 20 Jul , 2013 to 31 Jul 2013 Spring 2013

 

PLZ Share Ur Papers Files Also where u Study

Views: 5649

Replies to This Discussion

 fatima aircraft nai ha isko correct kro its articraft ha dat is given on the 1st pg of lec 28. whose basic point is maintainbility. plz chk it outtttttttt

Current Final Papers Solution ........ jo yahan share huay ...



Attachments:

 Gohar Ali gud keep it up & thanks for sharing 

Attention Related Final Term papers Spring 2013: All Fellows You don’t need to go at any other site for current Final Term papers Spring  2013, Because All discussed data/sharing of our members in this discussion are going from here to other sites. (Other sites Admins/mods Copy from here & posted at their sites with fake IDs or original name: p). you can judge this at other sites yourself. So don’t waste your precious time with different links.

my todayz ppr of CS-504 SOFTWARE ENGINEERING msqs were easy and new not frompast pprs mid term se modularity wla topic bht aya questions or mcqs me b or mid se textual analysis ka topic aya.

what is the purpose of message layer? (2mrks)

The message layer. Contains the details that enable each object to communicate with

its  collaborators.  This  layer  establishes  the  external  and  internal  interfaces  for  the

system.

 

Qualitative benefits of unit testing (2marks)

 

Assessment-oriented: Writing the unit test forces us to deal with design issues -

cohesion, coupling.

 Confidence-building: We know what works at an early stage. Also easier to

change when it’s easy to retest.

 

Which will you do reduce the complexity of large systems three ways? (3marks)

 

 

 How software aircraft is differen from other engineerings? (3marks)

Other engineering based on Physics and Software Engineering is based on Computer

 

About inspection give comment that it is not use for conformance with customer's real product. (3mrks)

 

Inspections  and  testing  are  complementary  and  not  opposing  verification  techniques.

Both should be used during the verification and validation process. Inspections can check

conformance  with  a  specification  but  not  conformance  with  the  customer’s  real

requirements.  Inspections  cannot  check  non-functional  characteristics  such  as

performance,  usability,  etc.  Inspection does  not  require  execution  of  program  and  they

maybe used before implementation. Many different defects may be discovered in a single

inspection.

 

Textual analysis me parts of speech diay gay thy un ko map krna tha. (5mrks)

 

Code from portability topic to optimize to read. (5mrks)

 

Lec. No. 34

 

Last lectr last topic..non-producible bugs: (5mrks)

 

Non-reproducible bugs

 Bugs that won't "stand still" (almost random) are the most difficult to deal with.

 Randomness itself, however, is information.

 Are all variables initialized? (random data in variables could affect output).

 Does bug disappeared when debugging code is inserted? Memory allocation (malloc) problems are probably a culprit.

 Is the crash site far away from anything that could be wrong?

 Check for dangling pointers

Example

 

char *msg(int n, char *s)

{

 char buf[100];

sprintf(buf, "error %d: %s\n",

 n, s);

 return buf;

}

...

p = msg(20, "Output values");

...

q = msg(30, "Input values");

...

printf("%s\n",p);

 

 

 

 

2 unit testing

In unit testing, developers test their own code units (modules, classes, etc.) during implementation.

Normal and boundary inputs against expected results are tested.

Thus unit testing is a great way to test an API.

 

 
2 magic members

These are constant that mean something but they do not give any indication of their

importance or derivation, making the program hard to understand and modify. To a

reader they work like magic and hence are called magic numbers. Any number (even 0 or

1) used in the code is a magic number. It should rather have a name of its own that can be

used in the program instead of the number


2 types of messages

Sequence diagrams can depict many different types of messages. These are: synchronous

or simple, asynchronous, create, and destroy. The following diagram shows the notation

and types of arrows used for these different message types.

 

On lec No. 21


3 Software testing

 

The correct approach to testing a scientific theory is not to try to verify it, but to seek to refute the theory. That is to prove that it has errors. (Popper 1965)

 

 A software tester tries to break the system. The objective is to show the presence of a defect not the absence of it.

 

The goal of testing is to expose latent defects in a software system before it is put to use.

 

A software tester tries to break the system. The objective is to show the presence of a defect not the absence of it.

 

This is because exhaustive testing of software is not possible – it is simply too expansive and needs virtually infinite resources.

