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Replies to This Discussion

3-D Coordinate system k bary main Apny kia Likha tha ... ??

my paper 

MCQs from moaaz file ...

1: explain axonometric projection in the content of computer graphics ? (2 marks)

2:dot product of two vectors ? (2 marks)
3: two successive rotations are applied to a point P to produce the transformed position P the expression for P is given 
p` = R (theta 2), {R(theta 1), p }  
you are required to find the expression for final composite rotation matrix ? (3 marks)
4: explain orthographical projection and what meant by term oblique parallel projection? (marks 3)
5: write a C program that is used to draw an ellipse by using parametric polar form of ellipse having at 60th row and 60th column and semi major axis  A= 50 pixels and semi minor axis B = 20 pixels (marks 5)
is paper me kisi kisi ko codding b aa rahi unfortunately mujy b aa gai 
Best Of Luck All of You !!

Can You Share the Code Please ..!!

Q#1 projection method?

Q#2 page 154 diagram given do explain?

Q#3 vector normalization find?

Q#4 rotation in 2d on 45 degree 

Q#5 obligue cases explain

Q#6 coding 

quizz  changed not from past paper 

  • MCQ’S were easy, and from Past Papers


Subjective: I think that 60% Subjective were from current papers.

Note that page No I have mentioned is from updated handout. You can download it from vu lms.


Q1: Differentiate between triangle fan and triangle strips? Marks 2

Answer: (Page 209)


Triangle Strips

Triangle fans

The first three elements indicate the first triangle.

The first three elements define the first triangle.

Each new element is combined with the first element and the current last element to form a new triangle.

Each subsequent element is combined with the two elements before it, in clockwise order, to create a new triangle.


Q2: Name the Clipping Case of following Diagram? Marks 2

(This Diagram was given)

Answer: (Page 154)

   Case 3 of polygon clipping: Wholly outside visible region - save nothing


For each boundary b in [L (Left), R (Right), T (Top), B (Bottom)]

If P1 outside and P2 outside

Do nothing


Q3: Define Viewing Frustum? Marks 3

Answer:  (Page 205)

A viewing frustum is 3-D volume in a scene positioned relative to the viewport's camera. The shape of the volume affects how models are projected from camera space onto the screen. The most common type of projection, a perspective projection, is responsible for making objects near the camera appear bigger than objects in the distance. For perspective viewing, the viewing frustum can be visualized as a pyramid, with the camera positioned at the tip. This pyramid is intersected by a front and back clipping plane. The volume within the pyramid between the front and back clipping planes is the viewing frustum. Objects are visible only when they are in this volume.


Q4: We Have four vertices at points (x1, y1), (x2, y2), (x3, y3), (x4, y4), write pseudo code to draw a rectangular? Marks 3


Q5: Write formulas? Marks 5

Translation P'=

Scaling P'=

Rotation P'=

Shear P'=

Composite Rotation P'=


Translation P'= P + T

Scaling P'= S. P

Rotation P'= R.P

Composite Rotation:


Q6: Explain the given diagram of Viewing Frustum? Marks 5

Answer: Page 205

In this illustration, the variable D is the distance from the camera to the origin of the space that was defined in the last part of the geometry pipeline—the viewing transformation. This is the space around which you arrange the limits of your viewing frustum. For information about how this D variable is used to build the projection matrix

The Matrix

In the viewing frustum, the distance between the camera and the origin of the viewing transformation space is defined arbitrarily as D, so the projection matrix looks like:

The viewing matrix translates the camera to the origin by translating in the z direction by

- D. The translation matrix is as follows:

Multiplying the translation matrix by the projection matrix (T*P) gives the composite projection matrix. It looks like:


I have Attached this file..
and also some more helpful files.



Thanks Rijja...:)

Rijja Butt_BS (IT) thanks


My today's paper

Q:What is meant by projection in computer graphics?(2)

Q:What are the characteristics of 1D coordinate plane.?(2)

Q:1 question of writing Pseudo Code.(3)

Q:1 question was about writing equations.(3)

Q:Dicuss following w.r.t eqution:(5)
-  a line intersects a plane 
- a line does not intersect plane 
Q. Discuss 4 cases of clipping edge(5)

All the best...!



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