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Subject: SQL Server
Respected Sir, which version of SQL Server is best to be used ?
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:

Dear Student,

Best suited version of SQL depends upon some of these factors listed below

 Database size, larger size of files, what kind of encryption & decryption requires etc.

It means requirements of an organization decide.

 

Hope it helps you  

Subject: Grading schem
Asslam-0-alikum respected sir! i hope u will be fine & sir plz tell me wht is the grading schem of this course thanks. Tariq Hanif
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 1

Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, Visit 'Grading Scheme' tab following Course website of this course.
Subject: DBMS vs DB

Assalam O Alikum Sir,

I find database management very interesting and important subject related to IT,  Sir I want to know we will call SQL, FOXPRO, and ORACLE as DBMS, whereas the raw data comprising of fields and data is the core data, correct?

Secondly sir, why we preferred SQL over others?

I have visual studio 2011 installed at my computer, so can I use that as well to practice all the concepts of data base management?

Kind Regards

Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, thats very nice. You are half way correct. Foxpro and Oracle are Database Management Systems(DBMS) and are softwares, whereas SQL is a structured query language used to add, update or delete any data in the DBMS.
Secondly, Visual Studio is a developement tool not a DBMS. Preferably, you will install and practice seperate SQL Server on your machine. 
Subject: Defination
Assalam alaikum! Respected sir i didn't understand the important word logical related data in first defination of database.I am not able to download handouts when i click on it it is not downloading just another window open and the handout didn't download please make it correct so we can download it.I will be very thankful to you.
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, logically related data means there is some relationship among the stored data. As for as handouts download concern, there could be some bandwidth / browser issue . A rar file has now been uploaded naming 'CS403_Complete Handouts.rar '. Hopefully, it will help.
Subject: SQL
Aoa  all defination of database  learn essential   and How can we  SQL install in our computer    
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:

Dear student,

It is essential to learn all discussed definitions about database in lecture as it will help you out in understanding basic concepts easily and you will be in a position to grasp.

 For SQL Server installation, you can find ' installation setups' under downloads section (Both for Windows XP and Window 7).

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Replies to This Discussion

Subject: Query
Respected Sir 
Asalam o alakium
What is SQL and SQL server???
Thanks
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear Student, 
Query has been replied on the same MDB.
 

Posted On: 
October 16, 2012 06:50 PM

Replied On:
October 17, 2012 09:19 AM

Student's Message: Msg No. 546871
Subject: SQL

Aoa sir,

thanks i have seccusful to install SQL in my computer with the help of you

Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
You are welcome!
Your further participation over MDB will be appreciated.
 

Posted On: 
October 16, 2012 11:18 AM

Replied On:
October 16, 2012 02:22 PM

Student's Message: Msg No. 546449
Subject: SQL server?

AoA Sir,

I have Windows-7 32bit on my PC can I install and use Microsoft.SQL.Server.2012.Enterprise for this course? Will this version fulfill all the requirements of this course? I want to use the latest software version available in market, so that I am familiar with latest software and knows its use.

Regards

Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, SQL Server 2012 enterprise edition requires licence from the microsoft since it has been built for organizations. For home use you can install SQL Server 2012 standard edition. It will work fine.
 

Posted On: 
October 16, 2012 10:14 AM

Replied On:
October 16, 2012 10:50 AM

Student's Message: Msg No. 546382
Subject: file processing system
respected sir,
please explain the file processing system 
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear Student, Actually, traditional file system was a series of files holding master and transaction data that when combined can produce reports needed to managers. In it each file works with an application program that coordinates the processing of two or more files.When application programmers develop new applications they tend to join text files by putting more and more data in the text file duplicating a significant amount of data. When information exists in more than one file there's real potential for the files to become unsynchronized. 

Example: Suppose we have three departments maintaining three files addmission, examamination and result. And during the semester a students changed his address. He informs the addmission office only, and the admission office changes his address frequently. But this change would occur in just addmission files not in other files(examination, result). These files will contain the student's old address, so the files are not synchronized.
 

Posted On: 
October 16, 2012 08:39 AM

Replied On:
October 16, 2012 10:47 AM

Student's Message: Msg No. 546338
Subject: SQL
Respected Sir,
Sir can we use SQL tool in MS ACCESS 2007?

Regards,
Farhan Ahmed
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:

Dear student, MS Access is also a relational database management system like SQL Server. Relational means data is stored in the table format. So, SQL will be used to retrieve or manipulate data in it.

