2. Thesis statement: Islamophobia is hatred, prejudice and animus against Muslims, Islam and what is popularly known as Islamic culture. The current century witnesses the rising incidents of Islamphobia particularly in the aftermath of 9/11.
3. Historical factors enabling Islamophobia: 3.1 Early Muslim conquests 3.2 Anti-Islamic writings and works 4. Contemporary factors that are central to the growing tendencies against Muslims:
4.1 Injudicious linking of Islam to terrorism particularly in the aftermath of 9/11. 4.2 The rise of white supremacist Islamophobes. 4.3 Mass migration of Muslims to the west deepens Muslims’ fear. 4.4 Xenophobia and the growing sense of insecurity among the westerners for their culture and civilization. 4.5 Huntington’s clash of civilizations triggered anti-Muslim bigotry in the west. 4.6 The rise of far-right anti-islamic populism ignites anti Muslim extremism i.e Rising Hindutva in India, Trump’s election campaign speeches etc. 4.7 Misinformation and hysteria generated by media against Islam.
5. Adverse effects of rising wave of Islamophobia: 5.1 Attack on democratic principles of pluralism and diversity 5.2 Isolated to organised incidents of discrimination against Muslims 5.3 Terrorism related incidents against Muslims i-e Christchurch mosque shooting etc 5.4 Policies, laws and political rhetoric agaisnt muslims such as ban on hijab, Trump’s immigration ban etc 5.5 Development of perception about Islam as incompatible with western way of life 5.6 Westophobia among muslims 5.7 Deterioration of inter-faith harmony. 5.8 A threat to global peace and harmony
6. Measures to counter rising Islamophobia across the globe: 6.1 Delinking Islam from terrorism by interpreting Islam in its true meaning 6.2 The media have an important role to play in bridge building between western and Muslim world 6.3 Inter-faith dialogue among the major religions of world 6.4 OIC should play its role in restructuring ideas surrounding Islam and Muslims 6.5 Removal of content on social media that triggers hate speech and Islamophobia.
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