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Abbreviations: : In business letters and reports, abbreviations are appropriate for titles, descriptors, and professional degrees. For example: Mr., Mrs., St .( Saint), B.B.A, Ph.D.

Abstracting: : Selecting some details and omitting others is a process called abstracting.

Acknowledgment responses: : Nods, smiles, frowns, and words that let a speaker know you are listening.

Active verb: : A verb that describes the action of the grammatical subject of the sentence.

Bibliography: : Bibliography is a list of sources that a person cited as documentation for relevant content in his report .Bibliographic information is usually included at the end of the document. It is for additional reading, additional sources to which the reader may wish to turn.

Clarity : Clarity: A statement is said to have clarity if it is precise and have concrete words. it must contain high sense of appropriateness for the reader. For example: Unclear: His report was about managers, broken down by age and gender. Clear: His report focused on age and gender of managers.

Connotation : It is an implication of a word or a suggestion separate from the usual definition. These meanings also include qualitative judgments and personal reactions.

Consideration: : Consideration means preparing every message with the message receiver in mind; try to put yourself in their place. It is also called “you-attitude”, empathy, the human touch, and understanding of human nature..

Copula : Copula is a word or set of words that serves as a link between the subject and predicate of a proposition. A verb, such as a form of be or seem, that identifies the predicate of a sentence with the subject. They are also called linking verbs.

Copy notation: : When persons other than the addressee will receive a copy of the message, it is noted by writing, C,PC, Copy, or CC, followed by the names of these persons just below the reference initials or the enclosure notation.

Denotation: : It is usually the dictionary definition of a word. Denotative meaning inform the receiver without indicating positive or negative qualities.

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Editing: : Editing means revising the message that is still in rough draft. It not involves correcting spelling, grammar, punctuation and similar errors. Editing requires looking at a written message critically to see if revising the content will improve it

Effective Communication. : It is that communication in which the message is transferred by such efficiency that it produced desired result as expected by the sender.

Ellipsis: : The ellipsis mark ( . … ) is used to alert the reader that something has been removed from the quoted material , that the speaker has hesitated, or there is more material than is cited. For example: There are many good sports , such as football swimming, jogging,….. that help your cardiovascular system.

Emblem: : Behavior that has a direct verbal counterpart such as the thumb upward for hitchhiking ; the arm wave for hello and goodbye

Empathic Listening : It is also called active listening. The goal of this listening is to understand the speaker's feelings, needs, and wants so that you can appreciate his or her point of view, regardless of whether you share that perspective.

Enclosure Notation: : An enclosure or attachment notation is included to remind the reader to check for additional pages of information.

Encoder: : When you send a message, you are the "encoder" the writer or speaker, depending on whether your message is written or oral. You try to chose symbols-usually words and sometime also graphics or pictures -that express your message so that the receiver (s) will understand it and react with the response you desire.

Encryption : The reversible transformation of data from the original to a difficult-to-interpret format as a mechanism for protecting its confidentiality, integrity and sometimes its authenticity.

Euphemism : The substitution of an agreeable or inoffensive expression to replace one that might offend or suggest something unpleasant. It is used to avoid miscommunication because the sender has not considered the receiver's probable interpretations and reactions.

Executive summary: : Executive summary is often the most read piece----occasionally torn out----of a report. Busy managers ,and even those tangentially interested ,can determine whether they wish to read the entire report simply by reading the executive summary.

Feedback: : In the process of communication ,when the receiver receives the message ,he reacts with either the desired response based on a clear understanding of the symbols or with an undesired response because of miscommunication, which is called feedback .It can be an oral or a written message, an action or simply silence.

Filtering. : Filtering is screening out or abbreviating information before passing the message on to someone else.

Fraudulent Misrepresentation: : A fraudulent representation( or fraud) occurs when the communicator knows the representation is not true and the person to whom it was made relies on it to his or her disadvantage.

Full-Block: : It is the format which is considered to be the most modern. All essential parts in this form are started from the left- hand margin. Open punctuation should be used in this form.

 

Glossary : It is the list of words, which includes many interpretation of a term and definitions which will be useful to readers who wish to check on some meanings. it is usually given at the end of a report or book.

Glut: : An excessive supply of any commodity is known as Glut.

Heading: : A heading shows where the letter comes from.

Inferences: : Inferences are those conclusion which are made by reasoning from evidence. we assumption and draw conclusions even though we are not able to immediately verify the evidence.

Inquiries: : Inquiries and replies are among the most common types of business letters. People write inquiry letters that asks for information when they want to know more about a product or service.

Invasion of Privacy: : Each worker has the expectation that one’s personal work area is free from invasion by others. When there is an unprivileged; or unreasonable intrusion into the private life of an individual, it is called the invasion of privacy.

Letterhead: : A letterhead is a printed paper with the name and address of a person or organization .

Memos : A brief record written as an aid to the memory. It is also called memorandum.

Message: : The message is the main idea that a persons wishes to communicate; it is of both verbal symbols and nonverbal symbols.

Non-verbal communication: : It is the form of communication that is without words. Non verbal communication is of following types: (1)Appearance (2)Body language (3)Silence, Time and space.

Off Take: : It indicates the total quantity of goods purchased on an exchange during a particular period

Paralanguage: : It is a part of nonverbal communication that includes voice, volume, rate, articulation, pitch and other sounds that a person makes, such as throat clearing and sighing.

Patent: : Sole right given by the state to an inventor of making, using or selling his invention during the specified period.

Possessive Nouns : Possessive nouns are used to show possession (owning, or having). They are words that would normally be nouns, but are used as adjectives to modify a noun or pronoun. Possessive nouns tell you who or what the modified noun or pronoun belongs to. An apostrophe (‘) and an –s are used with nouns to show possession. Example: The dog's collar is too large.

Postscript: : Sometimes an extra message is added at the end of a letter. It may be something important or some personal comment. It is called Ps or postscript. The following is accepted postscript style: M / s Enclosure Ps. Mail the card today!

Progress report : You write a progress report to inform a supervisor, associate, or customer about progress you've made on a project over a certain period of time. The project can be the design, construction, or repair of something, the study or research of a problem or question, or the gathering of information on a technical subject.

Proofreading: : Proofreading means checking the final copy to make sure it is free from errors.

Proposal : A Proposal is an act of suggesting or proposing something. Proposals are informative and persuasive writing because they attempt to educate the reader and to convince that reader to do something.

 

Report: : Report is an orderly, objective message used to convey information from one organizational area to another or from one institution to another to assist in decision making or problem solving.

Solicited letter: : A solicited letter is sent in response to an advertisement. It must refer to the advertisement and the specific job advertised.

Subject line: : It helps the reader to know at a glance what the letter is about. It may include or omit the word subject. It is placed below the salutation.

Teleconferencing: : It is a rapidly developing technology that is best for informational meetings, ineffective for negotiation, alternative to a face- to- face meeting, helps the participant focus on a topic but prevents the participant from sharing valuable information.

Unsolicited letter: : An unsolicited letter is sent to a company for which a person would like to work though he knows of no particular opening.

Voice Mail: : Voice mail records message on a computer disk for later retrieval by the receiver. when an incoming call is not answered, the system responds by telling the caller how to leave a message or how to reach someone else.

Wholesale Market: : When commodities are supplied directly to dealers, It is known as a wholesale market.

Wordy Expression: : Wordy expression are those expressions which are in detail. Instead of using a simple word we use phrases in wordy expression. For example: Wordy: Due to the fact that Concise: Because.



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