Latest Activity In Study Groups

Join Your Study Groups

VU Past Papers, MCQs and More

We non-commercial site working hard since 2009 to facilitate learning Read More. We can't keep up without your support. Donate.

Assalam O Alaikum

Best Of Luck For Final Term Exam

plz find attachment below

Short Notes 22-45

Stay Blessed

Views: 3955


Replies to This Discussion

Psy 101 introduction to psychology??? Short notes

Lecture No.41

Q)Listening Skills:

One Key to Successful Negotiation

The best listeners almost always turn out to be the best negotiators. Why?

 Invariably, the best negotiators observe the communication skills, both verbal and nonverbal, of their counterparts; they note how other negotiators use word choice and sentence structure for effect;

and they study vocal skills like pitch, tonal quality and rate of speech.

Experts on listening suggest that we all make at least one major listening mistake each day.

For negotiators, such mistakes can be costly.

Common Listening Mistakes

Negotiators tend to run into three pitfalls that hinder effective listening:

*They think of negotiation primarily as a job of persuasion—and to them, this means talking.

They seem to forget that it is difficult to persuade other people when you don’t know what motivates them!

*They tend to overprepare for what they are going to say next, and use their listening time just waiting for their next opportunity to speak.

In doing so, they may miss information vital to the negotiation.

*They fail to hear what they do not want to hear.

They may not even be good enough listeners to know when people have no intention of buying their product or using their service—and thus they waste their time in fruitless negotiations.

Attentive Listening Skills

Learning to be a great listener is hard work, but the rewards make it worth the effort.

The following rules of attentive listening will help you become a successful negotiator.

  1. Be motivated to listen.

Realize that the person with the most information usually receives the better outcome in a negotiation.

This fact should be incentive enough to be a better listener!

The more you can learn, the better off you will be.

2. If you must speak, ask questions.

Your questions should have two goals: to get more specific and better refined information, and to uncover your counterpart’s needs and wants.

With this in mind when asking questions, move from the broad to the narrow, and eventually you will have the information you need to make the best decision.

3. Be alert to nonverbal cues.

Although it is critical to listen to what is being said, it is equally important for you to understand the attitudes and motives behind the words.

A negotiator doesn’t usually put his entire message into words. His verbal message may convey honesty and conviction while his gestures, facial expressions and tone of voice convey doubt.

4. Let the other party tell her story first.

A printing salesperson once told me how he had tried to impress a new prospect by mentioning that his company specialized in two-and four-color printing.

The prospect then told the salesperson that her primary need was for one-color printing.

The salesperson replied that, of course, his company also did one-color printing, but the prospect had already made the decision not to give him her business.

5. Do not interrupt whenthe other party is speaking.

When you interrupt a speaker, you are not only being rude, you may also be cutting off information that could help you later in the negotiation.

6. Fight off distractions.

Try to create a situation in which you can think clearly and avoid interruptions.

Interruptions tend to prevent negotiations from proceeding smoothly, and may even cause a setback.

7. Write everything down.

It is amazing how much conflicting information will come up later in the negotiation.

If you are able to correct your counterpart or refresh his memory with facts

and figures from earlier in the session, you will earn both credibility and power.

8. Listen with a goal in mind.

Know what you want to find out, and then listen and look for verbal and nonverbal cues that provide the information you are seeking.

When you hear specific bits of information, such as your counterpart’s willingness to concede on the price, proceed to more specific questions.

9. Give the other party your undivided attention.

Your goal is to create a win/win outcome so your counterpart will be willing to negotiate with you again.

Thus, he needs to think you are , honest and decent.

 One way to help achieve this goal is to pay close attention to your counterpart.

Look him in the eyes when he is speaking.

Also observe his nonverbal behavior--what message is it sending?

Does he seem nervous and desperate to complete the negotiation?

Is he lying or telling the truth?

Careful observation will help you determine the true meaning behind your counterpart’s words.

10. React to the message, not the person.

If you are going to react to something the other party says or does, attack the message, not the person.

If you offend your counterpart’s dignity, she will not be willing to negotiate with you again.

Try to understand why your counterpart says the things she does.

Negotiators are people who are trying to change a relationship.

Your counterpart is trying to change it according to her best interests.

If you were in her shoes, wouldn’t you do the same thing?

11. Don’t get angry.

In the angry mode, you tend to shut out your counterpart, and you are probably not in a frame of mind to make the best decisions.

Emotions of any kind hinder the listening process. If you are going to get angry, do it for the effect, but retain control of your  emotions so you can keep control of the negotiations.

