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                                        MCM301 Long Question



Question No 1



What is the significance of feedback in the communication process?           




            Communication is the exchange and flow of information and ideas from one person to another. It involves a sender transmitting an idea to a receiver. Effective communication occurs only if the receiver understands the exact information or idea that the sender intends to transition.



            The feedback will tell the sender that the receiver understood the message, its level of importance, and what must be done with it. So the feedback loop is the final link in the communication process. Feedback is the check on how successful we have been, in transferring our messages as originally intended. It determines whether understanding has been achieved or not.




The purpose of feedback is to change and alter messages so the intention of the original communicator is understood by the second communicator. It includes verbal and nonverbal responses to another person's message.


            There are five main categories of feedback. They are listed in the order in which they occur most frequently in daily conversations.


Evaluation: Making a judgment about the worth, goodness, or appropriateness of the sender's statement.


Interpretation: Paraphrasing - attempting to explain what the sender's statement means.


Support: Attempting to assist or support the sender.


Probing: Attempting to gain additional information, continue the discussion, or clarify a point.


Understanding: Attempting to discover completely what the sender means by his/her statement.


            Feedback is a vital part of communication. In face-to-face communication, we get feedback in the visual channel as well - head nods, smiles, frowns, changes in posture and orientation, gaze and so on. Advertisers need feedback which they get in the form of market research from institutions like Gallup. How else would they know if their ads are on the right track? Broadcasters need feedback. Politicians need feedback which they get from public opinion polls and so on.






Question No 2


Differentiate between Critical Listening and Empathic Listening.   





            When listening is mentioned, we think primarily of the act of sensing sounds. In human communication, of course, the sounds are mainly spoken words. Listening perceives sounds from the speaker, attaching meaning to the words, and designing an appropriate response, which involves remembering what the speaker has said long enough to interpret what, is meant.  Listening involves grasping what the speaker means by seeing the ideas and information from his/her point of view.


            Listening is an active search for meaning. In listening, two people are thinking, sender and the receiver.

Types of Listening

Empathic Listening



Critical Listening



Critical Listening




            Critical listening is usually needed when we suspect that we may be listening to a biased source of information. Critical listening is also associated with being able to detect propaganda devices employed by a communicator.


In adjusting your critical listening, focus on the following guidelines:

Keep an open mind.

Avoid filtering out difficult messages.

Recognize your own biases.

Avoid uncritical listening when you need to make evaluations and judgments.

Recognize and combat the normal tendency to sharpen.

Analyze the audience and adapt the message to the listeners.

Clearly organize the speech so that the listeners can follow the train of thought.

What is the speaker purpose? What does the speaker want from the audience? Is the overall, general purpose to inform or to persuade?

An intelligent, active listener is aware of the many possible meanings of words and attempts to place those words in the correct context.

Can the speech survive tests of evidence and reasoning? Are the main points supported by relevant facts and opinions? Has the speaker reasoned clearly and logically?

Does the speaker seem to know or care about what he or she is saying?

Are the speakers’ verbal and nonverbal messages consistent? Do the nonverbal messages reinforce the speakers’ thesis?

Does the speaker establish his or her credibility and behave in ways that enhance credibility?

Is the material presented relevant? Is there a point to the speech? (Or do you, the critical listener, feel like saying “So what?” at the end?

What is your overall impression of the speech?




Empathic Listening




            As the term suggests, the listener tries to demonstrate empathy for the speaker. It can also be described as listening “between the lines”. When we listen between the lines we heighten our awareness and interpersonal sensitivity to the entire message a person may be trying to communicate.




Empathy is perception and communication by resonance, be identification, by experiencing in ourselves some reflection of the emotional tone that is being experienced by the other person.




Empathic listening serves as a reward or encouragement to the speaker. It communicates your caring and acceptance and reaffirms the person’s sense of worth. This style of listening seems to be most important in terms of strengthening or improving a positive interpersonal relationship between the parties involved.




Empathic listening often requires the opposite frame of mind from that required for critical listening. Empathic listening implies a willingness not to judge, evaluate, or criticize but rather to be an accepting, permissive, and understanding listener.




Becoming an empathic requires focusing on the following guidelines:




·         A greater emphasis on listening than on talking.


·         Responding to that which is personal rather than abstract.