 

Successful Test From the following sayings, a successful test can be defined “If you think your task is to find problems then you will look harder for them than if you think your task is to verify that the program has none” – Myers 1979. “A test is said to be successful if it discovers an error” – doctor’s analogy. The success of a test depends upon the ability to discover a bug not in the ability to prove that the software does not have one. As, it is impossible to check all the different scenarios of a software application, however, we can apply techniques that can discover potential bugs from the application. Thus a test that helps in discovering a bug is a successful test. In software testing phase, our emphasis is on discovering all the major bugs that can be identified by running certain test scenarios. However it is important to keep in mind that testing activity has certain limitations.


3 Texual analysis

 

The oldest techniques to identify objects and their relationships. This technique is called Textual Analysis. It was initially developed by Abbot and then extended by Graham and others. In this technique different parts of speech are identified within the text of the specification and these parts are modeled using different components.


5 Differe b/w White boxing and Blaxk boxing ka.

Black Box testing : In this type of testing, a component or system is treated as a black box and it is tested for the required behavior. This type of testing is not concerned with how the inputs are transformed into outputs.

White Box Testing (White Box) : As opposed to black box testing, in structural or white box testing we look inside the system and evaluate what it consists of and how is it implemented.

 


5 Exceptions do increase the complixity of code or not explain with example.

A number of invisible execution paths can exist in simple code in a language that allows

exceptions. The complexity of a program may increase significantly if there are

exceptional paths in it. Consider the following code:

String EvaluateSalaryAnadReturnName( Employee e)

{

if (e.Title() == “CEO” || e.Salary() > 10000)

{

cout e.First() “ “ e.Last() “ is overpaid” endl;

}

return e.First() + “ “ + e.Last();

}

 

 

  1. 1.      Calculate the cyclomatic complexity? (2 Marks)

Cyclomatic Complexity, V(G), for a flow graph G is defined as:

V(G) = E - N + 2

Where E is the number of edges and N is the number of nodes in the flow graph G.

  1. 2.      What issue can arise if code is written without keep in the portability factor in mind? (2

Marks)

Many applications need to be ported on to many different platforms. As we have seen, it is pretty hard to write error free, efficient, and maintainable software. So, if a major rework is required to port a program written for one environment to another, it will be probably not come at a low cost. So, we ought to find ways and means by which we can port applications to other platforms with minimum effort. The key to this lies in how we write our program. If we are careful during writing code, we can make it portable. On the other hand if we write code without portability in mind, we may end-up with a code that is extremely hard to port to other environment.

 

  1. 3.      “Repeatable” is one of the quantitative benefits regarding unit test case, what does mean? (2 Marks)

 

Repeatable: Unit test cases can be repeated to verify that no unintended side effects have occurred due to some modification in the code.

 

 

  1. 4.      What are the short circuiting operators? (3 Marks)

The logical and operator, &&, and logical or operators, ||, are special due to the C/C++

short circuiting rule, i.e. a || b and a && b are short circuit evaluated. That is, logical

expressions are evaluated left to right and evaluation stops as soon as the final truth value

can be determined.

Short-circuiting is a very useful tool. It can be used where one boolean expression can be

placed first to “guard” a potentially unsafe operation in a second boolean expression.

Also, time is saved in evaluation of complex expressions using operators || and &&.

However, a number of issues arise if proper attention is not paid.

  1. 5.      Discus the symptoms of memory and resource what bug class. (3 Marks)

system slows down

crashes that occure randomly” over a long period of time

  1. 6.      How user’s requirements are different from functional requirements? (3 Marks)

 User Requirements describe the End User’s requirements for a system. Functional Requirements describe what the system must do.

 

  1. 7.      As a programmer you are instructed to write a portable code in order to increase the usability of the software by your team lead. Which points keep in mind to develop a portable code? (5 Marks)

 

Many applications need to be ported on to many different platforms. As we have seen, it is pretty hard to write error free, efficient, and maintainable software. So, if a major rework is required to port a program written for one environment to another, it will be probably not come at a low cost. So, we ought to find ways and means by which we can port applications to other platforms with minimum effort. The key to this lies in how we write our program. If we are careful during writing code, we can make it portable. On the other hand if we write code without portability in mind, we may end-up with a code that is extremely hard to port to other environment. Following is brief guideline that can help you in writing portable code. Stick to the standard 1. Use ANSI/ISO standard C++ 2. Instead of using vendor specific language extensions, use STL as much as possible Program in the mainstream Although C++ standard does not require function prototypes, one should always write them. double sqrt(); // old style acceptable by ANSI C double sqrt(double); // ANSI – the right approach Size of data types Sizes of data types cause major portability issues as they vary from one machine to the other so one should be careful with them.

