We have been working very hard since 2009 to facilitate in your learning Read More. We can't keep up without your support. Donate Now.

www.bit.ly/vucodes

+ Link For Assignments, GDBs & Online Quizzes Solution

www.bit.ly/papersvu

+ Link For Past Papers, Solved MCQs, Short Notes & More

Looking For Something at Site? Search Below

An Analytical Study of Chocolate Industry 

See the attached file please


+ http://bit.ly/vucodes (Link for Assignments, GDBs & Online Quizzes Solution)

+ http://bit.ly/papersvu (Link for Past Papers, Solved MCQs, Short Notes & More)

+ Click Here to Search (Looking For something at vustudents.ning.com?)

+ Click Here To Join (Our facebook study Group)


Views: 819

Attachments:

Replies to This Discussion

Summary

“An Analytical Study of Chocolate Industry in India with Special Reference to Cadbury’s

India is a sweet CHOCOLATE story of chocolates in the hot and humid plains of INDIA, which

enlightens us about the size & status of chocolate industry in India. The project gives information

about the competitors, their market share, and their product basket and highlights success features.

The project also presents data on types & categories of chocolates, a brief study of chocolate

manufacturing process

The project also covers a brief study of Cadbury’s India Limited – the biggest player in the

Indian Chocolate Industry with reference to its presence, market share, product offerings, marketing

strategies, strengths & weaknesses, success factors and Worm Controversy Management. Also, the

implication of pricing, distribution strategies and impact of external environment has been recorded.

The project throws light on problems and challenges of the Indian Chocolate Industry, growth

opportunities and strategies to be adopted for growth in this industry.

Finally, the project gives information about home-made chocolates and Chocolate Boutiques

and the ways in which Indian consumers and Chocolate players are experimenting and innovating

chocolates and giving the Indian Chocolate Industry a new sweetness.

Table of contents

Sr. No Topic Page

No

1 Project Objective 6

2 An Overview of Chocolate Industry in India 8

3 Types of Chocolates 12

4 Categories of Chocolates & Form of Consumption 14

5 Chocolate Manufacturing Process 15

6 Market Size (by value & by volume) 16

7 Major Players & their Market Share 17

8 Cadbury’s India Limited – A Study 18

9 Cadbury & The Worm Controversy 37

10 MARKETING - PROMOTION of CHOCOLATES in INDIA 46

11 Nestle India 50

12 Amul (GCMMF) 53

13 CAMPCO 59

14 Home-made Chocolates 62

15 Interesting Chocolate Facts 63

16 Problems & Challenges in Indian Chocolate Industry 64

17 External Factors affecting Growth of Chocolate Industry in INDIA 66

18 Growth Opportunities in Indian Chocolate Industry 67

19 Strategies for Growth & Success in India 69

20 Chocolate Boutiques & Designer Chocolates 70

21 Conclusion 72

22 Bibliography 73

Project Objective

This project aims at understanding the overall Chocolate Industry in India, the product

portfolios of different players in the market, various factors affecting the growth and success of

chocolate industry in India, the challenges and opportunities which the market offers and the

changing trends in the Indian Chocolate Industry. The project also covers a brief study of Cadbury’s

India with reference to above points.

An Overview of Chocolate Industry in India

The chocolate industry in India as it stands today is dominated by two companies, both

multinationals. The market leader is Cadbury with a lion's share of 70 percent. The company's

brands (Five Star, Gems, Eclairs, Perk, Dairy Milk) are leaders their segments. Till the early 90s,

Cadbury had a market share of over 80 percent, but its party was spoiled when Nestle appeared on

the scene. The latter has introduced its international brands in the country (Kit Kat, Lions), and now

commands approximately 15 percent market share. The Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing

Federation (GCMMF) and Central Arecanut and Cocoa Manufactures and Processors Co-operative

(CAMPCO) are the other companies operating in this segment. Competition in the segment will get

keener as overseas chocolate giants Hershey's and Mars consolidate to grab a bite of the Indian

chocolate pie.