12. Remember,

 it is impossible to listen and speak at the same time.

If you are speaking, you are tipping your hand and not getting the information you need from your counterpart.

Obviously, you will have to speak at some point in order to meet your needs and goals, but it is more important for you to learn your counterpart’s frame of reference.

With this information, you will be in control of the negotiation.

In your next negotiation, make a point of speaking less and listening more.

Remember that to achieve a win-win outcome, you must understand your counterpart's needs.

To gain this understanding, you're listening effectiveness is critical.

Lecture No.42

Q)Thesis Definition
The thesis is one of the most important concepts in college expository writing.

A thesis sentence focuses your ideas for the paper; it's your argument or insight or viewpoint  crystallized into a sentence or two that gives the reader your main idea.

It's not only useful for the reading audience to understand the purpose of the essay, it's also useful for you as a writer, as it indicates the type of support that will follow in the paper and it may indicate a logical structure or order for that support. need to have a good grasp of the concept of thesis in order to proceed.

The thesis identifies two basics:

1.what your ideas are about, and

2.what your ideas are.

There are two parts to a thesis sentence that reflect these basics.

1.The topic in the thesis tells what you are writing about.

2.The angle in the thesis tells what your ideas are about the topic.

For example:

•All successful college students have certain basic characteristics.

 [The main topic is about college students, while the idea or angle about the topic is that successful students share certain characteristics. The thesis indicates the type of support needed--discussion of those characteristics that contribute to college success.]

Lecture No.43

Q)Starting a Presentation?

In modern English, Presentations tend to be much less formal than they were even twenty years ago. Most audience these days prefer a relatively informal approach.

However, there is a certain structure to the opening of a Presentation that you should observe.

1.Get people's attention

2.Welcome them

3.Introduce yourself

4.State the purpose of your presentation

5.State how you want to deal with questions

Get people's attention

•If I could have everybody's attention.

•If we can start.

•Perhaps we should begin?

•Let's get started.

Welcome them

•Welcome to Microsoft.

•Thank you for coming today.

•Good morning, ladies and gentlemen.

•On behalf of Intel, I'd like to welcome you.

Introduce yourself

•My name's Jane Shaw. I'm responsible for travel arrangements.

•For those of you who don't know me, my name's Tom Stotter.

•As you know, I'm in charge of public relations.

•I'm the new Marketing Manager.

State the purpose of your presentation

•This morning I'd like to present our new processor.

•Today I'd like to discuss our failures in the Japanese market and suggest a new


•This afternoon, I'd like to report on my study into the German market.

•What I wantto do this morning is to talk to you about our new mobile telephone


•What I want to do is to tell you about our successes and failures in introducing new

working patterns.

•What I want to do is to show you how we've made our first successful steps in the potentially huge Chinese market.

State how you want to deal with questions.

•If you have any questions, I'll be happy to answer them as we go along.

•Feel free to ask any questions.

•Perhaps we can leave any questions you have until the end?

•There will be plenty of time for questions at the end.

Lecture No.44

Q)what is research methodology?

The process used to collect information and data for the purpose of making business decision.

The methodology may include publication research , interviews , surveys and other research

techniques , and could include both present and historical information.

Lecture No.45

Q) What is cocept paper?

A concept paper is a document written to convince potential funders to sponsor a product, program or service. Concept papers vary in format and specifics depending on the organization, but are generally concise documents containing information, statistics and persuasive arguments.

Here are the steps required to write a concept paper.

Lecture No.23

Q)what is claim letter?

Claim letters are very important in any business. Writing claim letters are both a Science and an

Art. There are obviously many different ways to write claim letters. Selecting the best words is

very important in writing an effectiv

e claim letter. With our business writing tool Treasures

Dictionary you can easily find best words for enriching your writings and make your claim letter

effective. Using our business writing tool advanced grammar and spelling check help you to

eliminate grammar and spelling errors in your claim letters. Always remember claim letter is

not the place to try out fancy fonts or experimental writing styles. As when writing claim letters

make sure double check your claim letter for finding and correcting grammar

and spelling

mistakes. So remember to proofread your claim letter.

Q)what is credit letter?

Credit Letters:

Writing Credit Letters:

A Promise of future payment in cash OR KIND GIVEN IN EXCHANGE for goods or service is called

credit. It is the instrument w

hich enables manufacturers, producers, retailers and consumers to

obtain goods at a time when they can be used or sold even if ready cash is not available.

The major reason customers wish to establish credit is convenience. Customers can:

  • §Buy now and pay later
  • §Avoid carrying cash with them or writing cheques.
  • §Exchange and buy goods on approval more easily.

