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BT101 Assignment No 01 Fall 2019 Solution & Discussion Due Date: 15-11-2019

Question No. 1Question No. 1Briefly describe the population growth? (5)                                                                              Question No. 2What are the types of ecological pyramids and relationship to trophic levels? (5)                                     


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Question No. 1

 

Briefly describe the population growth?

population growth is the increase in the number ofindividuals in a population. ... Global human population growth amounts toaround 83 million annually, or 1.1% per year. The global population has grownfrom 1 billion in 1800 to 7.616 billion in 2018. Population growth is thechange in a population over time, and can be quantified as the change in thenumber of individuals of any species in a population using "per unittime" for measurement. In biology, the term population growth is likely torefer to any known organism, but this article deals mostly with the applicationof the term to human populations in demography. In demography, populationgrowth is used informally for the more specific term population growth rate,and is often used to refer specifically to the growth of the human populationof the world. Simple models of population growth include the Malthusian GrowthModel and the logistic model. The world population grew from 1 billion to 7billion from 1800 to 2011. During the year 2011, according to estimates, 135million people were born and 57 million died, for an increase in population of78 million.
Exponential population growth:              

Exponential growth takes place when a population's per capita growth rate stays the same, regardless of population size, making the population grow faster and faster as it gets larger. Bacteria grown in the lab provide an excellent example of exponential growth. In exponential growth, the population’s growth rate increases over time, in proportion to the size of the population.

 Logistic growth:

Exponential growth is not a very sustainable state of affairs, since it depends on infinite amounts of resources (which tend not to exist in the real world).

 Question No. 2

What are the types of ecological pyramids and relationship to trophic levels? 

It is agraphic representation of the relationship between organisms at various trophiclevels in a food chain. The basis of an ecological pyramid is the biomass,energy, and number. Just as the name suggests ecological pyramids are in theshape of a pyramid. The concept was first introduced by Charles Elton, thepioneer British Ecologist.

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BT101 Assignment NO.1 Solution

Question No. 1: Briefly describe the population growth?
In biology or human geography, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population. Many of the world's countries, including many in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, South Asia and South East Asia, have seen a sharp rise in population since the end of the Cold War. The fear is that high population numbers are putting further strain on natural resources, food supplies, fuel supplies, employment, housing, etc. in some of the less fortunate countries
Global human population growth amounts to around 83 million annually, or 1.1% per year. The global population has grown from 1 billion in 1800 to 7.616 billion in 2018. It is expected to keep growing, and estimates have put the total population at 8.6 billion by mid-2030, 9.8 billion by mid-2050 and 11.2 billion by 2100.
Talking about Pakistan, the population growth rate for Pakistan was 50.3% during 1990-2010 and 19.74% during 2010-2018.
We cannot have a sustainable planet without stabilizing population. As human populations grow, human demands for resources like water, land, trees, and energy also grow. Unfortunately, the price of all this “growth” is paid for by other endangered plants and animals and an increasingly volatile and dangerous climate. Any truly meaningful conservation and sustainability efforts must take the expanding human population footprint into consideration.
Globally, over 228,000 people are added every day — each needs sufficient land, water, shelter, food, and energy for a decent life. But, luckily, population growth is not an intractable problem. Population growth has relatively easy and inexpensive solutions and because population impacts every environmental challenge — it is an essential element to achieve sustainability.

Question No. 2: What are the types of ecological pyramids and relationship to trophic levels?
It is a graphic representation of the relationship between organisms at various trophic levels in a food chain. The basis of an ecological pyramid is the biomass, energy, and number. Just as the name suggests ecological pyramids are in the shape of a pyramid. The concept was first introduced by Charles Elton, the pioneer British Ecologist.
The bottom of an ecological pyramid is the broadest and is occupied the producers, which form the first trophic level. Producers are at the lowest level. Just as in a food chain, the producers are consumed by the primary consumers, in an ecological pyramid; the next level is occupied by the primary consumers. The next level of the pyramid is occupied by the secondary consumers and the last, by the tertiary consumers.
Types of Ecological Pyramids:
Depending on the factors that we use to represent an ecological pyramid, there are three types. They are:
•Pyramid of numbers– Here the factor that is taken into account is the number of organisms in each trophic level. As we go up the levels of the pyramid, the number of organisms decreases. The producers form the largest number and hence are at the bottom of the pyramid.
• Pyramid of energy– This is an upright pyramid that represents the flow of energy from the producers to the final consumers.
• Pyramid of biomass – This pyramid represents the amount of biomass of the organisms present at each trophic level. Biomass is nothing but the weight of the organisms.

In general, all ecological pyramids are upright, except in certain cases.

BT101 Assignment NO.1 BT101 Assignment NO.1 
Question No. 1
Briefly describe the population growth?
1. population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population Global humanpopulation growth amounts to around 83 million annually, or 1.1% per year. The global population has grown from 1 billion in 1800 to 7.616 billion in 2018. Population growth is the change in a population over time, and can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals of any species in a population using "per unit time" for measurement. In biology, the term population growth is likely to refer to any known organism, but this article deals mostly with the application of the term to human populations in demography. In demography, population growth is used informally for the more specific term population growth rate, and is often used to refer specifically to the growth of the human population of the world. Simple models of population growth include the Malthusian Growth Model and the logistic model. The world population grew from 1 billion to 7 billion from 1800 to 2011. During the year 2011, according to estimates, 135 million people were born and 57 million died, for an increase in population of 78 million.
Exponential population growth:
Exponential growth takes place when a population's per capita growth rate stays the same, regardless of population size, making the population grow faster and faster as it gets larger. Bacteria grown in the lab provide an excellent example of exponential growth. In exponential growth, the population’s growth rate increases over time, in proportion to the size of the population.
Logistic growth:
Exponential growth is not a very sustainable state of affairs, since it depends on infinite amounts of resources (which tend not to exist in the real world).
Question No. 2
What are the types of ecological pyramids and relationship to trophic levels?
It is a graphic representation of the relationship between organisms at various trophic levels in a food chain. The basis of an ecological pyramid is the biomass, energy, and number. Just as the name
suggests ecological pyramids are in the shape of a pyramid. The concept was first introduced by Charles Elton, the pioneer British Ecologist.
The bottom of an ecological pyramid is the broadest and is occupied the producers, which form the first trophic level. Producers are at the lowest level. Just as in a food chain, the producers are consumed by the primary consumers, in an ecological pyramid; the next level is occupied by the primary consumers. The next level of the pyramid is occupied by the secondary consumers and the last, by the tertiary consumers.
Types of Ecological Pyramids:
Depending on the factors that we use to represent an ecological pyramid, there are three types. They are:
Pyramid of numbers– Here the factor that is taken into account is the number of organisms in each trophic level. As we go up the levels of the pyramid, the number of organisms decreases. The producers form the largest number and hence are at the bottom of the pyramid.
Pyramid of energy– This is an upright pyramid that represents the flow of energy from the producers to the final consumers.
Pyramid of biomass – This pyramid represents the amount of biomass of the organisms present at each trophic level. Biomass is nothing but the weight of the organisms.

BT101 Assignment NO.1 Solution fall 2019

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BT101 Assignment NO.1 Solution

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