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ambreen Thanks for sharing 

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 “Rent of the shop” is an example of which of the following?

Fixed cost       page 67                                                           Variable cost

Selling Price                                                                              Breakeven Point


Which of the following is the first stage in new product development?

Idea generation    page 88                                                     Idea screening

Concept development                                                               Concept testing


Current ratio is the relationship of current assets and current liabilities, how these two terms are related?


Current assets ÷ current liabilities  google                          

Current assets × current liabilities

Current assets + current liabilities                                             

Current assets – current liabilities


Which of the following is the correct sequence of different stages of product life cycle? I. Maturity II. Decline III. Introduction IV. Growth

I, II, III, IV                              

III, I, IV, II                              

III, IV, I, II page 86


Which of the following is not the document that comes under ISO 9000? 

ISO 9001                                                                                 ISO 9002

ISO 9003                                                                                 ISO 9005 page 82


Which of the following requires participating companies to keep track of their raw material use and their generation, treatment and disposal hazardous wastes?

ISO 8004                                                                                 ISO 14000 page 82

ISO 9000                                                                                 ISO 9001


Statistical process control system is best applicable in which of the following processes?

Manufacturing page 80                                                         Services

Trading                                                                         Export


Which of the test is more suitable to select a mechanical craftsman?

Personality test                                                             Aptitude test

Achievement test page 74                                                     Intelligence test


Which of the following is a cost which remains fix in total but varies per unit of sales? 

Variable cost                                                                Selling Price

Fixed cost page 67                                                     Breakeven Point


Until 2000, how member countries have maintained 390 MFN (Most Favorite Nation) exemptions in WTO?

78                                79 page 103                            80                                81


Following are different state institutions that can provide assistance in the activities of marketing EXCEPT:

Export Promotion Bureau                                            

Export Promotion Zone Authority

Small & Medium Enterprise Development Authority                 

Federal Board of Revenue page 88


Quality of materials, form, appearance, functions of a product is related with which of the following? 

Design Quality page 80                                                         Manufacturing Quality

Productive Quality                                                                    All types of qualities

Which of the following is the expressed form of SPC?
Standard Process Control                                                        

Statistical Process Control page 80
Standard Product Control                                            

Statistical Procedure Control

Which of the following factors is NOT necessary to obtain quality control?
Raw Materials                                                              Vender Relation
Process Control                                                                        Unreliability  page 80

Which of the following is/are a/the source/s of financing or funds?
Net Trade credit                                                                       Commercial loans
Long Term loans                                                                       All of the given options page 51

Cost – volume Relationship is an important feature for the success of a product. This feature is studied under which area of a feasibility study?
Technical                                                                                  Customer
Market page 47                                                                     Technology

The information about cash flow of operations and transactions is presented under which of the following parts of a business plan?
The Business                                                                The Market  page 61
The Financial Projections                                                          Organization and Management


Which of the following CANNOT be accessed by performance appraisal?
Traits                                                                           Behaviors
Task outcomes                                                   Attitudes gogole


Which of the following is the expressed form of ISO?

Internal standard operations                                         

International standard organization page 38

International support organization                                             

Internal standardized operation


Which of the following is the most frequently used as a source for information about performance?

Peers                                                                            Subordinates google

Customers                                                                    managers


According to a World Bank survey (2002), how much SMEs are optimistic to grow in next 2 years?

28% page 89              32%                             34%                             36%


Which of the following is the expressed form of DFI?

Direct foreign investment                                                           Default financial institution

Default federal institute                                                  Direct foreign information


Pakistan has submitted two MFN exemptions lists to protect its two important sectors. The two sectors are

Pharmaceutical and banking services                                        

Telecommunications and textile

Telecommunications and banking services page 103                     

Pharmaceutical and textile


Which of the following term defined as; “It is a method by which the performance of an employee is evaluated (generally in terms of quality, quantity, cost and time)”?

Performance appraisal google                                              

Employee appraisal

Employee evalution                                                      

All of the given options


What  required for a company to do in statement “it involves identifying and describing what is happening on a job”?

Job analysis                                                                 

Job specification

Job description page 72                                                        

Job evaluation


Which of the following products can be said to be at the introduction stage of PLC (data as per December 2008)?

Digital televisions                                                                     

Palmtop mobiles

Video cassettes                                                                       

Digital cameras


Which of the following is a good example of capital-intensive industry?
Deep-shaft coal mining google                                             

Agricultural Industry
Robotics Industry
Hospitality Industry

Which of the following can be defined as “Immediate payments made by customer/importer to the seller/exporter by presenting correct documents in the required time frame?
Sight LC         google                       

Insight LC                               

Revocable LC


When “Employee Handbook” is provided to the employee by the company?