Per Capita Chocolate Consumption (in lb) of first 15 countries of the world

Rank Countries Per Capita

Consumption (in lb)

1 Switzerland 22.36

2 Austria 20.13

3 Ireland 19.47

4 Germany 18.04

5 Norway 17.93

6 Denmark 17.66

7 United Kingdom 17.49

8 Belgium 13.16

9 Australia 12.99

10 Sweden 12.90

11 United States 11.64

12 France 11.38

13 Netherlands 10.56

14 Finland 10.45

15 Italy 6.13

INDIA, stands nowhere even near to these countries when compared in terms of Per Capita

Chocolate Consumption. The Indian chocolate industry is extremely fragmented with a range of

products catering to a variety of consumers. We have the bars/slabs, jellies, lollipops, toffees and

sugar candies.

Given India's mammoth population, it comes as a surprise that per capita chocolate consumption in

the country is dismally low - a mere 20 gms per Indian. Compare this to over 7 kgs in most

developed nations.

However, Indians swallowed 22,000 tonnes of chocolate last year and consumption is growing

at 10-12 percent annually.

The market size of chocolates was estimated to be around 16,000 tonnes, valued around Rs.

4.16 billion in 1998. Volume growth which was over 20% pa in the 3 years preceding 1998, slowed

down thereafter.

Both chocolate and sugar confectioneries have abysmally low penetration levels, in fact, even

lower than biscuits, which reach 56 per cent of the households. Market growth in the chocolate

segment has hovered between 10 to 20%. In the last five years, the category has grown by 14-15%

on an average and will expect it to continue growing at a similar rate in the next five years.

The market presently has close to 60mn consumers and they are mainly located in the

urban areas. Growth will mainly come through an increase in penetration as income levels improve.

However, almost all of this consumption is in the cities, and rural India is nearly

‘chocolate-free’. But the fact is that three quarters of Indians live in Rural Areas. “Average

summertime temperatures reach 43 degrees Celsius in India. Chocolate melts at body temperature of

36 degrees.”

Per capita consumption of chocolates in India is minuscule at 20gms in India as compared

to around 5-8 kgs and 8-10 kgs respectively in most European countries. ... Awareness about

chocolates is very high in urban areas at over 95%. ...

Growth of other lifestyle foods such as malted beverages and milk food have actually

declined by 3.7 per cent and 11.7 per cent, however the CHOCOLATES continue to grow at

the rate of 12.6%.

Low priced unit packs, increased distribution reach and new product launches can be

said to have fuelled this growth.

The launch of lower-priced, smaller bars of chocolate in the last two years and

positioning of chocolate as a substitute to traditional sweets during festivals, have boosted

consumption. This is also because chocolate, which was considered to be an elitist food, has caught

the fancy of buyers looking for a lifestyle item at affordable cost.

Till recently, chocolate consumption had been restricted by low purchasing power in the

market. Chocolates and other cocoa-based snack foods were looked upon as food suitable only for

the well-off.

After economic liberalization in 1991, major changes have occurred in food habits, partly on

account of rise in gross domestic product (GDP) growth and higher purchasing power in the hands of

the middle-class representing a third of the total population. Availability of chocolate products has

also exploded.

A study had projected that sales of the Indian chocolate industry would rise from $125/$130

million in 1998 to $175/$180 million by the year 2000 and to $450 million by the year 2005 which

ACTUALLY happened irrespective of various negative factors.

Per capita chocolate consumption continues to be low at about 200g per person, being

mainly consumed in urban areas. In the middle and higher income groups, 70 per cent of children, 43

per cent of young adults and 16 per cent of adults consume chocolate.