While writing credit letters:

  • §Be careful as they are permanent record and protect in case of legal difficulties.

Credit letter must be courteous,tactful and dignified.

Letters concerning credit fall into these basic categories:

  • §Letters requesting credit.
  • §Letters extending credit.
  • §Letters refusing credit.

Lecture No.24

Q)Define guarantee and warranty?

Guarantee refers to the post sale performance. It means that the manufacturer stands behind

the product like a guarantor to a loan. It is a formal promise, like a contract, that if the

performance is below par, the goods will be repaired or replaced or the money refunded.

Warranty relates to the sale of goods and will say that it is of a particular standard. A warranty

is a promise that refers to more tangible things, like parts of the product or machine. It promises that the motor in a juicer will function smoothly for a year or two. If it doesn't, the manufacturer will repair or replace the motor.

Q) Define Buffer?

Buffer means something that lessens or absorbs the shock of an impact. It is to use positive,

pleasant statement rather than negative statement in the beginning of your message. It brings

the readers in positive frame of mind and improves the acceptability of your message. Buffer

statement does not mean to change the bad news into good news but to convey the bad news

in a positive manner to get the desired response.

Q) Explain Memorandum ?

A memorandum is used inside the organizations for different purposes.

For example,

a memorandum circulated in different departments of an organization in order to inform the

employees about new rules regarding punctuality of the staff.

Memos are used in hard as well as soft form.

In electronic(soft) form they are emailed to the recipient(s).

It is advised to observe netiquette (Net/Email etiquette) while communicating electronically.

The written record of the proceedings of a meeting is called the minutes of the meeting.

Basically minutes of a meeting are the summarized discussions, recommendations or decision

taken against particular agenda points.

Lecture No.25

Q)what do u ment by Collection Letter ?

Written notification of the pending amounts, meant to stimulate past-due customers to make a


Collection letters are sent usually one after another while maintaining a level of

decorum, the letters tone and language become increasingly less patient with each successive

letter, until at least some payment is received or with the final notice that account will be

turned over to a collection agency.

An effective letter of collection achieves its purpose without destroying the customers' goodwill

that was painstakingly acquired over the years.

You can see examples of collection letters in lesson: 25 of your handouts. For further study consult “The AMA Handbook of letters”

uploaded on LMS in ‘downloads’ section.

Five planning steps to write an effective business message:

1. Define the purpose of the message.

2. Analyze your audience –readers or listeners.

3. Choose the ideas to include.

4. Collect all the facts to back up these ideas.

5. Outline –organize –your message

Lecture No.26

Q) What is Solicited Slaes Message?

Solicited sales messages are generally written in response to some specific inquiry.

The main objective of such letters is to give a quick response to someone’s request for information.

For example, if a candidate submits his/her resume (job application) in response to a job advertisement, it will be a solicited message.

Q) What is Unsolicited Sales Message?

Letters/messages that we write without any inquiry are called unsolicited sales messages.

Companies write these letters to persuade the people to buy their products or services.

Brochures and newsletters are examples of unsolicited sales letters.

Q) Explain Informal Meeting?

In general, informal meetings are not well planned in advance.

No formal notification is circulated.

Members are informed through informal means like a phone call, etc.

There are no definite steps to be followed during such meetings.

Such meetings are normally conducted to encourage a cooperative approach for solving problems.

For example; the meeting of a factory manager with the president of a labour union in secret, can be termed as informal meeting.

Lecture No.27

Q) What is circular letter?

Letter used to communicate specific message to a large audience is known as circular letter.

Memo is a kind of letter that contains specific information which applicable to someone directly

and a circular is applicable to all working in an organization.

A memo needs a reply whereas a circular may not need any reply because it contains law in force or any kind of additional information.

Official circulars are issued generally from Head Office to its branches.

Some interviews can be inside the organization for promotion. What strategy we should adopt for those interviews.

For the in-house interviews held out for employees promotion, an employee should aim at proving himself eligible for the promotion.

He should have a sound knowledge of the organization and of the required post. It is also important to understand the culture of the organization and hence respond accordingly.

Q)what is "demo"?


Demo is the short form of demonstration. During interview, the interviewee may be asked to

show his skills in front of the panel.

For example,

if you are applying for the post of a teacher, you may be asked to teach some students in front of the panel.

Q)What is the purpose of Memo or Memorandum?

Purpose of Memo

When you wish to write to someone within your own company, you will send a memorandum.

