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The Business Plan: Creating and Starting the Venture 

Planning as Part of the Business Operation 

  • Plans: provide guidance and structure to management in a rapidly changing market environment.
    • Extremely important in early stages of a new venture.
 
  • Become finalized as entrepreneur has a better sense of:
    • Market.
    • Product or services to be marketed.
    • Management team.
    • Financial needs of the venture.
  • Helps meet short-term or long-term business goals.
Business Plan 
 
 
Written document describing all relevant internal & external elements and strategies for starting a new venture
The Business Plan 
  • A road map for the business.
  • An integration of functional plans.
(Marketing, Fin, HR, Manufacturing)
  • Addresses first three years of operation.
 
 
 
  • Like the entrepreneur, the traveler must make some important decisions and gather information before preparing the plan (Discussion)
 
 
Where am i now
Where am i going
How will i get there 
Road map Peshawar to Naran
 
Who should write the plan? 
 
    • Should be prepared by the entrepreneur in consultation with other sources.
 
 
 
    • SMEDA & Internet provides a wealth of info
    • Attend Workshops
    • Entrepreneur can make an objective assessment of his or her own skills before deciding to hire a consultant
    • Figure 7.1 (Skills Assessment table given in the book)
LOGO 
Scope of the Business Plan- who reads it? 
 
 
Three perspectives to be considered in preparing the plan:
  • Entrepreneur
 
  • Marketing
 
  • Investors
 
 
Employees 
investors 
bankers 
suppliers
  • Depth and detail in the business plan depend on:
    • Size and scope of the proposed new venture.
        • Nature of the product or market
        • -comprehensive plan for Portable Computer / retail video store / e-commerce business
    • Size of the market.
    • Competition.
    • Potential growth.
Value of the Business Plan (1 of 2) 
  • Valuable to the entrepreneur, potential investors, or even new personnel.
  • It is important to these people because:
    • Helps determine viability of the venture in a designated market.
    • Provides guidance to the entrepreneur in organizing his or her planning activities.
    • Serves as an important tool in helping to obtain financing.
 
  • Potential investors are very particular about what should be included in the business plan.
Value of the Business Plan (2 of 2) 
  • The thinking process required to complete the plan is a valuable experience for the entrepreneur.
    • Provides a self-assessment by the entrepreneur.
    • Forces the entrepreneur to bring objectivity to the idea.
    • Helps consider obstacles that might prevent the venture from succeeding.
    • Similar to role playing.
    • Allows to plan ways to avoid such obstacles.
 
  • If required, the entrepreneur may decide to terminate the business endeavor.
Evaluating the Plan 
  • The business plan must address:
    • Strengths of management and personnel.
    • Product or service.
    • Available resources.
 
  • Entrepreneur prepares a first draft of the business plan from a personal viewpoint.
    • Appropriate changes are necessary as entrepreneur is aware of the audience.
      • Suppliers.
      • Customers.
      • Potential suppliers of capital.
Lenders and Investors 
  • Lenders:
    • Primarily interested ability of the new venture to pay back the debt.
  • Banks:
    • Want facts with an objective analysis.
 
  • Investors, particularly venture capitalists, have different needs:
    • Place more emphasis on the entrepreneur’s character
    • Spend much time conducting background checks.
    • Investors will also demand high rates of return.
Presenting the Plan 
  • Entrepreneur is expected to “sell” his or her business concept.
    • Focus is on why this is a good opportunity.
    • Concluding remarks may reflect recognized risks and how the entrepreneur plans to address them.
 
  • Audiences include potential investors.
  • A winner is usually declared, with a financial award.
  • Investors describe these presentations as elevator plans.
Information Needs 
  • Before creating a business plan, entrepreneur must undertake a feasibility study.
    • Information for a feasibility study should focus on:
      • Marketing.
      • Finance.
      • Production.
    • Internet can be a valuable resource.
 
  • Feasible, well-defined goals and objectives need to be established.
 
Jim & Gary- Retail store of computer software & video games . 
 
  • Brainstorming discovered untapped market niche
  • BP made was weak & over optimistic – reaching goals
  • Ross old friend gave them advice
  • 12 stores openings first month & how-where stores would be opened
  • Ross liked the business concept & willing to pay $3M credit
  • Restructured plan and revise goals
  • Co made fortune later acquired by Barnes & Nobel
Marketing information 
  • Market potential for the product or service
  • Size and define the market
    Example:
    • Is the product most likely to be purchased by men or women?
    • People of high income or low income?
    • Highly educated or less educated people?
 