Chocolate Consumption Structure - 2004

Children

55%

Adults

12%

Young Adults

33%

Form of Consumption

a. Pure Chocolates

b. Toffees

c. Cakes & Pastries

d. Malted Beverages

e. Wafer Biscuits & Baked Biscuits

f. Chocolate Desserts

Chocolate Manufacturing Process

Workers cut the fruit of the cacao tree, or pods open and scoop out the beans. These beans are

allowed to ferment and then dry. Then they are cleaned, roasted and hulled. Once the shells have

been removed they are called nibs. Nibs are blended much like coffee beans, to produce different

colors and flavors. Then they are ground up and the cocoa butter is released. The heat from the

grinding process causes this mixture of cocoa butter and finely ground nibs to melt and form a freeflowing

substance known as chocolate liquor. From there, different varieties of chocolate are

produced.

What is conching?

Raw unprocessed chocolate is gritty, grainy and really not suitable for eating. Swiss

chocolate manufacturer Rudolph Lindt discovered a process of rolling and kneading chocolate that

gives it the smoother and richer quality that eating chocolate is known for today. The name

'conching' comes from the shell-like shape of the rollers used. The longer chocolate is conched, the

more luxurious it will feel on your tongue.

Market Size (by value & by volume)

The Indian chocolate market is valued at Rs. 650 crores (i.e. Rs. 6.50 billion) a year. The

Indian chocolate bazaar is estimated to be in the region of 22,000-24,000 tonnes per annum, and is

valued in excess of US$ 80 million.

Chocolate penetration in the country is a little over 4 percent, with India's metros proving to

be the big draw clocking penetration in excess of 15 percent. Next, comes the relatively smaller

cities/towns where consumption lags at about 8 percent. Chocolates are a luxury in the rural segment,

which explains the mere 2 percent penetration in villages.

The market presently has close to 60mn consumers and they are mainly located in the urban

areas.

Major Players & their Market Share

The major players in the Indian Chocolate Industry are:

1. Cadbury’s India Limited

2. Nestle India

3. The Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF) – AMUL

4. Cocoa Manufactures and Processors Co-operative (CAMPCO)

Bars Count

Lines Wafer Panned Premium

Cadbury’s Dairy Milk &

Variants

5-Star, Milk

Treat Perk Gems,

Tiffins

Temptation &

Celebrations

Nestle Milky Bar Bar One,

Crunch

Kit Kat,

Munch Nutties

Amul

Milk Chocolate

Fruit ‘n’ Nut

FUNDOO

Bindaaz

Almond Bar

Campco Campco Bar,

Cream

Krust,

Turbo Treat

Cadbury’s India Limited – A Study

CADBURY’S INTERNATIONAL

Cadbury is a very old trusted name. It all started in Birmingham in England when John

Cadbury started his family grocery shop with side business of cocoa and chocolate products in

around 1824. His two sons, Richard and George, expanded their family business of cocoa and

chocolate. Bournville, a town near Birmingham, was build by them as a part of expansion of their

business.

Cadbury family is also known for their contribution in social reforms and considered as liberals.

This family was in the forefront of adult education movement in England.

CADBURY’S INDIA LIMITED

Cadbury was originally incorporated as a wholly owned subsidiary of Cadbury Schweppes

Overseas Ltd (CSOL) in 1948. The company’s original name was Cadbury Fry (India) Ltd. In 1978,

CSOL diluted its equity stake to 40% to comply with FERA guidelines. In 1982, the name was

changed to Hindustan Cocoa Products. CSOL’s shareholding was increased to 51% in Jan ’83

through a preferential rights issue of Rs700mm. The current name was restored in Dec ’89. In 2001,

Cadbury Schweppes made an open offer to acquire the 49% public holding in the company. The

parent holds over 90% of the equity capital after the first open offer. A second open offer has been

made to buyback the balance shareholding, after which the company would operate as a 100%

subsidiary of Cadbury Schweppes Plc

Ever since the Cadbury is in India in 1947, Cadbury chocolates have ruled the hearts of

Indians with their fabulous taste. The company today employs nearly 2000 people across India.

Its one of the oldest and strongest players in the Indian confectionary industry with an

estimated 68 per cent value share and 62 per cent volume share of the total chocolate market. It has

exhibited continuously strong revenue growth of 34 per cent and net profit growth of 24 per cent

throughout the 1990’s. Cadbury is known for its exceptional capabilities in product innovation,

distribution and marketing.