Memos are used to communicate with other employees, may be located –whether in the same

office, in the same building, or in a branch office many miles away.

Because the interoffice memorandum form was developed to save time, the formalities of an

inside address, salutation, and complimentary closing is omitted.

Otherwise, however, office memos and letters have a great deal in common.

Lecture No.28

Q)what is memo or circular?

Memo and Circular

A circular displays information of popular interest in a designed format for distribution to the


• It may be used to send the same information to a number of people.

• It is extensively used in sales campaigns and for announcing important developments in

business, such as extension, reorganizations, changes of address, etc.

• A circular letter is prepared once only and it may then be duplicated for distribution to the


A memorandum is a note usually for internal use within a department or a company.

• It may be used for making informal reports, outlining new policies or giving briefing &

instruction etc.

• Memorandums help to determine responsibility. It also helps to clear up inconsistencies and

record needed information.

• In most companies and organization, memorandums are written in the first person like

business letters.

• Informal writing style characterizes the memos.

• The tone of the memo is influenced by the position held by the writer in relation to that held

by the receiver.

Special terms for meetings:

  • §Ad hoc: for the particular purpose of
  • §Advisory: submitting suggestions or advice to a person or body entitled to carry out

decisions and actions.

  • §Agenda: a ‘timetable’ listing items for discussion at a meeting
  • §AGM: Annual General Meeting

Apologies: for absence written or orally delivered excuse for not being able to attend a meeting

  • §Chairman: coordinator of a committee, working party, etc.
  • §Chairman's agenda: like ordinary agenda but containing additional information for guidance
  • §Executive: having power to act upon and carry out decisions
  • §Ex officio: by reason of an existing office or post
  • §Honorary: performing a duty without payment
  • §Minutes: written summary of a meeting’s business
  • §Motion: a topic formally introduced for discussion
  • §Nem con: no one disagreeing
  • §Opposer: one who speaks against
  • §Other business: items discussed outside main business of meeting
  • §Proposer: one who speaks in favour of a motion
  • §Resolution: a decision reached after a vote at formal meetings –a motion successfully introduced
  • §Secretary: committee administrator
  • §Sine die: indefinitely
  • §Standing committee: one which has an indefinite term of office
  • §Treasurer: financial guardian
  • §Unanimous: all of like mind

Lecture No.29

Q)Business Reports?


A Business Report is an impartial, objective, planned presentation of facts to one or more persons for a specific business purpose or an orderly, objective message used to convey information from one organizational area to another or from one institution to another to assist in decision making or problem solving.

”Reports have been classified in numerous ways by management and by report-preparation authorities.

We classify reports on the bases of their forms, uses, contents, etc.

Classification of Report:

Formal or Informal:

Formal reports are carefully structured;

they stress objectivity and organization, contain much detail, and are written in a style that tends to eliminate such elements as personal pronouns.

Informal reports are usually short messages with natural, casual use of language.

The internal memorandum generally can be described as an informal report.

Q)Explain Short or Long Reports?

‘Short-or-long’ can be a confusing classification for reports.

A one-page memorandum is obviously short, and a term paper of twenty pages is obviously long.

What about in-between lengths?

One important distinction generally holds true: as a report becomes longer, it takes on more characteristics of formal report.

Thus, the formal-informal and short-long classifications are closely related.

Q)What is difference between Explanation and description???

Explanation tells us why something is the way it is, whereas description states how it is.

For example,

explaining why we get sick might require an account of human biology, medicine, and so on.

While a description of sickness would involve the symptoms or experiences of sickness.

Q)Define the body part there is chronological and geographical and categorical ?

Chronologically means ‘arranged in order of time of occurrence’.

Geographically means ‘related to the geography of a specific region’.

Categorically means ‘related to a category or categories’.

For example,

categorical arrangement of market reports.

Q)How to Write Meeting Minutes

What is the purpose of minutes?

Minutes are written as an accurate record of a group's meetings, and a record decisions taken.

They are useful because people can forget

what was decided at a meeting if there is no written record of the proceedings.

Minutes can also inform people who were not at the meeting about what took place.

Q)Who writes the minutes?

It is normal practice for one person at each meeting to be given the

task of writing the minutes.

It may be the same person each meeting, or the task may be rotated.

Q)What do the minutes contain?

each meeting an agenda should be drawn up, detailing the matters to be discussed at the meeting.

A set of minutes should normally include the following information:

  • §time, date and place of meeting;
  • §list of people attending;
  • §list of absent members of the group;
  • §approval of the previous meeting's minutes, and any matters arising from those minutes;
  • §for each item in the agenda, a record of the principal points discussed and decisions taken;
  • §time, date and place of next meeting;
  • §name of person taking the minutes.

