Cultural Anthropology (SOC401)
Assignment No. 02
Due Date0: 05-12-2016 Assignment marks: 20
Major Food Obtaining Strategies
The main objective of this assignment is to:
• Explore that how food obtaining strategies vary from culture to culture.
• Familiarize students about their own kinship pattern.
Keeping in mind the Major Food Obtaining Strategies, your task is to choose three different societies i.e. horticulture, pastoral and agriculture existing around the world and discuss how each society’s food obtaining strategy varies from others. (5*3)
Note: You can use web sources for this activity and mention the references.
Make a simple kinship diagram that depicts your own family structure and also indicate the relationships (father, mother and siblings). (5)
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Keeping in mind the Major Food Obtaining Strategies, your task is to choose
three different societies i.e. horticulture, pastoral and agriculture existing
around the world and discuss how each society’s food obtaining strategy varies
from others. (5*3) Note: You can use web sources for this activity and mention
Food systems are complex organisms that impact the economy, land use, health
and nutrition, labor, culture, food security, investment and more. Looking at only
the parts that work well – or those that we think could use improvement –
doesn’t consider how each piece relates to the others, or what transactions must
occur to make the system function well.
· Fried rice.
· Jiaozi (filled dumplings, guotie)
· Potsticker (shallow fried jiaozi)
· Noodles. Fried noodles. Noodle soup.
· Kung Pao chicken.
· Fried pancakes (including green onion pancakes)
· Zongzi (rice balls, wrapped in leaves)
Turkish cuisine is often regarded as one of the greatest in the world. Its culinary
traditions have successfully survived over 1,300 years for several reasons,
including its favorable location and Mediterranean climate. The country's
position between the Far East and the Mediterranean Sea helped the Turks
gain complete control of major trade routes, and an ideal environment allowed
plants and animals to flourish. Such advantages helped to develop and sustain
a lasting and influential cuisine.
The Turkish people are descendents of nomadic tribes from Mongolia and
western Asia who moved westward and became herdsmen around A.D. 600.
Early influence from the Chinese and Persians included noodles and mant,
cheese- or meat-stuffed dumplings (similar to the Italian ravioli), often covered
in a yogurt sauce. Manthas often been credited with first
introducingdolma (stuffed foods) into the Turkish cuisine. The milk and various
dairy products that became staple foods for the herdsmen were nearly unused
by the Chinese. This difference helped the Turks to establish their own unique
By A.D. 1000, the Turks were moving westward towards richer soil where they
grew crops such as wheat and barley. Thin sheets of dough called yufkaalong
with crushed grains were used to create sweet pastries. The Persians
introduced rice, various nuts, and meat and fruit stews. In return, the Turks
taught them how to cook bulgur wheat. As the Turks moved further westward
intoAnatolia (present-day Turkey) by 1200, they encountered chickpeas and figs,
as well as Greek olive oil and an abundance of seafood.
A heavily influential Turkish cuisine was well established by the mid-1400s, the
beginning of the (Turkish) Ottoman Empire's six hundred-year reign. Yogurt
salads, fish in olive oil, and stuffed and wrapped vegetables became Turkish
staples. The empire, eventually spanning from Austria to northern Africa, used
its land and water routes to import exotic ingredients from all over the world.
By the end of the 1500s, the Ottoman court housed over 1,400 live-in cooks
and passed laws regulating the freshness of food. Since the fall of the empire in
World War I (1914–1918) and the establishment of the Turkish Republic,
foreign dishes such as French hollandaise sauce and Western fast chains food
have made their way into the modern Turkish diet.
Although Pakistan is a relatively young country, the cuisine has developed over
many more years and incorporates elements from its neighbours – India,
Afghanistan and Iran. The varied regions also means there are a wide range of
different foods – from the fertile valleys and the sea of Sindh province; to
pastoral Baluchistan from neighbouring Iran; to the Punjab with its five rivers
and the rugged North West Frontier, home of the chapli kebab.
The blend of Indian, Far Eastern and Middle Eastern cooking techniques
creates a distinctive mix of complex flavours. The use of pomegranate seeds in
some meat dishes adds a sweet, sour note and reflects the Middle Eastern
influence on the food.
Some key dishes are slow cooked, such as the famous haleem, a mix of pulses,
meat and spices that is cooked for up to seven or eight hours. Pakistanis refer
to it as 'haleem, king of curry'. It's a thick stew, usually served with the fresh
tastes of lemon, coriander and ginger. Lamb is the most popular meat,
followed by beef, chicken and goat. Ghee and yoghurt are used in the cooking
of many types of meat.
Pakistan is generally regarded as a bread culture, with meals being eaten with
the right hand and naan bread or roti used to scoop up curries and
accompaniments as is the practice in Muslim culture. Other popular breads
includechapati and parata – fried bread stuffed with dhal or meat and
Pakistan is also the birthplace of the tandoor oven, which is used to cook many
of the breads as well as meats like chicken, lamb or fish. The rice in Pakistan is
regarded amongst the best in the world with long grain basmati rice especially
prized and used in the classic biryani, a spectacular combination of spiced rice
that is usually cooked with meat but can also be vegetarian.
Sweets are abundant, using generous amounts of ghee, sugar and nuts such as
pistachios and almonds. Halva (meaning sweet) is one of the most popular
sweets and can be made with flour or semolina but can also be made with
carrot or pumpkin. Many sweets are also infused with fragrant essences like
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