·         Following the other in his exploration rather than leading him into areas we think he should be exploring.


·         Clarifying what the other person has said about his own thoughts and feelings rather than asking questions or telling him what we believe he should be thinking, seeing, or feeling.


·         Responding to the feelings implicit in what the other has said rather than the assumptions or “content” that he has talked about.


·         Trying to get into the other person’s inner frame of reference rather than listening and responding from our own frame of reference.


·         The speaker is more apt to keep talking (vs. defending, blaming, shutting down, or withdrawing). This can build trust, intimacy, and relationships, over time.


·         Listen respectfully


·         Minimize misunderstandings.


·         Recognize and identify emotions.






Question No 3

          What do you understand by communication barrier? Explain a miscommunication that you have recently had with a family member, friend, or colleague.                                                            









            Barriers in communication are the hindrances produced intentionally or unintentionally by the sender or receiver that eventually affects the growth of communication and relegate it to the status of communication where feedback is not expected.


            Some of the most common barriers to communication are discussed below.




Over-communication: The quantum of the material to be communicated should be just right. Too much of it can confuse the receiver. His mental level or professional expertise requires a certain amount of information to be transmitted. In the context of communication, excess of it can lead to what is commonly termed as “information load”. Therefore, if one desires to be effective as a speaker one needs to be precise in delivering the spoken material.




Conflicting Information: The receiver already has some information on which he expects to build up an idea after his communication with the speaker. If, unfortunately, the two pieces of information are diametrically opposite the receiver is left pondering over the reliability and validity of the original and current piece of information. He can definitely improve upon his existing stand by raising queries and sorting them out with the current speaker. But if he feels he is not in a position to ask questions or is thoroughly convinced with his existing knowledge he will not be receptive to the ongoing proceedings.




Language Differences: Language itself is probably the most common barrier to effective communication.  Among the problems in the use of language for communication are differences in interpretation of statements.  We have all said things that we thought were perfectly clear and simple, only to have them completely misconstrued.  This happens for various reasons. Sometimes it is simply the result of misunderstanding. Or it may be due to an unconscious desire not to carry out someone's request.  Or perhaps the speaker has chosen a word that conveys a meaning different from that intended.


Another verbal barrier is inadequate vocabulary.  If our stock of words is poor, forcing us to fumble and bumble as we attempt to express our ideas, our ability to communicate will be limited.  It is important to build up our vocabularies so that we can express our ideas clearly, forcefully, and with facility rather than with second choice words.




Interests and Attitudes: If the interests and attitudes of the receiver clash with those of the sender once again problems arise. Transmission and reception of the message are contingent upon the mental frame of the sender and the receiver. If there is variance in the interests and attitudes of the speaker and the receiver effective communication is sure to be hampered. It is primarily for this reason that a profile of the co-participant is sought prior to making presentations.




Tendency to Evaluate: Listening primarily with the purpose of evaluating the spoken material or with a tendency of a similar nature, will, to a great extent, affect the understanding of the message. The listener should have total concentration and listening skills should be honed, if the listener is desirous of making a mark in the effective communication process.




“I” Attitude: Too much usage of “I” can lead to an “I-syndrome”. Whenever we enter into any kind of discussion it should be well-borne in mind that the co-interacting also needs to be included in the discussion. If the “I-attitude” is changed to a “You-attitude” or “We-attitude” issues are going to get relatively simplified. This would enlist the whole-hearted cooperation of the co-participant by inculcating in him a feeling of being part of the entire discussion. The impression conveyed is that the speaker is not leading the interaction or speaking from a higher pedestal.




Resistance to Change: Change is a process of life. One has to accept change. Similarly one needs to change or reinforce the existing ideas in communication which is an ongoing activity. If fixed ideas are entrenched in the mind and the receiver refuses to accept the change, positing of new concepts will be ineffective. Being resistant to issues which are contrary to already existing ideas hampers the process of communication.




Inattentive Listening: Partial or marginal listening can distort the intent of the message. The receiver could be paying heed partially to the spoken material and partially to his thought processes. In such instances he is sure to misunderstand the intent of the spoken material. Listening is a process which demands that full attention be paid to the spoken material. Any kind of noise or distraction may make the receiver lose out on an important aspect of the spoken material. As a result of this, misunderstandings in the process of communication are bound to arise.