Q)What is Sales Report?

A record of calls made and products sold during a particular time frame kept by a salesperson or their management.

 For example,

a typical sales report might incorporate data on

(1) sales volume observed per item or group of items,

(2) how many new and current accounts were contacted and when,


(3) any costs that were involved in promoting and selling products.

Lecture No.30

Q)What is the direct order or organizational plan?

Organizational plan means a layout for writing letter-reports.

There are majorly two types of organizational plans:

. Indirect plan

. Direct plan

Direct plan is a format for writing a letter-report where the purpose of the letter-report is stated immediately, followed by explanation or reasons.

It is used to write informational or analytical reports where the request is likely to be granted.

Q)Main Parts of a Report?

A report can be largely divided into the following parts:


1. Cover

2. Title page

3. Summary of the report

4. Table of contents

5. Introduction to the report

6. Main body of the report

7. Conclusions

8. Recommendations

9. Annexure ,appendices and references

Let us look at each of the in detail and see how to present them so that we have an effective



The cover is the first encounter with the reporter and has to be eye-catching.

The cover also serves to further the corporate image of the organisation.

In case of reports prepared by students the cover page and the title page is usually the same.

Title page:

The title should be precise and convey the main objective of the study or the project.

This page could also include subtitles, which gives more information about the project


This is the most important part of the report. The summary should contain the gist of the report.

The entire information carried in the report must be conveyed in its essence.

This is going to be the section, based on which a reader will decide whether to read the whole report or not.

The summary must convey the results.

One must the readers what they want to know (i.e. the results) immediately. Ideally, the first paragraph must itself satisfy their curiosity.

The summary must be precise and one must use as much non-technical language as possible.

This is especially relevant in case of organisations, as the users of the reports in other departments may base their decisions on the summary.

For e.g.

A finance manager may take a decision on the technical feasibility report based on the summary as he may not be well versed with the technicalities and it could be difficult for him.

Table of contents:

This section gives the broad contents of the report and the flow of information in the report.

The arrangement of topics and the flow of information should be as logical as possible and

ideas should naturally follow each other.


This sector should give the background information on the report.

It should give an explanation as to why the particular study or project undertaken.

It should also give the prevailing facts at that point of time.

This section should also give the scope of the report and how much is the depth of coverage

and which areas are stressed upon.

In case of the areas that have been given more emphasis, reasons should be provided.

Finally, the introduction must lead the writer to the main report and prepare him for the

information he is about to receive.

Main Body of the Report:

This discusses the project in depth.

This will include the steps taken for the research, the actual

research carried out and the data collected and used for the study.

In case of data, the following should be noted:

In case the data is less and manageable then the data can be included in the main boy of the report.

However if the data is large and unwieldy, it can be included as appendices.

Similarly, any reference material, which is to be quoted, or any concept is to be explained, it can be attached as appendices if it is too large.


This section must give the results of the report. This should be very objective and a matter of fact kind of a section. This section must contain only the conclusions and not the recommendation as the user might like to

decide for himself based on the conclusions of the report.


This section is to be included if specific recommendations are asked for. The author can give out his opinion and must suggest the specific course of action to be taken to act on this report.

References and Appendices:

These are put up at the end of the report if they are required.

Other Important Factors:

Apart from the main structure of the report, the other factors important for a report are:


This depends on the purpose of the report.

If the report is to be given outside the organization then one should adopt a formal tone.

If it is to be used within the organization it should be semi-formal or informal depending on the hierarchy and the working style of the organization.

In case of reports prepared by students, the tone will be normally formal as it is to be given to

their guides or given outside to organizations.


The style of the report should be as friendly as possible. Short paragraphs and sentences must

be used.

Each paragraph must talk of just one idea so that the reader is not confused and does not have too much on his mind.

Small topic headings should be given even if the paragraph is clear. This will help the reader

decide whether he wants to read it or skip it.

Also the spacing of the paragraphs and the fonts used should be such that it is easy on the eye

of the reader.


The flow of ideas has to be smooth and logical. This makes the report easy to read and sustains the reader’s interest.

The enormity of ideas should be introduced progressively so that there is a gradual build up of ideas for the reader.


The grammar of the report should be taken care of. Incomplete sentences should be avoided.

Vagueness should be avoided and one must be precise wherever possible.

For e.g.

if it is said that the gestation period for a project is a short time, then one must clearly specify what one

means by "short time" whether it is one month, six months or one year etc.

