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For Lahore students viva will face to face. Viva panel will physically avail in front of student. From all other cities viva will through Video Conference. No physical instructor will avail in campus. All questions will ask via video conference It like as skype video call.



There can be one , two or three instructors at viva exam time. Its not necessary you project supervisor must be there.  Reach campus on time suppose your viva time is 9:30 am , you must be there at 9:00 Am. Contact with relevant person in campus, Tell him your vu id, your name and project name. He will add you in list and say you to wait for your turn He will call you on your turn . You will go in room. He will connected their media system VGA cable with your system/laptop. Video Conference will started. You will see LCD / Monitor in front of you. One, two or three supervisor will show in LCD. All can be male , 2 male 1 female, 1 male 1 female any combination. There will following 4 steps in viva


Step 1: They will ask your introduction. Like your name, your profession, etc


Step 2: Next they will ask your project name and its scope or purpose and tools. Then they will ask tools used in it like programming languages (C#) and Software used in application (Visual Studio and SQL Server) They will ask you to run application. You will run your application they will start questions like make some changes, add new buttons remove about buttons change format or declare new variable , write hello world program, write a program and print your name in output, show code of any functions and any of basic questions of C# programming language (Variables, Operators, Loops, Methods, Arrays, Strings, Classes, Exceptions Handling Etc..)



Step 3: After Coding Phase they will ask you to open your presentation and they will ask some questions about concepts used in srs and design like use case diagram , ERD , Sequence diagram, 3 tier architecture ,  class diagram test cases etc.


Step 4: In Last step they will ask your favorite subject. Normally students tell CS403, CS304, Cs601 etc as favorite subject. They ask some questions from it Viva Voce exam complete. We suggest to prepare CS403 Database Management system as your favorite subject. Because all diagrams used in SRS and Design documents are from this subject and normally they ask general questions like 3-tier Architecture, ERD, Entity, Attributes, Keys (Super , Candidate, Primary, Alternate, Alternate, Foreign) , relationships, DDL Commands, DML Commands, CRUD Operations , Normalization and Joins ( Theta, Equi, Outer, Inner, Semi).


After Successfully completion of 4 Steps of Viva they will say thanks you can go , call next student. You can ask them how is your viva , you are fail or pass, if their reply well, good, all the best, result will in week its mean you have passed viva. if they say come next time , prepare again etc its mean you have failed.


This time viva will be more tough then previous semesters. It is not necessary supervisor ask you only about The Smart Miner code. He can ask any thing about C# programming language. like create a new application and write some codes, open note pad file and write some codes. So your first focus on C# language learn all basic concepts of C# language then focus on your project codes. A lot of C# video tutorials available on youtube. Watch videos and practice by writing codes.


3-tier Architecture

According to Techopedia, “3-tier architecture is a client-server architecture in which the functional process logic, data access, computer data storage and user interface are developed and maintained as independent modules on separate platforms.”




An entity-relationship diagram (ERD) is a graphical representation of an information system that shows the relationship between people, objects, places, concepts or events within that system.


What is entity in the database?

2) In relation to a database , an entity is a single person, place, or thing about which data can be stored. 3) In data modeling (a first step in the creation of a database), an entity is some unit of data that can be classified and have stated relationships to other entities.



Keys are very important part of Relational database. They are used to establish and identify relation between tables. They also ensure that each record within a table can be uniquely identified by combination of one or more fields within a table.



Keys (Super , Candidate, Primary, Alternate, Alternate, Foreign)

Super Key:

superkey is a set of attributes within a table whose values can be used to uniquely identify a tuple. A candidate key is a minimal set of attributes necessary to identify a tuple; this is also called a minimal superkey.


candidate key is a column, or set of columns, in a table that can uniquely identify any database record without referring to any other data. Each table may have one or more candidate keys, but one candidate key is unique, and it is called the primarykey.


primary key, also called a primary keyword, is a key in a relational database that is unique for each record. It is a unique identifier, such as a driver license number, telephone number (including area code), or vehicle identification number (VIN). A relational database must always have one and only one primary key.


An alternate key is a key associated with one or more columns whose values uniquely identify every row in the table, but which is not the primary key. For example, where the primary key for a table may be the employee id, the alternate key might combine the first, middle, and last names of the employee


In the context of relational databases, a foreign key is a field (or collection of fields) in one table that uniquely identifies a row of another table or the same table. In simpler words, the foreign key is defined in a second table, but it refers to the primary key or a unique key in the first table.



relationship, in the context of databases, is a situation that exists between two relational database tables when one table has a foreign key that references the primary key of the other table. Relationships allow relational databases to split and store data in different tables, while linking disparate data items.