Loss in Transmission: While speaking or delivering an important point, part of the message might be lost due to problems in the medium of transmitting the message. For example, speaking on the telephone. It might happen that just when you wish to communicate an essential item of information disturbance in the line might make the receiver miss out on an important part of the message. This would deprive the message of the communicative impact.




Communication barriers in a classroom.




            Students are sitting in classroom and their teacher is delivering a lecture on environmental pollution. In this particular situation sender is the Teacher and receiver are the students sitting in front of him/her.






Possible barriers in the above mentioned situation could be






            The quantum of the material to be communicated should be just right. Too much of it can confuse the receiver. Their mental level or professional expertise requires a certain amount of information to be transmitted. In the context of communication, excess of it can lead to what is commonly termed as “information load”. If the teacher is over- loading the students with information it would definitely lead to their lack of interest in the subject.




            Language Differences:


 Inadequate vocabulary of the students can also be a cause of miscommunication. Teacher should keep in mind the level of students’ understandability and select a proper level of language while preparing his lecture.  To speak above their heads or down to them condescendingly is to invite misinterpretation, irritation, and confusion.




            Badly Expressed Message:  Improper formulation and presentation of message can prove to be detrimental to the growth of communication and therefore its impact on the receiver is sure to be negative. As there is lack of comprehension on the part of the listener it leads to misunderstanding and subsequent erection of barriers in the process of communication




            Inattentive Listening: Partial or marginal listening can distort the intent of the message. The receiver could be paying heed partially to the spoken material and partially to his thought processes. In such instances he is sure to misunderstand the intent of the spoken material. Listening is a process which demands that full attention be paid to the spoken material. Any kind of noise or distraction may make the receiver lose out on an important aspect of the spoken material. As a result of this, misunderstandings in the process of communication are bound to arise.




Question No 4


Explain in detail the four characteristics that contribute to the quality of a speaker’s voice?                                                      






A voice communicates a great deal more than words alone. A presenter’s voice is a potentially powerful tool to make an oral delivery effective and impressive. Professionals whose careers depend on skilled communication take seriously the need to develop positive and powerful vocal attributes.




The quality of a speaker's voice is determined by four characteristics: pitch, volume, rate, and tone. An effective speaking voice is well modulated, meaning the pitch, volume, rate, and lone are altered to give appropriate and interesting expression to the message. A voice that is pleasing and easy to listen to is mellow, meaning it is rich in tone and sounds fully mature. It is moderate; the pitch is not too low or too high, volume is not too loud or too soft, and the rate of speech is neither too fast nor too slow.




To add to the effectiveness of a delivery, the qualities of a speaker's voice should be varied and congruent with the message. Vocal qualities should also be varied to provide contrast. In addition, since it is often per ceived that the nature of a person's voice reflects something of the nature of the person, a presenter should develop and communicate with a steady, resonant, and mature voice.








The term pitch refers to the degree of highness or lowness of a sound. A high pitch sound corresponds to a high frequency and a low pitch sound corresponds to a low frequency. Every voice has a normal pitch in terms of what is '"normal" for the speaker. The norm for an effective communicator is a pitch that can be raised a few levels without sounding squeaky and lowered a few levels with out sounding grumble. Such a range allows a speaker to vary pitch for con trast while maintaining a vocal quality that is pleasing to the ear.




Pitch has a notable impact on how a presenter is perceived. In every species that makes audible sounds, the young have higher-pitched voices than do grown adults. Consequently, a high-pitched voice is associated with immaturity. An excessively high-pitched voice is shrill and unpleasant to listen to for long. A person who speaks in a high-pitched voice will be taken more seriously if the pitch is lowered.




An effective presenter uses pitch changes to indicate a change in the mes sage. At the end of a sentence, dropping the pitch signifies a statement; rais ing the pitch signifies a question. For that reason, repeated lifts in pitch at the end of declarative statements create an impression of a speaker who is uncertain. Occasional and appropriate variations in pitch can be used to accentuate meaning. Rapid, frequent, and meaningless changes in pitch make it difficult for an audience to listen attentively, and may suggest that the speaker is highly emotional or frantic.