With brands like Dairy Milk, Gems, 5 Star, Bournvita, Perk, Celebrations, Bytes, Chocki,

Delite and Temptations, there is a Cadbury offering to suit all occasions and moods.

Today, the company reaches millions of loyal customers through a distribution network

of 5.5 lakhs outlets across the country and this number is increasing everyday.

OBJECTIVES AND VALUES

Our objective is to

Grow shareholder value…over the long term

Cadbury in every pocket

Our marketing strategy is aimed at achieving this vision by growing the market, by appropriate

pricing strategy that will create a mass market and to have offerings in every category to widen the

market

Our Managing For Value Process incorporates

Setting stretched financial objectives.

Adopting Value Based Management for major strategic and operational decisions and business

systems.

Creating an outstanding leadership capability within our management.

Sharpening our company culture to reflect accountability, aggressiveness and adaptability.

Aligning our management rewards structure with the interests of our shareowners.

VISION

Life Full Of Cadbury

Cadbury is an organisation which impacts and interacts with the consumers.

Cadbury is present in most happy occasions in the life of our consumer.

Our brands excite our consumer.

Cadbury is an expression of a consumer's life.

Cadbury Full Of Life

Cadbury as a company is vibrant.

Cadbury ia a fun and energising workplace.

Cadbury is robust and alive.

Business

Cadbury dominates the Indian chocolate market with above 65 – 70 % market share. Besides, it has a

4% market share in the organized sugar confectionery market and a 15% market share in milk/

malted foods segment.

Changing product mix

Contribution to turnover

1994

Contribution to turnover

2001

Chocolate 59% 65%

Sugar Confectionery 9% 10%

Food Drinks 32% 24%

Categories/ Brands

Chocolate Bars , Count lines , Panned confectionery ,

Wafer chocolates, Assorted Chocolates & Gift Chocolates

Sugar Confectionery Googly , Mocka, Gollum, Frutus & Nice Cream

Food Drinks Bournvita, Delite & Drinking Chocolate

Cadbury's Indian operations are not just the largest in Asia but also the cheapest. In India,

Cadbury has the largest market share anywhere in the world and has been the fastest growing

FMCG Company in the last three years with a compound annual growth rate of 12.5 per cent.

Plant locations

Cadbury’s manufacturing operations started in Mumbai in 1946, which was subsequently

transferred to Thane. In 1964, Induri Farm at Talegaon, near Pune was set up with a view to promote

modern methods as well as improve milk yield. In 1981-82, a new chocolate manufacturing unit was

set up at the same location in Talegaon. The company, way back in 1964, pioneered cocoa farming in

India to reduce dependence on imported cocoa beans. The parent company provided cocoa seeds and

clonal materials free of cost for the first 8 years of operations. Cocoa farming is done in Karnataka,

Kerala and Tamil Nadu. In 1977, the company also took steps to promote higher production of milk

by setting up a subsidiary Induri Farms Ltd near Pune. In 1989, the company set up a new plant at

Malanpur, MP, to derive benefits available to the backward area. In 1995, Cadbury expanded

Malanpur plant in a major way. The Malanpur plant has modernized facilities for Gems, Eclairs,

Perk etc. Cadbury also operates third party operations at Phalton, Warana and Nashik in

Maharashtra.

These factories churn out close to 8,000 tonnes of chocolate annually.

Raw Material Composition in 2004

Product Name Quantity

(in Kgs)

Cost

(Rs) / Ut

Total Cost

(in Rs.)

Milk Powder / Liquid Milk / Cream 26232610 15.79 414212911.9

Dry Fruits 432340 162.6 70298484

Edible Oil 2167450 51.72 112100514

Glucose-Liquid 27061090 13.17 356394555.3

Cocoa Beans / Butter/ Powder 8478460 109.95 932206677

Malt Extract 8679690 20.39 176978879.1

Total 2062192021

Cadbury's India Limited

Raw Material Composition in 2004

(in Rs.)

