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Solution  

Mutation

It is the agent of substance that bring a permanent alteration to the physical composition of DNA gene such as genetic message is changed or mutation is used to indicate a change (a disease causing change)

Effect of Mutation

1)      Mutation may be harmful

2)      Mutation may be beneficial

3)      Mutation may have no effect on the organism

So the mutation when occurs DNA gene is damaged in such way as to alter the genetic messages carried by that gene or change.

In the mutation the main function performed by mRNA to transcribe from that gene will carry message. The polypeptide made by translated the alter mRNA which contain different sequence of amino acid.

Somatic Gene Mutation

This type of mutation is called somatic mutation.  it can spontaneously arise in any cell in the body “soma” except germ cells (eggs and sperm) at any time during the patient’s life. This type of mutation is limited to the descendents of the original cell that developed the mutation. it is not present in other cells in the patient’s body. Since it’s not in the germ cells, it is not passable from parent to child.

Example

 Somatic mutations can cause cancer or other diseases

 

Sex Cell Mutation

Sex Cell mutations are the mutation that occur in the egg or sperm cell and therefore can be passed on to the organism's offspring. Somatic mutations are the mutation that happens in cells other than the Sex Cells and they cannot be transmitted to the next generation..

Example

An example of a chromosome mutation in a sex cell would be trisomy 21 (aka downs syndrome), where a sex cell has an extra chromosome due to a homologous pair of chromosomes failing to separate during meiosis 

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Dr ijaz khan thanks for sharing 

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