"Perfect pitch" or "absolute pitch" refers to the ability of some persons to recognize the pitch of a musical note without any discernable pitch standard, as if the person can recognize a pitch like the eye discerns the color of an object. Most persons apparently have only a sense of relative pitch and can recognize a musical interval, but not an isolated pitch.


As an example in our daily life we see some people particularly some female singers having shrill voices and some people particularly politicians having a grave voice, which shows the importance of pitch. There are also some people who have low-pitched voices naturally and they are not capable of changing it but it is not necessary, pitch is something that can be altered intentionally which is evident from the fact that some of the actors nationally and internationally have gained popularity among the public because of their skill of producing changed –pitch voices.








Listeners want to clearly hear a speaker without straining to do so and without being blasted out of their chairs. A presenter who speaks too loudly may be perceived as bombastic, aggressive, or insensitive to listeners. On the other hand, one who speaks too softly may convey the impression of being passive or insecure.




It is commonly thought that a point is emphasized by voicing it more loudly. The reverse is true. An audience is more attentive to a point that is stated at a lower (but still clearly audible) volume. Emphasis is added by lift ing the pitch, slowing the rate, and/or changing the tone of voice. (Vocal emphasis is further strengthened with appropriate visual cues.)




For example,


If a person is talking to his parents his volume would be low and not high. If he speaks in a loud volume he will be considered as misbehaving with his elders. Therefore the use of appropriate volume is very important for effective communication.








An average rate of speech is 140 words per minute. As with other vocal characteristics, the rate of speech should be varied during a presentation. For emphasis, a speaker may periodically slow down to less than 100 words per minute to voice a point in a deliberate manner. To elevate the level of energy or quickly convey a point of lesser importance, a speaker may occasionally accelerate the rate to more than 170 words per minute.




A consistently slow rate of speech conveys fatigue or disinterest. Flailing speech can suggest that the speaker has difficulty formulating thoughts. Presenters who consistently speak at a rapid rate may be perceived to be nervous, impatient, or hurried.




For example, in a foreign country if we ask somebody for his guidance about some address and he tells us the address in a very fast way; we wouldn’t be able to get it because of his fast speed which shows that it is important to control the rate of delivered words per minute for effective communication.










The quality of tone is a combination of pitch, strength, and charac ter. Character refers to the sense or meaning a particular tone conveys. For example, a tone of voice may be described as gentle, angry, sarcastic, childish, or serious. The tone of voice with which a speaker expresses a point says more to an audience than the words themselves. As with other vocal characteristics, tone also says something to an audience about the speaker. A faltering tone of voice is perceived as timid or indecisive, a harsh tone of voice as aggressive. A nasal lone lacks the depth that adds authority to a voice. A monotone or flat tone that lacks variations suggests a lack of interest or energy.




In our routine life if we are annoyed with someone then naturally or intentionally the tone of our voice would become harsh while talking with him, which would make it clear to the other person that he has made us angry.



 Question 5



a)      Differentiate between informal and formal group. Explain in detail the various stages involved in a group formation.    ?


Definition of a Group Meeting



A meeting is a gathering of two or more people where purposive discourse occurs. Of course these purposes will vary.




A communication between two people is primarily an interchange – dyadic communication. A group is larger: at least 3 people and perhaps as many as 15 or more. Additionally, a group often meets face to face with a common purpose in mind. Such a group may also be informal (un-planned, free-flowing discourse) or formal (clear, planned purpose).


Informal Group



Casual or informal group meetings are common. Here you casually chat over tea, meet after work, or get together for purely social reasons. You and your friends meet to socialize, to interact – often spontaneously, without plan. Your business day is filled with such informal group meetings. Ironically, out of the need for frequent casual meetings may develop the need for more formal and directed meetings.


Formal Group


Often called task-oriented groups, formal groups often search for answers to problems, look for a course of action, make recommendations to a higher authority. This means that you and others may meet to change a policy, make decisions on how a specific problem should be solved, and decide on the beginning steps to implement a solution.




Formation of Groups




Groups go through four formative stages in becoming a group.




Forming: Here the group tries to get started. It is the orientation phase for group members.




Storming: Members begin to stake out their positions; they begin to have conflicts and arguments.




Norming: Progress begins here. Members work to solve conflicts and recognize acceptable kinds of conduct.