Malt Extract

9%

Cocoa Beans/

Butter/Powder

46%

Edible Oil

5%

Dry Fruits

3%

Milk Powder/

Liquid Milk/

Cream 20%

Glucose-Liquid

17%

FINISHED PRODUCTS DETAILS (as on 2004)

Product Name Stock

(%)

Production

(units)

Sales Qnty

(units)

Sales

(Rs. Cr.)

Chocolates / Coated Wafer & Confectionery 58.57 23810373 22064912 518.51

Malt Foods (Jar/Refill/Tin) 22.02 3206253 3030579 194.97

Excise duty 13.69 - - 121.23

Confectionery- Hard Boiled 4.04 4425758 4023276 35.79

Cocoa powder (Tin/Bags) 1.67 33312 29904 14.78

Total 99.99 31475696 29148671 885.28

Cadbury's India Limited

Finished Products - Sales Revenue - 2004

(in Rs. Crores)

Cocoa powder

(Tin/Bags)

2%

Confectionery-

Hard Boiled

4%

Excise duty

14%

Chocolates/

Coated Wafer/

Confectionery

58%

Malt Foods

(Jar/Refill/Tin)

22%

Cadbury’s India Limited

Sales in Rs. Million

Years 1998 1999 2000 2001

Sales 3354 3892 4324 4716

Sales

3354

3892

4324

4716

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

98 99 00 01

Years

Rs. Million

CADBURY ADVERTISEMENTS
Dil ko jab kushi choo jaye..."...kuch meetha jo jaye.."
Akhir barvi pass ho hi gaya." kuch meetha jo jaye..
Log Cadbury Kyon Khate Hai….Khaane waalon ko khaane ka bahaana."
Cadbury’s Dairy Milk…..Asli swad zindagi ka
CADBURY DESERTS
“khaane ke baad kuch meetha ho jaaye.”
CADBURY CELEBRATIONS
Looking wistfully at a photograph, Mr. Bachchan
thinks, he recollects the photo-shoot when he had
thrown the cap off his friend's head.
Aaj dil ne socha yun, kissi apne ko kya doon?
Jo usse kahe tum apne ho,
.jo apne aap mein khaas ho,
jo sirf taufa nahin ehsaas ho
Jisme rishto ki mithas ho….
Cadbury’s Celebrations
Rishto ki Mithas
Cadbury And The Worm Controversy
The discovery of worms in some samples of Cadbury’s Chocolate in early October 2003
created one of the biggest controversies in India against a Multi National reputed for being a
benchmark of QUALITY.
The controversy created an deep adverse impact on the company with their sales not only
drastically dipping down, but at the same time allowing the competitors to establish their foothold
and taking maximum advantage of Cadbury’s misfortune.
The controversy, and the adverse publicity received in several countries, set back its plan of
outsourcing model which would have resulted in significant revenue generation, several months
back.
The "worms’ controversy" came at the worst time….the next few months were the peak
season of Diwali, Eid & Christmas. Cadbury sells almost 1,000 tonnes of chocolates during
Diwali. In that year, the sales during festival season dropped by 30 per cent. The company saw
its value share melt from 73 per cent in October 2003 to 69.4 per cent in January 2004. In May,
however, it inched up to 71 per cent. CDM sales volumes declined from 68 per cent in October
’03 to 64 per cent in January 2004
Clearly, the worm controversy took a toll on Cadbury's bottom-line. For the year ended
December 2003, its net profit fell 37 per cent to Rs 45.6 crore (Rs 456 million) as compared
with a 21 per cent increase in the previous year.
However, Cadbury’s reiterated that all through the 55 years of leadership in India, that it has
remained synonymous with chocolates and have remained committed to high quality and consumer
satisfaction."
CABDBURY’S FIGHT-BACK
'Project Vishwas'
“Steps to ensure quality & regain the confidence”
Following the controversy over infestation in its chocolates, Cadbury India Ltd unveiled
'Project Vishwas', a plan involving distribution and retail channels to ensure the quality of its
products.
The company's team of quality control managers, along with around 300 sales staff, checked
over 50,000 retail outlets in Maharashtra and replaced all questionable stocks with immediate effect.
The Vishwas programme was intended to build awareness among retailers on storage
requirements for chocolates, provide assistance in improving storage conditions and strengthen
packaging of the company's range of products.
Cadbury reduced the number of chocolates in its bulk packets to 22 bars from the present 60
bars. These helped stockists display and sell the products "safely and hygienically" 190,000 retailers
in key states were covered under this awareness programme.
The Big ‘B’ FACTOR
The big factor that has pushed up CDM sales is the Amitabh Bachchan campaign. It helped
restore consumers' faith in the quality of the product. In early January, Cadbury appointed Amitabh