 

  1. 8.       Make a flow graph from for the below code? (5 Marks)

        Sum=sum+10

        If (sum>100)

        { Grd=0 }

        Else

        { Grd=0}

  1. 9.       One Was from DFD . (5 Marks)

Page No : 50  Lec No.8

 

 

portablibity keep in mind   2marks

Lec : 34

 

 

meant by bugs over run      5 marks

Page No :219 ,  213

What is a Bug?

We call them by many names: software defects, software bugs, software problems, and

even software “features.” Whatever you want to call them, they are things the software

does that it is not supposed to do (or, alternatively, something the software doesn’t do

that it is supposed to).

meant by memory over run     5 marks... page No : 219

a memory overrun occurs when you use memory that does not belong to you. This can be

caused by overstepping an array boundary or by copying a string that is too big for the

block of memory it is defined to hold. Memory overruns were once extremely common in

the programming world because of the inability to tell what the actual size of something

really was.

Symptoms

 Program crashes quite regularly after a given routine is called, that routine should

be examined for a possible overrun condition.

 If  the  routine  in  question  does  not  appear  to  have  any  such  problem  the  most

likely  cause  is  that  another  routine,  called  in  the  prior  sequence,  has  already

trashed variables or memory blocks.

 Checking the trace log of the called routines leading up to one with the problem

will often show up the error.

 

 

ek code dia the us ko simple kr kr likhna tha 5 marks

want to chane new exam system which class is used....is tarah kr k tha....5 marks

 

infeasible path.....5 marks

Page N : 206

 

koi bugs over run ko define kray ga plz plz

 

System downtime 

A system downtime is the period in which

tremendous pressure is on developers end to fix the problem and make the system

running again. In these moments, every second costs hugs losses to the organization and

it becomes vital to find out the bug in the software application and fix it

Define symptoms of memory & resourse leak link( kuch aysa he tha) 

 

Memory and resource leak

A memory leak bug is one in which memory is somehow allocated from either the

operating system or an internal memory "pool", but never deallocated when the memory

is finished being used.

Symptoms

 System slowdowns

 Crashes that occur "randomly" over a long period of time

 

Types of messages ?

 

Sequence diagrams can depict many different types of messages. These are: synchronous

or simple, asynchronous, create, and destroy. The following diagram shows the notation

and types of arrows used for these different message types.

 

On lec No. 21

 

Define synchronous and asynchronous

 

Synchronous Messages :

 

Synchronous messages are “call events” and are denoted by the full arrow. They represent nested flow of control which is typically implemented as an operation call. In case of a synchronous message, the caller waits for the called routine to complete its operation before moving forward. That is, the routine that handles the message is completed before the caller resumes execution. Return values can also be optionally

indicated using a dashed arrow with a label indicating the return value. This concept is illustrated with the help of the following diagram.

 

While modeling synchronous messages, the following guidelines should be followed:

 Don’t model a return value when it is obvious what is being returned, e.g. getTotal()

 Model a return value only when you need to refer to it elsewhere, e.g. as a parameter passed in another message.

 Prefer modeling return values as part of a method invocation, e.g. ok = isValid()

 

Asynchronous messages

Asynchronous messages are “signals,” denoted by a half arrow. They do not block the caller. That is, the caller does not wait for the called routine to finish its operation for continuing its own sequence of activities. This occurs in multi-threaded or multiprocessing applications where different execution threads may pass information to one another by sending asynchronous messages to each other. Asynchronous messages

typically perform the following actions:

 Create a new thread

 Create a new object

 Communicate with a thread that is already running

 

Object Creation and Destruction

An object may create another object via a create>> message. Similarly an object may destroy another object via a destroy>> message. An object may also destroy itself. One should avoid modeling object destruction unless memory management is critical. The following diagrams show object creation and destruction. It is important to note the impact of these activities on respective life lines.

 

 

 

which technique will be the first top technique when we strt testing ?

 

Software verification and validation:

Verification and validation are the processes in which we check a product against its specifications and the expectations of the users who will be using it. According to a known software engineering expert Berry Boehm, verification and validation are

Verification

 Does the product meet system specifications?

 Have you built the product right?

Validation

 Does the product meet user expectations?

 Have you built the right product?

It is possible that a software application m

types of bugs?

 

2 code thy, dono 5 , 5 marks k thy, simplify kyurna tha aik ko, and aik k errors batany thhy.

aik question last p in detail tha aik compny ke requirments koun c hun geain software related. 5

woh batani thein, jab compny new tenders lanch kyre ge then, ous mai user, members systems, stock s related ata tha .

