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Suppose a process P1 does not have sufficient pages, the page-fault rate is very high. This leads to low CPU utilization. The operating system needs to increase the degree of multiprogramming because it monitors the CPU utilization. When another process added, will it increase the throughput of the system? Justify your answer.
If the process does not have enough pages the page fault rate is very high. This leads to low cpu utilization, the operating system thinks that it need to increase the degree of multiprogramming because it monitors Cpu utilization and find it to be decreasing due page fault. Thus another process is added to the system and hence thrashing occurs and cause throughput to plunge.
Consider a virtual memory system in which a process does not have enough pages therefore the page-fault rate is very high. This leads to low CPU and I/O devices utilization; whereas disk utilization is high. Write down the name of activity that leads to said problems and how can you overcome these problems.
Let us consider a page size of 16 bytes and process address space of 32 pages and physical address space of 64
frames. Calculate the following.
a) Size of logical address i.e. Number of bits needed to uniquely identify a page in this address space of 16
b) Logical address in bits for (18, 10). Where ‘p’ and ‘d’ are 18 and 10 respectively.
Number of bits needed for P=ceiling [log216] bits = 3 bits
Number of bits needed for F= ceiling [log232] bits = 5 bits
Number of bits needed for D= ceiling [log264] bits = 11 bits
Logical address size =P+D= 3+11 = 14 page
Physical address size = F+D = 5 +11 = 16 bits
Logical address size =P+D= 18+10 = 28 bits
Which component of an operating system is best suited to ensure fair, secure, orderly, and efficient use of memory? Also identify some more tasks managed by that component
The most suitable component of an operating system that suited to ensure fair, secure, orderly and efficient use of memory is Memory Management System.
The task of memory management includes keeping track of used and free memory space as well as when, where, and how much memory to allocate and deallocate.
It is also responsible for swapping process in and out of main memory. The purpose of memory management is to ensure fair, secure, orderly and efficient use of memory.
In segmentation, how do you evaluate whether a logical address is legal or not? Write evaluation criteria and segment offset partitioning.
In segmentation, logical address is legal. A logical space is a collection of segments. A segment is a logical unit such as program, procedure, functions, methods, objects, global variables, stacks and symbol table.
What will be guaranteed if the following limits are checked in banker's algorithm?
Is Request1 ≤ Need1?
Is Request1 ≤ Available?
When a new process enter the system it must declare the maximum number of instances of each resource that it may need. This number may not exceed the total number of instance of resource in the system otherwise the process must wait until some other process release enough resources.
You are required to identify the primary protection scheme under paging that guards a process trying to access a page that does not belong to its address space. Name the scheme with brief description.
The primary protection scheme guards against the process trying to access a page that does not belong to its address space. This is achieved by using a invalid bit. This bit indicates whether the page is in the process address space or not. It the bit is set to invalid it indicates that the page is not in the process logical address space.
Illegal address is a trapped by using the valid invalid bit and control is passed to the operating system for appropriate section.
Virtual Memory is an extremely large main memory”.
Do you agree with the given statement or not? Give reason to support your answer.
Yes I agree that Virtual Memory is an extremely large main memory.
Virtual memory makes the tasks of programming easier because the programmer need not worry about the amount of physical memory, or about what code can be placed in overlays. They can concentrate instead on the problem to be programmed.
Under what conditions can you use the Wait-for graph to detect deadlock?
Single instance of each resource type.
If all resources have only a single instance then we can define a deadlock algorithm that uses a variant of the resource allocation graph called a wait for graph.
We obtain this graph from the resource allocation graph by removing the nodes of type resource and collapsing the appropriate edges.
Name the algorithm which is used as bench mark for page replacement.
FIFO page replacement algorithm is used as bench mark for page replacement.
In a UNIX operating system, name the system call that can be used to request memory map an opened file.
In a UNIX operating system, mmap() system call can be used to request the operating system to memory map an opened file.
What is Roll out, Roll in technique with respect to Swapping.
If a higher priority process arrives and wants service the memory manager can swap out the lower priority process. So it can load and execute the higher priority process. When the higher priority process finishes the lower priority process can be swapped back in and continue. This technique is called Roll out, Roll in technique.
thanks u very much nayab for shairing
Thanks a lot + Nayab Ali for sharing
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