 At the point of Employee Test                                     

At the point of Interview          

At the point of Orientation page 74                                     

At the point of Screening


"Control of Finished Products" is related to which of the following?

Control of Quality page 81                                                   

Breadth of Scope

Design Quality                                                             

Manufactured Quality


How many standards are included in a comprehensive series of ISO-14000?


5  page 82      




With the help of personality test employer examines the following traits of candidate EXCEPT: 



Reasoning page74                                                     



Which of the following test conducted for employment to test traits like self-confidence, sociability, flexibility, creativity, and curiosity?

Personality test google                                                          

Aptitude test

Intelligence test                                                            

Achievement test

Pakistan has submitted two lists of MFN (Most Favorite Nation) Exemptions to WTO. In which years, Pakistan has submitted those lists?

1996 and 1997                                                            

1997 and 1998 page 103

1998 and 1999                                                            

1999 and 2000


Which of the following is NOT available in job description?

Job content                                                                  

Job environment

Abilities required page 72                                                     

Conditions of employment


What is the sound liquidity ratio in term of net working capital?


2:1 page 69




Which of following is the service provided by Industrial and Technological Information Bank?

Financial assistance                                                                  

Information Dissemination page 92

Industry and technology evaluation                                           

Feasibility study and assessment


Ali now has the buying power to purchase the computer system he has wanted for the last three months. Ali’s want is replaced with which of the following?

Need  google                                                              





Which of the following trait is measured by personality test?




Curiosity google


The primary output of the strategic management process should be:

A matching of its strengths and weaknesses to the opportunities and threats in the environment.

An invitation to outside investors and lenders to put money into the business.

A complete explanation of the company's product or service.

A description of the company's competitive situation.


_Law governs the rights and the obligations between people and the parties, they made promises to or agreements with.



Freedom of contract                                                    

UCC (Uniform Commercial Code google


Mr. A is looking for capital to purchase new buildings, equipment and furniture . He is looking for __capital.


Fixed google




Equity capital is also called:

Equity money                                                               

Stock money

Risk capital                                                                  

None of the above


A proforma financial statements means:

Looking at the current financial statements

Looking at the past financial statements

Preparing current financial statements

Preparing projected financial statements google


The grapevine in most organizations is:

Almost always incorrect in its content. google

Nonexistent in organizations where management communicates face to face and by memo.

The first place employees hear about major organizational changes.

Only used by troublemakers and gossipers within the organization.


According to a World Bank survey (2002), which of the following facts from marketing perspective is NOT correct?

28% of SMEs are optimistic to grow in the next 2 years  page 89

Credit customers are 50 % and it is growing rapidly

Mostly small enterprises work for domestic needs

Only 8% of SME are working in export sector


Typically, factoring is less expensive than bank and commercial finance company loans


False google


Pakistan's economy is an economy of _____ SME’s page 5


Percentage taken by the bank for discounting receivables is called_ Discount Rates   page 64


Working Capital Requirement Formula = Operating Expenses in Previous year/

Number of operating cycles in year  page 70


ISO 9000 __is an overview Document, which provide guideline for use and

selection of other standards. Page 82


GATT stands for __  General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade  google


WIPO stands for World Intellectual Property Organisation.

SBP: State Bank of Pakistan
MOIP: Ministry of Industries and Production
S&D:  Special and Differential
ECO: Economic Cooperation Organization
GNP: Gross National Product
LDC’s:  Least-Developed Country
PNAC:  Pakistan National Accreditation Council
OECD: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
ITP: Import Trade Price
ADB: Asian Development Bank
CBR: Central Board of Revenue
BMR:  Below Market Rate
MFA:  Multi Fiber Agreement (textile trade)
ATC: Agreement on Textiles and Clothing
DSB: Dispute Settlement Body (World Trade Organization)

Technical Barriers of Trade (TBT)

Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standards (SPS),


Q3.horizontal commitment & sector -specific commitment difference?

The Sector- Specific Commitments cover 47 activities within the business, communications, construction/engineering, health, financial and tourism/travel services. The GATS agreement recognizes 12 main sectors for the purpose of classification of services are as follows.