______________________________________________________________________________________

Mcq’s past papers m sy both kam thy nearly 10 to 12 was from past papers
Most of Mcq’s was from the following topics
Software testing 
Patterns
 
And 3 to 4 mcq’s was from 1st 22 lectures 
Subjective=


Memory over runs bug
One question is Portability related

Lec No:34
What is software construction and software testing

Lec No : 36 Page No : 192
1 statement given the btana tha k is m jo error h wok is
tara sy or kitna dangerous h 
Lec No : 33 Page No: 176

Following is short list of common mistakes made due to side-effects.

1. array[i++] = i;

If i is initially 3, array[3] might be set to 3 or 4.

 

2. array[i++] = array[i++] = x;

Due to side effects, multiple assignments become very dangerous. In this

example, a whole depends upon when i is incremented.

3. “,” is very dangerous as it causes side effects. Let’s look at the following  statement:

int i, j = 0;

Because of the syntax, many people would assume that i is also being initialized  to 0, while it is not. Combination of , and = -- is fatal. Look at the following statement:

a = b, c = 0;

A majority of the programmers would assume that all a, b, and c are being initialized to 0 while only c is initialized and a and b have garbage values in them.

This kind of overlook causes major programming errors

 

Give unit testing tip for larger projects.

Unit Testing Tips

Unit test should be conveniently located

 For small projects you can imbed the unit test for a module in the module itself

 For larger projects you should keep the tests in the package directory or a /test subdirectory of the package

By making the code accessible to developers you provide them with:

 Examples of how to use all the functionality of your module

 A means to build regression tests to validate any future changes to the code

You can use the main routine with conditional compilation to run your unit tests.


Explain 2 code structures
 
Page No : 200

 Basis Code Structures

For structural testing it is important to know about basic coding structures. There are four basic coding structures sequence, if statement, case statement, and while loop. These four basic structures can be used to express any type of code.

 

Flow graph notation

In analysis and design, you have already seen the flow graph notation. This is used to

describe flow of data or control in an application. However, we do not use flow graphs to

describe decisions. That is, how a branch is taken is not shown in flow graphs.

In the following, we are using flow graph notation to describe different coding structures.

 

Sequence

Sequence depicts programming instructions that do not have branching or any control

information. So we lump together several sequential instructions in one node of the

graph.

 

 

1 how software aircraft is differen from other engineerings?


2. want to change new exam system which class is used...

Thanks dear brother Gohar Ali ,very thanks for sharing

U Welcome

My today's subjective paper... 

Attachments:
  1. What do you understand by the term System Downtime ?
  2. What do you understand by the term "modularity"?
  3. 3.      In sequence diagram, objects are arranged on which axis?
  4. When we calculate independent paths through cyclomatic complexity how it helps us in white box testing?
  5. Why Special characters like TAB and Page Break must be avoided.? Explain
  6. How many levels of Exception Safety are there? Name those levels.
  7. Given is the piece of code which contains an infeasible path:

 

if (x == y )            //1

            x = x - y;        //2

 

if (x !=  y)            //3

            x = x + y;       //4

 

            //5

 

            Re-write the code in a manner that it does not contain infeasible path any more.

  1. Suppose you are a software engineer, and you are asked to collect the requirements for a nuclear reactor control system. Unfortunately, you are not familiar with this domain. What will you do in this situation in order to collect the requirements?
  2. Exceptions do increase the code complexity. Explain this with the help of an example.
  3. A student claims that we can not implement the software construction activities, if we don’t have supporting tools that could provide us the automated or semi automated support? Do you agree with the statement or not? Provide logical reason.

 

  1. Given the code snippet:

 

sum = sum + 10;

 

if(sum > 100)

{

                        Grd = 1;

}

 

else

{

                        Grd = 0;

}

 

Make a flow graph for the above code snippet.

  1. Ambiguous requirements lead to ill-spent time and rework. You are working as lecture in university with specialization in software engineering then how will you elaborate the concept of ambiguous requirements with the help of an example.

 

 

 + Mმlἶყმ ♥ thanks for sharing ur paper..best of luck for ur result 

Attention Related Final Term papers Spring 2013: All Fellows You don’t need to go at any other site for current Final Term papers Spring  2013, Because All discussed data/sharing of our members in this discussion are going from here to other sites. (Other sites Admins/mods Copy from here & posted at their sites with fake IDs or original name: p). you can judge this at other sites yourself. So don’t waste your precious time with different links.

 

how much included from midterm?

RSS

© 2021   Created by + M.Tariq Malik.   Powered by

Promote Us  |  Report an Issue  |  Privacy Policy  |  Terms of Service