Performing: Here the group begins to achieve its goals.




            Once you are part of a group seeking to solve a problem, one other thing occurs: The group begins to follow certain phases in solving the problem.




Orientation: Here discussion is free flowing; people orally wander about, each trying to focus on asking questions. Here too, questions are numerous: Members try to inform, ask further questions. Here members’ convictions are tentative and somewhat ambiguous.




Conflict: After the preliminary sparring is over, members begin to offer opinions, evidence in support of their positions. At this phase initial conflicts occur. There may even be resistance to the agreed upon task.




Emergence: Open exchanges continue; members begin to search for ways of truly solving the problem. Compromises occur, and there is a decrease in conflict and sincere movement toward decreasing differences in opinion.




Solutions: A positive attitude exists at this phase. Options have been discussed, and criteria for measuring those options have been viewed. Now is the time to complete the task and agree upon a solution.


















b)     What are the six-steps guidelines (standard agenda) suggested for a group decision-making?                                              



Group Decision-Making



Standard agenda




Involves a careful, systematic approach to a problem. Groups make their decisions make use of a six-step guide called the standard agenda.



Problem identification




 What is the problem? What is wrong with the current situation?




Problem analysis




View the current situation as a balance between restraining forces and helping forces. What are the forces in play in your group's situation?




Criteria selection




 What are the goals of the final decision?




Solution generation




Generate as many solutions as possible. Avoid groupthink by listing many solutions.




Solution evaluation & selection




Measure each solution against the criteria from step three.




Final decision




There are many ways that a group can make a final decision, decide on a solution, or come to agreement. Some of the most popular ways of making the decision include:

Consensus: The group members all agree on the final decision through discussion and debate.

Compromise: Through discussion and readjustment of the final plan, group members come to agreement by giving up some of their demands.

Majority Vote: The decision is based on the opinion of the majority of its members.

Decision by Leader: The group gives the final decision to its leader.

Arbitration: An external body or person makes a decision for the group


Solution implementation: Enact the chosen solution.






Q. How can you make your written communication more concrete?    




A.  As written communication plays such a significant role in our economy and in the daily routines of the vast majority of organizations that an understanding of the essentials of written communication has become critical. One must know what one wants to say and how to say it. In addition, one must also design ones messages to portray exact meaning as well as create a favorable impression. Well-worded messages not only brings one and ones  reader closer together, but also make one appear more friendly, helpful, and interested.




In order to choose the right words and sentences for ones letters, one must need to be familiar with the elements of effective written communication.


The elements are:



1. Courtesy














Communicating concretely means being specific, definite, and vivid rather than vague and general. Concrete writing makes specific references to persons, places, objects & actions while abstract ones making general references to these items.


To make ones writing concrete one should:



a. Include as much specific information as possible.

b. Use active rather than passive verbs.

c. Use vivid, image-building words.



Include as much specific information as possible:


Unfortunately, what is concrete to us may not be concrete to our readers. An effective way to overcome this dilemma is to provide as much specific information as possible rather than giving general information. General information can also be taken as a delaying stuff and may also lead to the boredom.



Use active rather than passive verbs:

Active verbs help make your sentences more:


1. Specific: “The Dean decided” is more explicit than “A decision has been made”.

2. Personal: “You will note” is both personal and specific. “It will be noted” is impersonal.

3. Concise: The passive requires more words and thus slows both writing and reading. Compare “Figure shows” with “It’s shown by figures”

4. Emphatic: Passive words dull action. Compare “The students held a contest” with “A contest was held by the students”.

One may prefer the passive voice, instead of the active, only in such situations:


1. When one wants to avoid personal, blunt accusations or comments: “The October cheque was not included” is more tactful than “You failed to include the October cheque”. “Attendance at the meeting is required” is less harsh than “You must attend”.


2. When one wants to stress the object of the action: In “Your saving account is insured up to 1, 00,000”, one has intentionally stressed “your account” not the firm that does the insuring. Also “You are invited” is better than “We invite you.”


3. When the doer isn’t important in the sentence: In “Three announcements were made before the meeting started” the emphasis is on the announcements not on who gave them or who made the announcement.





Use vivid, image-building words:

One of the most important keys to make ones writing more concrete is to use image building and vivid words. And among the devices one can use to make ones messages forceful, vivid, and specific are sensory appeals, comparisons, concrete nouns, and well-chosen adjectives and adverbs.