1. Communication.                                                  2. Financial.

3. Construction/Engineering.                                                4. Health.

5. Tourism/travel.                                                    6. Distribution.

7. Education.                                                                      8. Environment.

9. Recreation/culture.                                                          10. Sporting.

11. Transport.                                                                    12. Others.


The Horizontal Commitments of Pakistan, that is, commitments that apply to all sectors, relate to “commercial presence” or “presence of natural person”. Pakistan’s commitments regarding “commercial presence” are subject to incorporation in Pakistan with maximum foreign equity of 51% unless different percentage is inscribed against a particular sector or sub-sector.


what do u understand by dumping and anti-dumping terms and how WTO deals with issue? 3 Marks

In economics, "dumping" can refer to any kind of predatory pricing. However, the word is now generally used only in the context of international trade law, where dumping is defined as the act of a manufacturer in one country exporting a product to another country at an unfairly low price.

An antidumping duty is supposed to be set equal to the margin of dumping, defined as the difference between fair value and the actual sales price.

Agreement on Anti-dumping provides the right to the contracting parties to apply anti-dumping measures, i.e. measures against imports of a product at an export price below its “normal value” if such dumped imports caused injury to a domestic industry.


what are the steps taken by Government to meet the requirement of non-tariff barriers (NTBs) agreement? 3 Marks

1- The manufacturing techniques must be carefully selected so as to insure that the resultant products do not cause any harm to human, animal or plant life or health.

2- The exporters need to carefully study the laws and regulations of the importing countries and their likely impact on the exports.

3- The exporters should maintain an effective interaction with their counterpart associations etc. in the importing countries.


U can not serve a big market unless u divide whole market into small segment. What criteria u must consider for good segmentation? 3 Marks

Good segmentation must meet the following criteria:

a) Needs of customs must be both identifiable and measurable.

b) Firm must have the capacity to develop products that will satisfy the customer’s choice in the      particular segment.

c) The segment must be economically worthwhile.


As an enterenpure of a manufacturing unit u are mainting quality statisticaql process conntrol. How it work and give definition? 5 Marks

Statistical Process Control or SPC is a method for achieving quality control in manufacturing processes. SPC relies on measuring variation in manufacturing output and setting control limits based on observations of variations arising solely from common causes. A process that is "in control" is expected to generate output that is within the control limits. If the process produces an "out of control" point, one would not necessarily assume the process had moved to an "out of control" state but would try to locate the special cause(s) for this condition. Only if special causes could not be found would an assumption be made that there might be new common causes to be identified. One aspect of process quality improvement is achieved as these common causes are found and corrected - special causes have no bearing on the overall quality improvement process.


what Govt of Pak. has done for the implementation of TRIP's.   

Pakistan is committed to fulfilling TRIPs obligations, for which five laws have been promulgated. The Government had announced, in Trade Policy 200-03, establishment of umbrella organization PIPRO for improving the administration and enforcement scenario, but necessary legislation for PIPRO to start functioning, is still pending.


-what sources of information can be used to introduce a new product    5 marks

1. Necessity

2. Hobbies/ Personal Interest

3. Watching Trends in Fashions and Customs

4. Observing Other’s Deficiencies

5. Gap Filling

6. Novel Use of Known Products

7. Ancillarisation


-difference between design qulaity and manufactured quality        5 marks

 These are not the same thing.

Quality of design criteria

  • How attractive is a product to its target market?
  • How well chosen are its materials and components?
  • How easy is the product to manufacture and maintain?

Quality of manufacture

This has a more specific meaning. Well-made textile products (ones with a high quality of manufacture) will:

  • use materials that are suitable for the end use
  • match the product specifications
  • meet performance requirements
  • be manufactured with safe production methods
  • be made within budget limits
  • sell at an attractive price
  • be safe for the environment


you are a n exporter and have decreased exports. you blame govt. for this problem. you did you put this attitude on govt.? (problems and hurdles to exporters)

Intellectual property infringement - including copyright, patent an...

  Lack of competitive bidding for foreign government tenders.

  Competition from unfairly traded (i.e., dumped or foreign governmen...

  Unfair and trade distortive subsidies provided by foreign governmen...

  Foreign trade remedy investigations conducted inconsistent with int...

  Burdensome certification and testing requirements that are not requ...

  Increasing imports and unfair competition.

  Concerns over other foreign trade barriers to export or investment.


ATC ageement 3 marks

Agreement on Textile and Clothing The Agreement of Textile and Clothing stipulates that the Multifibre Arrangement will be phased out and that the textiles and clothing sector will be integrated into WTO in four stages over 10years. The major portion i.e., 49% will be assimilated in the stage four (ending January 1, 2005).


Advantages of advertising

1-     advertising can inform people about different product and services

2-     advertisement of non-commercial issues like AIDS ,polio can help in educating people

3-      advertisements creats a bran name for the product being promoted.

4-     Advertising can lead to direct feedback from customers.

5-     Advertising can help in attracting huge number of potential customers



Thanx 4 sharing


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