 

Posted On: 
October 15, 2012 11:11 PM

Replied On:
October 16, 2012 09:59 AM

Student's Message: Msg No. 546236
Subject: cs403
Asalamoalaikum sir,
sir mujhy 1 problem ha or woh yeh k video lectures play ni ho rhy to main lecture kaisy suno or reading karny se kuch b theek se samjh ni aya main kya karon?
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 1

Instructor's Reply:
Dear Student, 
Its for better for you to take lecture DVD from your own campus or purchase from online vu bookshop. This will certainly help you to listen a lecture on Real Player without any hurdle. 
Hope it helps you
 

Posted On: 
October 15, 2012 11:05 PM

Replied On:
October 16, 2012 10:00 AM

Student's Message: Msg No. 546229
Subject: Lecture 1
Sir, 
Videos are not playing properly both on lms navigation and Real player.
.
Kindly provide alternate solution if there is any.
Regards,
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 1

Instructor's Reply:
Dear Student, 
Its for better for you to take lecture DVD from your own campus or purchase from online vu bookshop. This will certainly help you to listen a lecture on Real Player without any hurdle. 
Hope it helps you
 

Posted On: 
October 15, 2012 09:04 PM

Replied On:
October 16, 2012 10:15 AM

Student's Message: Msg No. 546116
Subject: SQL Server
Respected Sir,

Kindly post the link from where i can download the SQL Server.

Regards
mc110200491
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 1

Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, You can download SQL Server 2000 Desktop Edition or SQL Server 2005 standard edition from this course website under 'downloads' section.

Note: SQL Server 2000 Desktop Edition will not work on Windows 7.
 

Posted On: 
October 15, 2012 08:58 PM

Replied On:
October 16, 2012 10:40 AM

Student's Message: Msg No. 546111
Subject: Asalam alakum sir,
salam Respected sir, Hope you will be fine.

Sir what is the difference between SQL and SQL server?

Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, SQL Server is a software so called Database Management System(DBMS) whis is used to store large amounts of data in a table format. For example, an employee's name, address, salary, commission, department, hiredata can be stored in the database by using this software.
Whereas, Structured Query Language (SQL) is a query language. It is used to retrive data from the SQL Server by writing simple statements(queries). We can also add, manipulate or delete any data by using this language.
 

Posted On: 
October 15, 2012 04:41 PM

Replied On:
October 16, 2012 10:08 AM

Student's Message: Msg No. 545899
Subject: software
A/Salam 
dea sir what softwar for dbms can we instal for practice thx
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, we will use SQL Server to practice Structured Query Language (SQL) during this course.




Dear sir, 
Can i know that does the SQL and Oracle both are the same type of database?
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear Student,
Oracle and SQL Server are relational database management systems. Here relational means tabulor form. All the data is stored in the form of rows and columns.
But, both are different in many aspects like platform and hardware requirements, software and performance difference.  

Hope it helps you  

 

Posted On: 
October 15, 2012 02:55 PM

Replied On:
October 15, 2012 04:19 PM
Student's Message: Msg No. 545800
Subject: SQL

Aoa sir

SQL download on my lms account but i'm not install plz tell this process  when open this folder SQL server 2005 
new window open and show message "Extracting from SQL server"  then window open and show message "Next volume is required "
plz help me

Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, due to its large size we have made partitions of it. Please download all four parts first and then extract. When extracting, just start from part 1, it will automatically extract all four parts in a single folder.
 

Posted On: 
October 15, 2012 02:54 PM

Replied On:
October 15, 2012 04:42 PM
Student's Message: Msg No. 545798
Subject: about schema
AOA Sir
sir i listen 4 lecture of dbms . but i can't understand about schema. if i work in any company where SQL is working . who is schema in our system and who is DBMS.please tell me detail

Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear Student, 

Database Schema is the formal representation (structure) of a database system defined by a formal language. It defines what the name of the table is, and what the name and type of each column is. For example in a relational database, schema is a diagram consists of tables or relations, fields/attributes and the relationship between these. A Database Management System is the software (like MySQL, SQL Server, Oracle, etc) that holds control over a database.
Hope it helps you

 

Posted On: 
October 15, 2012 02:35 PM

Replied On:
October 16, 2012 10:31 AM
Student's Message: Msg No. 545781
Subject: Term defined
Dear sir!
1).can we say as the "validity same as integrity"?
2).How this term can be defined as "conducive" in data integrity? 
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, Yes we can say to some extent. Actually, Data Integerity is an important feature of database or database system. It summarizes validity, useability and accuracy of data over its entire life cycle. Data validity concept can be well understood from this link: http://www.robdavispe.com/free2/software-qa-testing-test-tester-221...
Your second question's answer can also be found from this text (It summarizes validity, useability and accuracy of data over its entire life cycle). 

Hopefully, this will help! 
 

Posted On: 
October 15, 2012 02:30 PM

Replied On:
October 16, 2012 10:03 AM
Student's Message: Msg No. 545774
Subject: Importance of Database!
Dear sir!
Assalam o Alikum!  
No concept is clear  about the importance of database let say as:
1) Databases are important ; why?  kindly tell this in simple words. 
2) what are the traditional files?  kindly explain with an example.
I am really thankful to you!
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, Note down some very important benefits of using database:
1. You can manipulate large sets of data using it.
2. You can also store different types of data like text, images, videosin it.
3. Searching is very easy in it. Suppose, you need to search a person having name "Ahmad" as his last name. You can search this specific person easily.
4. Addition and deletion of records is very easy.
and many more can be find on this link: http://www.ourcommunity.com.au/marketing/marketing_article.jsp?arti...
For your question What are the traditional files? kindly explain with an example. Look into the following text:
Actually, traditional file system was a series of files holding master and transaction data that when combined can produce reports needed to managers. In it each file works with an application program that coordinates the processing of two or more files.When application programmers develop new applications they tend to join text files by putting more and more data in the text file duplicating a significant amount of data. When information exists in more than one file there's real potential for the files to become unsynchronized. 
Example: 
             Suppose we have three departments maintaining three files addmission, examamination and result. And during the semester a students changed his address. He informs the addmission office only, and the admission office changes his address frequently. But this change would occur in just addmission files not in other files(examination, result). These files will contain the student's old address, so the files are not synchronized.
 

