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# PPSC Lecturers Commerce Preparation Materials at the one place 1Nov2020

Respected Members,

Here is some data for the preparation. Hope it will help you to be prepare for the exam of Punjab Public Service Commission ...

Agr ap k pass b koch data  hay to plz share kr dijiyee ga,, ta kay baKi Logon ka b faida ho saky or tiyari achi ho saky..

PPSC special for Lecturer Commerce

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something more

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esko 6 mints agy kr k tiyari krain :P ,,

Price Elasticity of Demand=P€d = Percentage change in Quantity Demanded/ Percentage change in Price

Price Elasticity of supply=P€s = Percentage change in Quantity Supplied/ Percentage change in Price

Income Elasticity of Demand: Price Elasticity of Supply: Y€d = Percentage change in Quantity demanded/ Percentage change in Income

Cross-Price Elasticity of Demand: Pb€da = Percentage change in Demand for good a/ Percentage change in Price of good b

The quadratic demand function: Qd = 60 – 15P + P2

The formula of elasticity = (dQ / dP) (P/Q)

MARGINAL RATE OF SUBSTITUTION= MRS= dY = MUX
dX     MUY
Profit=TR-TC

Average physical product =APP = TPPF/QF

Marginal physical product= ΔTPPF/ΔQF or MPPx=MPPL
PX        PL

MARGINAL RATE OF TECHNICAL SUBSTITUTION= MRTS = Δ K/ Δ L

Total Cost (TC)= FC + VC

Average variable cost (AVC) = TVC/Q

Average fixed cost (AFC)= TFC/Q

MARGINAL COST (MC)= ΔTC/ΔQ

Total revenue=TR = P x Q.

Average revenue= AR = TR/Q

Marginal revenue= ΔTR/ΔQ

Slope of AR = dAR / dQ

Slope of MR = dMR / dQ

Net present value = PV – Purchase cost

Value added or GDP: Value of transaction

GDP = Sum of the value added by each of the firms

Growth rate of per capita income = Growth rate of total output - Growth rate of population

GDP Deflator = Nominal GDP / Real GDP

NNP = GNP – Depreciation allowance

GNP = GDP + Net factor incomes from abroad

NDP = GDP – Depreciation allowance

GDP at factor cost = GDP at market price – Indirect taxes

Per capita income= national income/ Total population of that country

NNP = GNP – Depreciation allowance

Real GDP year a = Nominal GDP year a X (Price Index base year / Price Index year a)

Growth rate in nominal GDP = Nominal GDP in year2- Nominal GDP in year1

AD = C + I + G + (X-M)

AD = AS, C + S + T = C + I + G + X – M

Income = Expenditure = Output

Withdrawal = Injection= S + T + M = I + G + X

Marginal Propensity to Consume (MPC)= 1 – MPS or ΔC / ΔYd

Average propensity to consume (APC)= 1 – APS or C / Yd

Marginal propensity to save= MPS = 1 – MPC or MPS = ΔS / ΔYd

Average propensity to save= APS = 1 – APC or S / Yd

Real exchange rate= C = RER = PF x NER
PD
MULTIPLIER=k=1/(1-MPC)

uedu ky notes hen kya??????????

+++Shamp y RANA Girl++ .. nahi mera subject wo nahi too,, oskay collect nahi kiyee,,

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