Usage of cliché phrases must be avoided if possible.

Though the language sounds beautiful one should make sure that it fits in the context of the sentence.

These are just a way of looking at reports.

Like all good things, effective report writing comes by consciously practicing on writing techniques and using them in the reports.

Lecture No.31

Q)What is a formal report?

A formal report is an official document that is used as a tool of business communication, to give

a reader comprehensive information about a topic, which he or she is looking for.

It is somewhat similar o a research though it is mainly used to identify the facts.

Q)Different parts of Formal reports:

Prefatory Parts

Text Parts

Supplementary Parts

Lecture No.32

Q)Definition of Market Reports:

A market report reflects the market condition in terms of product or service.

In other words, A market report states about a product or service considering price level,

demand and supply, nature of transaction and market trend of such product or service.

Q)What is meant by Proposals?

A Proposal is an act of suggesting or proposing something. Proposals are informative and

persuasive writing because they attempt to educate the reader and to convince that reader to

do something.

Q)Research Proposal?


t that is typically written by a scientist or academic which describes the ideas for an

investigation on a certain topic.

The research proposal outlines the process from beginning to end and may be used to request financing for the project, certification for performing certain parts of research of the experiment, or as a required task before beginning a college dissertation.

Lecture No.33

Q)Definition of 'Resume'?

A one to two page formal document that lists a job applicant's work experience, education and  skills.

 A resume is designed to provide a detailed summary of an applicant's qualifications for a particular job -it is not usually meant to provide a complete picture.

A good resume gives the potential employer enough information to believe the applicant is worth interviewing. A one-page cover letter, submitted along with the resume, can provide additional information about  the applicant's qualifications.

Lecture No.34

Q)Define CV?


A curriculum vitae (CV) provides a summary of one’s experience and skills.

Typically longer than resumes (at least two or three pages),

CVs are used almost exclusively in countries outside of the United States.

Within the United States, people in academia and medicine tend to use CVs rather than resumes.

CVs include information on one’s academic background, including teaching experience, degrees, research, awards, publications, presentations, and other achievements.

Lecture No.35

Q)what is cover letter?

Your cover letter is your first (and best) chance to make a good impression!

Take the time to review cover letter examples and then make sure that your letter explains how your skills relate to the criteria listed in the job posting.

Here are cover letter examples for just about every employment related scenario.

Lecture No.36

Q)What is parallelism?

In grammar, parallelism, also known as parallel structure or parallel construction, is a balance

within one or more sentences of similar phrases or clauses that have the same grammatical


structure. The application of parallelism improves writing style and readability, and is thought

to make sentences easier to process

Q)What do u meant by Jargon?

is the verbal sleight of hand that makes the old hat seem newly fashionable; it gives an air of novelty and specious profundity to ideas that, if stated directly, would seem superficial, stale, frivolous, or false."

(David Lehman)


A chronological resume starts by listing your work history, with the most recent position listed first.

Your jobs are listed in reverse chronological order with your current, or most recent job, first.

Your education, skills, and other information are listed after your experience.

Employers typically prefer this type of resume because it's easy to see what jobs you have held and when you have worked at them.

Lecture No.37

Q)Interview tips: How to prepare for an interview?

Essential advice on getting ready for a job interview, polishing your technique and calming your interview nerves...

What do I need to do before an interview?

Give yourself plenty of time to:

  • §research the role and the organization ;
  • §think about how well your experience, interests and skills fit the job and the organization ;
  • §research current affairs and trends in your job sector
  • §find out what the prospective employer is actually looking for;
  • §anticipate questions you might be asked, then prepare answers to these questions;
  • §find out what form the interview will take, e.g. single, panel, group etc.

You should also:

  • §plan the day of theinterview, especially your journey with an aim to arrive ten minutes early.

Take money in case you need to take a taxi or bus unexpectedly; carry an A-Z street map or put the postcode of the organisation into Google maps on your mobile to prevent getting lost;

  • §decide what you will wear and set it out the night before. Suits and business wear are the best option with comfortable, polished shoes;
  • §get an early night -we all perform better when fully awake.

Lecture No.38

Oral presentation means delivering an address to a public audience. It also refers to public

speaking and/or speechmaking.

It is a brief discussion of a defined topic delivered to a public audience in order to impart knowledge or to stimulate discussion.

Remember that the skill in oral presentation is equally as important as effective writing.

An effective oral presentation should have an introduction, main body and conclusion like a short paper.