DDL Commands,

Data Definition Language (DDL) is a standard for commands that define the different structures in a database. DDL statements create, modify, and remove database objects such as tables, indexes, and users. Common DDL statements are CREATE, ALTER, and DROP.



DML Commands,

DML is short name of Data Manipulation Language which deals with data manipulation, and includes most common SQL statements such SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE etc, and it is used to store, modify, retrieve, delete and update data in database.


A data control language (DCL) is a syntax similar to a computer programming language used to control access to data stored in a database (Authorization). In particular, it is a component of Structured Query Language (SQL). Examples of DCL commands include: GRANT to allow specified users to perform specified tasks.


TCL command. Transaction Control Language (TCLcommands are used to manage transactions in database. These are used to manage the changes made by DML statements. It also allows statements to be grouped together into logical transactions.

CRUD Operations,

CRUD means the basic operations to be done in a data repository. You directly handle records or data objects; apart from these operations, the records are passive entities. Typically it's just database tables and records. REST, on the other hand, operates on resource representations, each one identified by an URL.

In computer programmingcreate, read, update, and delete[1] (as an acronym CRUD) are the four basic functions of persistent storage.[2] Alternate words are sometimes used when defining the four basic functions of CRUDretrieve instead of readmodify instead of update, or destroy instead of deleteCRUD is also sometimes used to describe user interface conventions that facilitate viewing, searching, and changing information; often using computer-based forms and reports. The term was likely first popularized by James Martin in his 1983 book Managing the Data-base Environment.[1][3] The acronym may be extended to CRUDL to cover listing of large data sets which bring additional complexity such as pagination when the data sets are too large to hold easily in memory. A CRUD matrix is a table, showing which programs use which tables, for which type(s) of CRUD operation[4].



Normalization is the process of organizing data in a database. This includes creating tables and establishing relationships between those tables according to rules designed both to protect the data and to make the database more flexible by eliminating redundancy and inconsistent dependency.

First normal form (1NF) is a property of a relation in a relational database. A relation is in first normal form if and only if the domain of each attribute contains only atomic (indivisible) values, and the value of each attribute contains only a single value from that domain



Second normal form (2NF) is a normal form used in database normalization. 2NF was originally defined by E.F.  Specifically: a relation is in 2NF if it is in 1NF and no non-prime attribute is dependent on any proper subset of any candidate key of the relation.

The form will be in 2NF if it is in 1NF and every non-key column is fully dependent upon the primary key.



Definition of third normal form. The third normal form (3NF) is a normal form used in database normalization. ... Codd's definition states that a table is in 3NF if and only if both of the following conditions hold:

  1. The relation R (table) is in second normal form (2NF)
  2. All the attributes in a table are determined only by the candidate keys of that relation and not by any non-prime attributes.

The table will be in 3NF if it is already in 2NF and all non-key attributes are functionally dependent only upon the primary key.



Fourth normal form (4NF) is a level of database normalization where there are no non-trivial multivalued dependencies other than a candidate key. It builds on the first three normal forms (1NF, 2NF and 3NF) and the Boyce-Codd Normal Form (BCNF). ... Multivalued dependency is best illustrated using an example.


Joins (Theta, Equi, Outer, Inner, Semi).

Join (SQL) ... An SQL join clause combines columns from one or more tables in a relational database. It creates a set that can be saved as a table or used as it is. A JOIN is a means for combining columns from one (self-table) or more tables by using values common to each.


theta join allows for arbitrary comparison relationships (such as ≥).

An equijoin is a theta join using the equality operator.

A natural join is an equijoin on attributes that have the same name in each relationship.

Additionally, a natural join removes the duplicate columns involved in the equality comparison so only 1 of each compared column remains; in rough relational algebraic terms:


Outer join

Inner joins eliminate the rows that do not match with a row from the other table. Outer joins, however, return all rows from at least one of the tables or views mentioned in the FROM clause, as long as those rows meet any WHERE or HAVING search conditions


Semi Join

In semi join, first we take the natural join of two relations then we project the attributes of first table only. So after join and matching the common attribute of both relations only attributes of first relation are projected

However with a semi-join you are only getting one row back from Table A regardless of how many matches there are for that row in Table B.


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