Bachchan as its brand ambassador for a period of two years.
The company believed that the reputation he has built up over the last three decades
complements their own, which was built over a period of 50 years.
Yet, the entire credit of recovery could not be attributed to the brand mascot.
Incisive action taken by the company also helped. Some of which were:
1. Responded to consumers concern over the issue rapidly. Also, the communication campaign
worked effectively in giving out the central message.
2. The packaging was changed to include a sealed plastic wrapper inside the outside foil.
Cadbury’s launched a new 'purity-sealed' packaging for its flagship product, Cadbury Dairy
Milk. The packaging is in response to foreign bodies, notably worms, being found in its
products. Over the next few weeks Cadbury will work towards introducing either a heatsealed
or a flow-pack packaging that offers a high level of resistance to infestation from
improper storage.
3. New advertising & promotion campaigns were in place which accounted for an Ad spend of
nearly Rs 40 crore (Rs 400 million)
Cadbury invested nearly Rs 25 crore (Rs 250 million) this year on new machinery for the
improved packaging.
Addressing his audience, Mr. Bachchan says, "Mujhe aapse kuch kehna hai, jis kaam
mein manushya ki antar aatma uske saath na ho, uss kaam ko karne se usse sab kuch
mil sakta hai... man ki shaanti nahin mil sakti. Isliye jab Cadbury walon ne mujhe kaha
ki unki baat main aap tak pahunchaoon, to pachpan saalon se Cadbury khaane wala
main bhi thoda sa hitchkichaya.... ...Maine unse ek sawaal poocha,ki kya iske baad main
chain ki neend so paoonga ya nahin, to jawaab mein voh mujhe apni factory le gaye."
Walking into the Cadbury factory,
he takes a look at their complete
manufacturing process and continues,
"Aur mujhe apni international
technology....apne kade quality controls
aur double protection... ...packaging
dikhayi."
Saying which he takes a bite of the
chocolate.
Finally giving his personal assurance and
approval he says,
"Aaj kal mein badi
chain ki neend so raha hoon."
"Ab aapki favourite Cadbury Dairy Milk
naye purity seal pack mein."
CADBURY’S SINGING SWEETLY AGAIN
All is well that ends well. And for Cadbury’s India, nothing can be sweeter than
Regaining Back the Consumer Confidence.
Thanks to quick action taken to recover the damage done by the worm controversy like
Operaion Vishwas, adopting new packaging & massive advertising with Mr. Amitabh Bachchan as
their brand ambassador, Cadbury’s regained its market share.
The survey conducted by the company says that consumers have long forgotten the
controversy and are back to their merry chocolate-chomping ways. Sales were back to the precontroversy
levels. Consumer confidence in the product was back and there was a steady progression
in sales .The company posted a high double digit sales growth in that year end.
The recovery began in May 2004 when Cadbury's value share went up to 71 per cent.
Hires AT Kearney to curb costs
Cadbury India appointed management consultancy firm AT Kearney to draw up a strategy to control
costs in several areas, including sourcing of raw materials and packaging. This was partly an
outcome of the worms’ controversy more than a year ago. Among other things, it changed the
wrappers for its Cadbury Dairy Milk brand and introduced better coolers.
The consultancy firm will also look at the sourcing of direct and indirect materials like
renegotiating with suppliers for longer term contracts and vendor management. Other costs (indirect
expenses) like travel costs and hotels were also being studied.
In other words, Cadbury is trying to reduce the cost per stock keeping unit (SKUs, or packs).
The aim is to improve efficiencies.
Earnings sensitivity factors
Cocoa bean prices: Domestic as well as international prices of key raw material - cocoa have
significant impact on margins.
Excise duties : Changes in excise levied on malt and chocolate influences end product prices and
thereby volume growth as well as margins.
Changes in custom duties and foreign exchange fluctuation: As 20% of raw material is imported,
changes in custom duties & foreign exchange fluctuations have significant impact on the final cost of
the product.
Competition from MNCs like Nestle as well as imported brands. Increasing competition puts
pressure on advertisement budget and margins. However on the positive side, it helps in expanding
the market.