Though it is a formal speech in nature or vocal performance to an audience, it may occasionally require adequate.

planning and thorough preparation in using one's voice, body language and visual aids such as slideshows to present and illustrate the points more effectively and to achieve the desired results.

Lecture No.39

Q)How to prepare Oral Presentation?

1) Make Eye Contact With Your Audience.

I once sat through a four-hour training session, during which this was all I could see of the instructor.

Humans respond to eye contact; we expect to be able to see when you are excited, when you are making an important point, when you are looking to us for approval, when you are winding up to make a big point.

Go ahead and write your whole speech out so you can read robotically if you blank out, but you should practice your speech so you know it well enough that you can glance up from your notes and look at your audience as you speak.

Position your visual aids or keyboard so that you never turn your back to your audience.

Don’t hide behind the computer monitor when you run your

PowerPoint presentation.

Don’t stare down into your notes, either; your audience isn’t down there.

2) Start with Your Strongest Points.

I regularly watch speakers ad-lib too much during the introduction, and rush through the most original, most thoughtful points that they had saved for the end.

In rare cases —such as when you are facing a hostile audience, you might want to start out by emphasizing where you agree with your audience, and then carefully working your way towards your most divisive, most daring claims.

But usually, you should come right out and make your strongest case first.

Your speech is not a mystery story.

3) Determine Your Goals

Why are you delivering this oral presentation?

Be honest with yourself. If your answer is “to get a good grade from my professor” or “because my boss told me to,” you need to be aware of that fact now, because your audience will certainly figure it out soon enough.

What does your audience want?

The needs of the audience are always important to a technical writer.

An oral presentation brings you into direct, face-to-face contact with that audience.

A speaker has a captive audience.

Yes, people can sneak out the back of the room if they are terribly bored, but the audience wants you to succeed.

To repaythe attention of a captive audience, you should be informative,

interesting, and even a little surprising —especially if you are communicating a particular message that you want your listeners to take home with them.

Give a “Take-Home Message”

On Saturday Night Live years ago, a character named Fr.

Guido Sarducci pitched the “Five Minute University,” which was supposed to teach you everything that the average college graduate remembers, five years after graduating.

The entire economics course was “supplyand demand.”

I suppose the entire technical writing course would be “know your audience”.

Many speakers put this “Take-Home Message” up as the final slide of their talk.

What is the one thing you want your audience to remember?

4) Organize Your Material

Introductions and background sections are boring.

Don’t waste everyone’s time by giving us an entire lab report, or by dropping the names of all the authors you’ve consulted. A presenter who spends 15 minutes describing experimental procedures or positioning themselves theoretically —but only 5 minutes presenting and analyzing the results of their original work —has missed the point.

Get to the point.

An oral presentation is not a timed essay test, in which you get points for spewing out as many details as possible.

Most people in your audience probably won’t care how much your rats weighted, or what brand oscilloscope you used, or what version of MATLAB is running on your computer.

 If anybody is dying to know about such details, let them raise their hand and ask you.

If the question is actually important to your talk, you’ll probably be able to answer right away.

If you can’t, promise to check your notes and follow up via e-mail, and then go right back to your presentation.

  • §Most  audience members will probably have been annoyed by the interruption.

They will be delighted that you didn’t take the questioner’s bait.

  • §The questioner will probably be pleased to have stumped you.

5) Keep the Audience Involved.

Graphics, inspirational quotations, and anecdotes are all well-respected methods of maintaining audience interest. Overheads of Dilbert and The Far Side, fancy computer  transitions between slides, and vaudeville tricks work in small doses, but they get old pretty quickly (see Don McMillan’s hilarious ), and they eat up time that you could use more effectively.

A less showy method of maintaining audience interest can be as simple as giving a kind of road map to your presentation (see the “Road Map” section, below).

Don’t think about “delivering a speech“.

 Most inexperienced speakers who approach a professional oral presentation this way end up cutting themselves off from their audience.

  • §Don’t try to recite from memory. If you spend your energy worrying about what you’re supposed to say next, you won’t be able to pay attention to whether the audience can hear you, or whether the overhead projections are focused.
  • §Don’t read word-for-word from astack of papers. If you bother to show up to hear a person speak, how do you feel when the speaker mumbles through page after page of written text?

 Do you feel you should have just asked for a copy of the paper in the mail?

When you present, make every effort to include your audience; after all, they are the reason you are speaking in the first place.

If you do feel that you must write out your speech word-for-word, you should be familiar enough with it that you don’t need to look at the paper all the time.

Instead, think about “talking to people“.TV talk show hosts don’t think about talking to

millions of people at once... they think of talking directly to one individual person who wants to be part of a conversation.