Well-defined market size->easier to project market/ goals for new venture
   
Operations Information Needs 
  • Entrepreneur may need information on:
    • Location
    • Manufacturing operations- basic machines need to be identified/ subcontracted 
    • Raw materials- supplier details/ cost should be determined
    • Equipment- list if its going to leased or purchased
    • Labor skills- # of personnel in each skill-pay rates
    • Space- total space needed should be determined
    • Overhead- item needed to support manufcaturing/ tools, supplies, utilities, salaries
  • Most of the information should be incorporated directly into the business plan.
Outline of a Business Plan (1 of 2) 
I. Introductory Page
A. Name and address of business
B. Name(s) and address(es) of principal(s)
C. Nature of business
D. Statement of financing needed
E. Statement of confidentiality of report
II. Executive Summary—Three to four pages summarizing the complete business plan
III. Industry Analysis
A. Future outlook and trends
B. Analysis of competitors
C. Market segmentation
D. Industry and market forecasts 
IV. Description of Venture
A. Product(s)
B. Service(s)
C. Size of business
D. Office equipment and personnel
E. Background of entrepreneur(s)
V. Production Plan
A. Manufacturing process (amount subcontracted)
B. Physical plant
C. Machinery and equipment
D. Names of suppliers of raw materials
VI. Operational Plan
A. Description of company’s operation
B. Flow of orders for goods and/or services
C. Technology utilization 
Outline of a Business Plan (2 of 2) 
VII. Marketing Plan
A. Pricing
B. Distribution
C. Promotion
D. Product forecasts
E. Controls
VIII. Organizational Plan
A. Form of ownership
B. Identification of partners or principal shareholders
C. Authority of principals
D. Management-team background
E. Roles and responsibilities of members of organization 
 
IX. Assessment of Risk
A. Evaluate weakness(es) of business
B. New technologies
C. Contingency plans
X. Financial Plan
A. Assumptions
B. Pro forma income statement
C. Cash flow projections
D. Pro forma balance sheet
E. Break-even analysis
F. Sources and applications of funds
XI. Appendix (contains backup material)
A. Letters
B. Market research data
C. Leases or contracts
D. Price lists from suppliers
Components of a Business Plan 
  • A business plan:
    • Should be comprehensive.
    • Should help the entrepreneur clarify his or her thinking about the business.
Environmental and Industry Analysis 
  • Environmental analysis: assessment of external uncontrollable variables that may impact the business plan.
    • Examples: Economy, culture, technology, legal concerns,
 
  • Industry analysis: reviews industry trends and competitive strategies.
    • Examples: Industry demand, competition
Critical Issues for  
Environmental and Industry Analysis 
  • What are the major economic, technological, legal, and political trends on a national and an international level?
  • What are total industry sales over the past five years?
  • What is anticipated growth in this industry?
  • How many new firms have entered this industry in the past three years?
  • What new products have been recently introduced in this industry?
  • Who are the nearest competitors?
  • How will your business operation be better than this?
  • Are the sales of each of your major competitors growing, declining, or steady?
  • What are the strengths and weaknesses of each of your competitors?
  • What trends are occurring in your specific market area?
  • What is the profile of your customers?
  • How does your customer profile differ from that of your competition?
Description of Venture 
  • Provides complete overview of the product(s), service(s), and operations of new venture. Components of the description are:
    • Mission statement.
    • Important factors that provide a clear description and understanding of the business venture.
      • Product(s) or service(s).
      • Location and size of the business.
      • Personnel and office equipment needed.
      • Background of the entrepreneur(s).
      • History of the venture.
Describing the Venture 
  • What is the mission of the new venture?
  • What are your reasons for going into business?
  • Why will you be successful in this venture?
  • What development work has been completed to date?
  • What is your product(s) and/or service(s)?Describe the product(s) and/or service(s), including patent, copyright, or trademark status.
  • Where will the business be located?
  • Is your building new? old? in need of renovations? (If renovation is needed, state costs.)
  • Is the building leased or owned? (State the terms.)
  • Why is this building and location right for your business?
  • What office equipment will be needed?
  • Will equipment be purchased or leased?
  • What experience do you have and/or will you need to successfully implement the business plan?
Production Plan 
  • Details how the product(s) will be manufactured.
 