(a)Explain the difference between direct request letters and indirect request letters.







Whenever we ask for something – information, action, products, adjustments, and references – we are making a request. To be as clear as possible, we as a writer need to imagine all the ways a request might be understood and then carefully choose our words to avoid pitfalls.



Direct request letters and indirect request letters are both request letters but they are opposite in their nature. In direct request letters the request is made directly without building up any ground or making an acceptable environment however in in-direct letters particularly when we are requesting for something that is expected not to be fulfilled ; we will build up a ground first and then made a request.




Like all routine messages, routine requests may be thought of as having three parts: an opening, a body, and a close. Using the direct approach, we place our main idea (a clear statement of the request) in the opening.  Use the middle to give details and justify our request. Then we close by requesting specific action and concluding cordially.




The indirect request letter is used to request general information rather than answers to specific questions. The opening of an indirect request letter is less specific than the opening of a direct request letter. In the middle usually the request is made with some details and in the end again we close requesting some specific action and concluding cordially.






Dear ________________,


I am writing to request a copy of the current collective bargaining agreement between Local 3 and Overwork Manufacturing Corp.


I have worked at the Overwork Manufacturing Corp. as a machine operator and have been a member of Local 3 for 15 years. I understand that it is my right under the Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act to have a current and true copy of the Collective Bargaining Agreement and all related agreements (signed by both parties) that apply to me.


Please send me a copy of the collective bargaining agreement between Local 3 and Overwork Manufacturing Corp. to the address below or let me know when I can come to the office to obtain a copy of the agreement. I ask to receive a copy of the contract by March 6, 2006.


Thank you for your assistance.



(b) What are the important details to include in social-invitation letter?     



Most social invitation letters are considered informal. When more formality is needed, a formal invitation, either printed or handwritten should be considered.




An effective and not very formal social invitation letter should have:



A fast start that presents the invitation and that contains important information about the event to which the reader is being invited.

A section that presents a discussion of the important information.

An action oriented closing.





In detail the essential things are:


·         The name of the person sponsoring the event (who is the host/hostess?)


·         Exactly who is invited (can someone bring a guest, spouse, child?)


·         what type of social event is being held


·         the date, address, and time of the event


·         directions or a simple map if the location may be difficult to find


·         what type of dress is appropriate or preferred


·         The phone number and deadline to reply; precede these facts with “R.S.V.P.” (French abbreviation for “please reply”).


Try to send the invitation letter two weeks or more in advance.






Please join us at a luncheon on Dec. 21 to celebrate Mr. Rehman’s tenth year as the Rector of the University. This important event, which begins at 12:30, will be held at the Blue Restaurant on Hali Road in Lahore.


                                                (A fast-start that presents the invitation and that contains important information about the event to which the reader is being invited)




In addition to the University’s staff, a few of the senior academicians are also being invited. If you wish, you will have an opportunity to join others in making a public tribute to recognize Mr. Rehman’s significant accomplishments during his attachment with the University.                  (A section that presents a discussion of the important information)




Please let me know by Dec. 10 if you will be able to attend the celebration and if you wish to deliver a tribute.                    (An action-oriented closing)








Mr. M. Nazim


requests the pleasure of your company


at a dinner


in the honor of


Dr. A.U. Rehman


on Friday, the twenty-first of December


at seven o’clock


in the Blue Room


SB-Hotel, Lahore




5867…                                                                                                            Black Tie







What are the key points that must be kept in mind for declining an invitation letter? Explain with the help of an example?               


Declining an invitation




From time to time, invitations must be declined. The reasons necessitating regrets are varied, ranging from a potential conflict of interest to a lack of time. Regardless of the reason for the refusal, the letter of decline must be tactful and courteous.




Key Points for Declining an Invitation




·         Open your declining letter with a sincere expression of regret as you state exactly what you are declining and how you received the request.


·         In your declining letter, explain your reasons for declining and any evidence you may have to back up your position.


·         Use courteous language throughout your declining letter


·         Check your declining letter carefully for mistakes in grammar, spelling, and punctuation.




The letter declining an invitation below is much more likely to produce a better relationship between the writer and the reader.


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