MBR Partition Scheme
In MBR Partition scheme. You can create 4 partitions on a single hard drive. There could be 3 Primary Partitions and 1 Extended. And then you may create unlimited logical partitions inside that extended partition. A slide is given below for you better understanding.
But MBR Partition scheme fails if you are working in a larger environment. MBR Partition scheme can not support more than 2.2TB.
GPT Partition Scheme
GPT Partition Scheme is way more powerful than MBR. It supports 9.4ZB of disk volume and upto 128 partitions in total.
Partition definitions are stored inside Primary GPT. And a backup copy of Primary GPT is also created at the end of the device in case any of the disks get corrupted.