 
 
  • Will you be responsible for all or part of the manufacturing operation?
  • If some manufacturing is subcontracted, who will be the subcontractors? (Give names and addresses.)
  • Why were these subcontractors selected?
  • What are the costs of the subcontracted manufacturing? (Include copies of any written contracts.)
  • What will be the layout of the production process? (Illustrate steps if possible.)
  • What equipment will be needed immediately for manufacturing?
  • What raw materials will be needed for manufacturing?
  • Who are the suppliers of new materials and what are the appropriate costs?
  • What are the costs of manufacturing the product?
  • What are the future capital equipment needs of the venture?
Operation Plan 
  • All businesses (manufacturing or nonmanufacturing) should include an operations plan as part of the business plan.
    • Goes beyond the manufacturing process.
    • Major distinction between services and manufactured goods is services involve intangible performances.
 
 
If a Retail Operation or Service:
  • From whom will merchandise be purchased?
  • How will the inventory control system operate?
  • What are the storage needs of the venture and how will they be promoted?
  • How will the goods flow to the customer?
  • Chronologically, what are the steps involved in a business transaction?
  • What are the technology utilization requirements to service customers effectively?
Marketing Plan 
  • Describes market conditions and strategy related to how the product(s) and service(s) will be distributed, priced, and promoted.
  • Describes:
    • Marketing research evidence.
    • Specific forecasts for a product(s) or service(s).
    • Budget and appropriate controls needed for marketing strategy decisions.
 
  • Potential investors regard the marketing plan as critical to the success of the new venture.
Organizational Plan 
  • Describes form of ownership and lines of authority and responsibility of members of new venture.
 
  • In case of a:
    • Partnership:
      • Terms of the partnership should be included.
    • Corporation:
      • Shares of stock authorized and share options.
      • Names, addresses, and resumes of the directors and officers of the corporation.
      • Organization chart.
Assessment of Risk 
  • Identifies potential hazards and alternative strategies to meet business plan goals and objectives.
  • Assessment of risk should be based on:
    • Potential risks to the new venture.
    • Discussion of what might happen if risks become reality.
    • Strategy employed to prevent, minimize, or respond.
  • Major risks for a new venture could result from:
    • Competitor’s reaction.
    • Weaknesses in marketing/ production/ management team.
    • New advances in technology.
Financial Plan 
  • Projections of key financial data that determine economic feasibility and necessary financial investment commitment.
 
  • Three financial areas:
    • Summarize the forecasted sales and the appropriate expenses for at least the first three years.
    • Cash flow figures for three years.
    • Projected balance sheet.
Appendix 
  • Contains any backup material that is not necessary in the text of the document.
 
  • May include:
    • Letters from customers, distributors, or subcontractors.
    • Secondary data or primary research data used to support plan decisions.
    • Leases, contracts, or other types of agreements.
    • Price lists from suppliers and competitors.
Using and Implementing the Business Plan 
  • Implementation of the strategy contain control points to:
    • Ascertain progress.
    • Initiate contingency plans if necessary.
 
  • Without good planning:
    • Entrepreneur is likely to pay an enormous price.
    • Employees will not understand the company’s goals.
 
  • Businesses fail due to entrepreneur’s inability to plan effectively.
Measuring Plan Progress 
  • Business plan projections are made on a 12-month schedule.
  • However the entrepreneur should frequently check on:
    • Profit and loss statement.
    • Cash flow projections.
    • Inventory control.
    • Production control- compare cost figures-day to day operation cost
    • Quality control- product performs satisfactory
    • Sales control- A/R collection system to avoid bad debts
    • Disbursements- control amount of money paid out
    • Web site control.
Updating the Plan 
  • Entrepreneurs must:
    • Be sensitive to changes in the company, industry, and market.
    • Determine what revisions are needed If changes are likely to affect the business plan.
 
  • Helps entrepreneurs:
    • Maintain reasonable targets and goals
    • Keep the new venture on a course to high probability of success.
Why Business Plans Fail 
  • Factors can be one of many of the following:
    • Goals set by the entrepreneur are unreasonable.
    • Goals are not measurable.
    • Entrepreneur has not made a total commitment to the business or to the family.
    • Entrepreneur has no experience in the planned business.
    • Entrepreneur has no sense of potential threats or weaknesses to the business.
    • No customer need was established for the proposed product or service.

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