Make your audience feel welcome.

  • §Make frequent eye contact.
  • §Remember that your audience wants your conclusions. Many, many speakers spend too much time on background, which forces them to rush through their final statements.
  • §Rehearse your explanations of charts and diagrams, your demonstrations of software, or your visits to web pages just as thoroughly as your introductory and concluding statements.

When you “wing it”, you will tend to eat up too much time.

  • §Know the venue. Find out how to shut off the lights, to lower the screen, to focus the overhead projector, etc.
  • §Prepare for disasters.

The network may crash, your monitor may start to flicker, or you may drop your notes. These things happen.

 Prepare a low-tech backup —overhead projections or paper handouts, a discussion question to engage the audience, whatever.

Making a good oral presentation is an art that involves attention to the needs of your audience, careful planning, and attention to delivery.

This page explains some of the basics of effective oral presentation. It also covers use of notes, visual aids and computer presentation software.

on page 11Negotiation is a method by which people settle differences.

It is a process by which compromise or agreement is reached while avoiding argument.

In any disagreement, individuals understandably aim to achieve the best possible outcome for their position (or perhaps an organization they represent).

However, the principles of fairness, seeking mutual benefit and maintaining a relationship are the keys to a successful outcome.

Preparing for a Successful Negotiation Depending on the scale of the disagreement, some preparation may be appropriate for conducting a successful negotiation.

For small disagreements, excessive preparation can be counter-productive because it takes time that is better used elsewhere.

It can also be seen as manipulative because, just as it strengthens your position, it can weaken the other person's.

However, if you need to resolve a major disagreement, then make sure you prepare thoroughly.

 Using our free worksheet, think through the following points before you start negotiating:


what do you want to get out of the negotiation?

What do you think the other person wants?


What do you and the other person have that you can trade?

What do you each have that the other wants?

What are you each comfortable giving away?


if you don't reach agreement with the other person, what alternatives do you have?

Are these good or bad?

 How much does it matter if you do not reach agreement?

Does failure to reach an agreement cut you out of future opportunities?

And what alternatives might the other person have?


 what is the history of the relationship?

Could or should this history impact the negotiation?

Will there be any hidden issues that may influence the negotiation?

How will you handle these?

Expected outcomes:

what outcome will people be expecting from this negotiation?

What has the outcome been in past, and what precedents have been set?

The consequences:

what are the consequences for you of winning or losing this negotiation?

What are the consequences for the other person?


who has what power in the relationship?

Who controls resources?

Who stands to lose the most if agreement isn't reached?

What power does the other person have to deliver what you hope for?

Possible solutions:

 based on all of the considerations, what possible compromises.

Chanda ka business communication ka paper tha  ajj 27 feb ko ????....................agr tha to plz jo jo yad  hoya us ko zarror  batana bilkul waisay hi jaisay mid mein batyaa tha  

yeshoo aj tha me ka paper par bht hi koja tha :( 52 questin thy overall n i think par yaad ni kitny subjective thy kitny objective :(

ik proposal sy related tha 3 marks ka i think business proposal

or 2 marks ka ik tha wo research proposal sy tha ,

3 marks k true false thy wo koi audience sy related tha presentation k hawaly sy

2 marks k bhi true false thy

5 faults of resume batany thy

5 marks ik or question psychological sy related tha

baqi bhool gai sholi :(

chalo koi bat nahin .....jitna batya itna hi kafi hai ...............thanks chanda

ik oral n writing presentation sy v related tha , sholi jesy jesy yaad aye gy share krogi :P

happy chanda i need short notes of eco-402 


Looking For Something? Search Below

Latest Activity

Sophie posted a discussion
2 hours ago
⭐ "Mannat"⭐✔️ liked Black Bird Scientist's discussion graphic designer required
2 hours ago
+ ! zεε liked иαвєєℓ αнмє∂'s discussion CS619 Project Students
7 hours ago
Hamid left a comment for jiya ali
8 hours ago
Hamid and jiya ali are now friends
8 hours ago
Usama shahid joined + M.Tariq Malik's group
15 hours ago
Profile Iconsria aslam, Khawir Abbas and Sana Shafaq joined Virtual University of Pakistan
19 hours ago
Abdul Rehman updated their profile

VIP Member Badge & Others

How to Get This Badge at Your Profile DP


Management: Admins ::: Moderators

Other Awards Badges List Moderators Group

© 2021   Created by + M.Tariq Malik.   Powered by

Promote Us  |  Report an Issue  |  Privacy Policy  |  Terms of Service