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# CS609: System Programming Assignment No. 06 Semester: Fall 2012 Due Date: 06/02/2013

Assalam-o-Alaikum

Assignment # 6 CS609 has been uploaded. Its due date is 06 -02- 2013. Please discuss here about the assignment

Thanks

Instructions

It should be clear that your assignment will not get any credit if:

• The assignment is submitted after due date.
• The submitted assignment does not open or file is corrupt.
• Solution is copied from any other source.

Objective

• File System
• Block size
• Internal Fragmentation

Assignment

Part a)

10 Marks

What advantage and disadvantage do we get if Bytes per Sector used in a file system is too small/large? Your answer shall be in the following tabular format.

 Scenario Advantage Disadvantage No. of Bytes per Sector is Small No. of Bytes per Sector is Large

Part b)

10 Marks

Let suppose we have to store files on a hard disk having sizes given as below.

840 Bytes, 1790 Bytes, 650 Bytes, 2470 Bytes and 2840 Bytes.

You have to choose an optimal size of sector on your disk which also referred as Bytes per Sector or Block Size. You have the choice to choose the Sector size only from typical values 512 Bytes, 1024 Bytes or 2048 Bytes. Do not make random guess, do some calculations and report them in your solution. Based on your calculations, answer the following questions with reasons stated briefly.

Question No.1: What Block size will you choose if the objective is to have optimal disk space utilization?

Question No.2: What Block size will you choose if the objective is to have reduced access time?

Submission

You are required to submit a single MS word file through LMS.

Fall%202012_CS609_6%20%281%29.doc

+ http://bit.ly/vucodes (Link for Assignments, GDBs & Online Quizzes Solution)

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### Replies to This Discussion

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http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/hh147334(v=ws.10).aspx

Here is an extract  :  Read  yourself ,  Hope  you will find it a great help in solving Part a  of assignment..

With these new types of media, there are key impacts to performance, resiliency, functionality, and even to deployment scenarios.

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# Block (data storage)

In computing (specifically data transmission and data storage), a block is a sequence of bytes or bits, having a nominal length (a block size). Data thus structured are said to be blocked. The process of putting data into blocks is called blocking. Blocking is used to facilitate the handling of the data-stream by the computer program receiving the data. Blocked data is normally read a whole block at a time. Blocking is almost universally employed when storing data to 9-track magnetic tape, to rotating media such as floppy diskshard disksoptical discs and to NAND flash memory.

Most file systems are based on a block device, which is a level of abstraction for the hardware responsible for storing and retrieving specified blocks of data, though the block size in file systems may be a multiple of the physical block size. In classical file systems, a single block might contain only a part of a single file. This leads to space inefficiency due to internal fragmentation, since file lengths are often not integer multiples of block size, and thus the last block of files will remain partially empty. This will create slack space, which averages half a block per file. Some newer file systems attempt to solve this through techniques called block suballocation and tail merging.

Block storage is normally abstracted by a file system or database management system (DBMS) for use by applications and end users. The physical or logical volumes accessed via block I/Omay be devices internal to a server, directly attached via SCSI or Fibre Channel, or distant devices accessed via a storage area network (SAN) using a protocol such as iSCSI, or AoE. DBMSes often use their own block I/O for improved performance and recoverability as compared to layering the DBMS on top of a file system.

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# Access time

Access time is the time delay or latency between a request to an electronic system, and the access being completed or the requested data returned.

• In a telecommunications system, access time is the delay between the start of an access attempt and successful access. Access time values are measured only on access attempts that result in successful access.
• In a computer, it is the time interval between the instant at which an instruction control unit initiates a call for data or a request to store data, and the instant at which delivery of the data is completed or the storage is started.

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