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DISCOVERING THE LAWS OF MOTION:
When considering the laws of motion among the research in physics, Muslim scientists were the first to discover these law as follows:
LAWS OF MOTION:
The importance of the laws of motion lies in the fact that they are viewed as the backbone of the contemporary civilization. For example, the sciences of mobile machinery nowadays starting from the car, train, plane, space rockets, and transatlantic rockets, among others rely on these laws. They have aided man to invade the outer space and to land on the surface of the moon. Moreover, they are deemed the basis for all physical sciences which depend on motion. Optics is the motion of light, sound is the motion of light waves, and electricity if the motion of electrons…etc. It is well known in the east and the west that these laws had been revealed by the English scientist Isaac Newton since he published his book Principia. This fact acknowledged in the whole world and in all scientific references, including the Muslim school of course, remained till the beginning of the twentieth century when a group of contemporary physicists, most prominent Professors of Mathematics examined these laws. They checked the accessible body of Islamic manuscripts in this field and came up with the fact that Muslim scientists were the first to discover these laws. All what Newton did was to collect what had been written on these laws and formulated them in a mathematical form. Setting bias and mere theoretical speech aside, the efforts of Muslim scientists are crystal clear. They are recognized in their manuscripts which had been written seven centuries before the birth of Newton.
THE FIRST LAW OF MOTION:
The first law of motion in physics says that if the total powers that distress an object are zero, this object will stay unmoving. Likewise, a mobile object leftovers with its constant speed state unless it finds any power that shakes it, such as the friction powers. This was stated in Newton’s mathematical statement when he said “In the absence of force, a body either is at rest or moves in a straight line with constant speed”. When it arises to Muslim scientists and their role in this field, Avicenna in his book “Insinuations and Notices” (Isharat wa Tanbihat) identified the same law in his own words “You know if the object is left unaffected by external influence, it remains as it is”. It is clear that the previous statement of Avicenna regarding the first law of motion excelled that of Isaac Newton who appeared six centuries later. In this statement Avicenna asserts that the object remains at rest or at move with constant speed in a straight line unless external power influences it. That is to say that Avicenna was the first to discover the first law of motion.
SECOND LAW OF MOTION:
The second law of motion associates the total powers distressing an object and the increase of its speed, which is known as speed and this speed is in proportion with the volume of the power and has its same direction. According to Newton’s mathematical formulation, he stated that “A body experiencing a force F experiences an acceleration a related to F by F = ma, where m is the mass of the body. Alternatively, force is proportional to the time derivative of momentum”. When it comes to Muslims, Hebattullah bin Malaka Al-Baghdadi (480-560 A.H./ 1087-1164AD) indicated in his book “The Considered in Wisdom” (Al-Moatabar fil Hikma). The solidest power transfers fast and takes a short time. The stronger power leads to the faster the power and the shorter the time. If the power does not decrease, the speed does not decrease, either”. In chapter fourteen entitled the Vacuum, he pointed out that “The faster the speed, the stronger the power. The stronger the power that pushes the object, the faster the speed of the object at move, and the shorter the time spent for covering the distance”. This is exactly what Newton mathematically formulated and named the second law of motion.
THIRD LAW OF MOTION:
The third law of motion means that if two objects interact, the force the first object practices on the second object is called the power of the action, which is equal to the force the second object practices on the first object, but it holds the opposite direction. This power is called the force of the reaction”. Newton mathematically formulated this law as follows: “Every action has a reaction which is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction”.
Earlier than Newton, Abul Barakat Hebattullah bin Malaka stated in his book, The Considered in Wisdom (Al-Moatabar fil Hekma) that “In the wrestling arena, everyone has a force practiced against the other. If one of them retreated, this does not mean that his power disappears, but this retreated power still exists, because without it the second one would not need it to influence the first one”. The same meaning has been reiterated in the writings of Imam Fakhr El-Din Al-Razi in his book The Eastern Disciplines in Theology and Natural Sciences (Al-Mabaheth Al-Mashrikayyah fi Illm Al-Illaheyyat wa Al-Tabi’yyat).
He pointed out that “the circle pulled by two equal forces until it stops in the middle, it is taken for granted that each forces has practiced an action that obstructs the other”. The same concept has been asserted by Ibn Al-Hayytham in his book, The Scenes. He pointed out that "The moving object is encountered by an obstruction, and if this forces remains, this moving object retreats in the opposite direction in the same speed practiced by the first object and according to the power of obstruction”. It is vivid clear that all what has been mentioned by Muslim scientists in these texts is the origin of the third law of motion, which was formulated by Newton after he had taken its content!
At the beginning, Muslims relied on the publications of their predecessors, such as the book entitled Nature by Aristoteles in which he dealt with kinetics and the books of Archimedes which contained information on the floating bodies in water and the specific gravity of some materials. Besides, Muslims depended on the publications of Actaspus, which entailed scientific results the uplifting pump and water clocks, and Heron of Alexandria who tackled the pulley, the wheel and the law of work. Muslim scientists spared no efforts to develop the physics- related theories and thoughts of their predecessors; they managed to introduce experimentation, which is seen as the main pillar of physics
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