RSS

Latest Activity

+M.Tariq Malik replied to +M.Tariq Malik's discussion MTH501 Linear Algebra Assignment 01 Fall 2020 Solution / Discussion Due Date: 03-12-2020 in the group MTH501 Linear Algebra
9 minutes ago
+M.Tariq Malik replied to +M.Tariq Malik's discussion MTH501 Linear Algebra Assignment 01 Fall 2020 Solution / Discussion Due Date: 03-12-2020 in the group MTH501 Linear Algebra
9 minutes ago
Kamal Qaisar joined +M.Tariq Malik's group
10 minutes ago
+M.Tariq Malik commented on +M.Tariq Malik's group ISL201 Islamic Studies
11 minutes ago
+M.Tariq Malik replied to +M.Tariq Malik's discussion MGT201 Financial Management GDB No 01 Fall 2020 Solution / Discussion in the group MGT201 Financial Management
13 minutes ago
Sana commented on +M.Tariq Malik's group ISL201 Islamic Studies
17 minutes ago
+M.Tariq Malik replied to +M.Tariq Malik's discussion MGT201 Financial Management GDB No 01 Fall 2020 Solution / Discussion in the group MGT201 Financial Management
17 minutes ago
Sana joined +M.Tariq Malik's group
17 minutes ago
+M.Tariq Malik replied to +M.Tariq Malik's discussion ISL201 Islamic Studies Assignment 01 Fall 2020 Solution / Discussion in the group ISL201 Islamic Studies
21 minutes ago
+M.Tariq Malik replied to +M.Tariq Malik's discussion ISL201 Islamic Studies Assignment 01 Fall 2020 Solution / Discussion in the group ISL201 Islamic Studies
23 minutes ago
+M.Tariq Malik replied to +M.Tariq Malik's discussion MTH001 Elementary Mathematics Assignment 01 Fall 2020 Solution / Discussion Due Date: 03-12-2020 in the group MTH001 Elementary Mathematics
31 minutes ago
+M.Tariq Malik replied to +M.Tariq Malik's discussion MTH001 Elementary Mathematics Assignment 01 Fall 2020 Solution / Discussion Due Date: 03-12-2020 in the group MTH001 Elementary Mathematics
31 minutes ago
Profile IconSana, Muhammad Hassan, Haseeb Ahmed and 21 more joined Virtual University of Pakistan
33 minutes ago
+M.Tariq Malik replied to +M.Tariq Malik's discussion MTH202 Assignment 01 Fall 2020 Solution / Discussion Due Date: 07-12-2020 in the group MTH202 Discrete Mathematics
36 minutes ago
Maryem javed liked +M.Tariq Malik's discussion How To Prepare for Grand Quiz (Mid Term Quiz) Of Virtual University Of Pakistan
38 minutes ago
+M.Tariq Malik replied to +M.Tariq Malik's discussion How To Prepare for Grand Quiz (Mid Term Quiz) Of Virtual University Of Pakistan
47 minutes ago

© 2020   Created by +M.Tariq Malik.   Powered by

Promote Us  |  Report an Issue  |  Privacy Policy  |  Terms of Service

.