Posted On: 
October 15, 2012 02:25 PM

Replied On:
October 15, 2012 04:50 PM
Student's Message: Msg No. 545770
Subject: SQL Server
Respected Sir, which version of SQL Server is best to be used ?
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:

Dear Student,

Best suited version of SQL depends upon some of these factors listed below

 Database size, larger size of files, what kind of encryption & decryption requires etc.

It means requirements of an organization decide.

 

Hope it helps you  

 

Posted On: 
October 15, 2012 01:31 PM

Replied On:
October 15, 2012 03:44 PM
Student's Message: Msg No. 545728
Subject: Grading schem
Asslam-0-alikum respected sir! i hope u will be fine & sir plz tell me wht is the grading schem of this course thanks. Tariq Hanif
Post Your Comments

Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, Visit 'Grading Scheme' tab following Course website of this course.
 

Posted On: 
October 15, 2012 01:04 PM

Replied On:
October 15, 2012 03:31 PM
Student's Message: Msg No. 545705
Subject: DBMS vs DB

Assalam O Alikum Sir,

I find database management very interesting and important subject related to IT,  Sir I want to know we will call SQL, FOXPRO, and ORACLE as DBMS, whereas the raw data comprising of fields and data is the core data, correct?

Secondly sir, why we preferred SQL over others?

I have visual studio 2011 installed at my computer, so can I use that as well to practice all the concepts of data base management?

Kind Regards

Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, thats very nice. You are half way correct. Foxpro and Oracle are Database Management Systems(DBMS) and are softwares, whereas SQL is a structured query language used to add, update or delete any data in the DBMS.
Secondly, Visual Studio is a developement tool not a DBMS. Preferably, you will install and practice seperate SQL Server on your machine. 
 

Posted On: 
October 15, 2012 12:58 PM

Replied On:
October 15, 2012 03:23 PM
Student's Message: Msg No. 545698
Subject: Defination
Assalam alaikum! Respected sir i didn't understand the important word logical related data in first defination of database.I am not able to download handouts when i click on it it is not downloading just another window open and the handout didn't download please make it correct so we can download it.I will be very thankful to you.
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, logically related data means there is some relationship among the stored data. As for as handouts download concern, there could be some bandwidth / browser issue . A rar file has now been uploaded naming 'CS403_Complete Handouts.rar '. Hopefully, it will help.
 

Posted On: 
October 15, 2012 11:00 AM

Replied On:
October 15, 2012 12:26 PM
Student's Message: Msg No. 545601
Subject: SQL
Aoa  all defination of database  learn essential   and How can we  SQL install in our computer    
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:

Dear student,

It is essential to learn all discussed definitions about database in lecture as it will help you out in understanding basic concepts easily and you will be in a position to grasp.

 For SQL Server installation, you can find ' installation setups' under downloads section (Both for Windows XP and Window 7).



Lesson:2

Subject: Graphs?

AoA Sir,

Can we plot graphs of data in Database using DBMS? or we have to incorporate this feature in application software?

Regards

Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, which type of data graphs you are asking for? If you mean the database design (DFDs and ER-Diagrams, then you have to use an application software like MS Visio.
 []

Posted On: 
October 18, 2012 10:54 PM

Replied On:
October 19, 2012 12:51 PM
Student's Message: Msg No. 548583
Subject: Client -Server?

AoA Sir,

In client server architecture of DB, application software resides on the client computer which then communicates with the DBMS which resides at the DB server; Kindly clarify what programming language or tool is used for the development of Client application software?  Development of client application to access DBMS is part of this course as well?

Regards

Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, Any programming language can be used to design application software. Most popular are Java and C#. Listen! Many application softwares are availeable online for free of cost to query DBMS. Please visit this link to clerify your concept about Client and Server side database implementations:http://www.linuxquestions.org/questions/programming-9/difference-be... 
And yes we will learn to create simple front end forms using MS Access in this course.
 []

Posted On: 
October 18, 2012 09:55 PM

Replied On:
October 19, 2012 12:34 PM
Student's Message: Msg No. 548548
Subject: Relational DB

AoA Sir,

Kindly define Relational Database? what are its properties and characteristics? Kindly give examples of relations DB?

Regards

Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, In a relational database all data is stored in the form of tables. These have the same structure repeated in each row (like in MS Excell) and there are relations between the tables that make it a "relational" table. So, we can define it as relational database is made up of two-dimensional tables. A table contains a set of values in columns and rows. Each column contains one data type, and rules or constraints are enforced so only the accepted data type can be entered.
For example, in a table titled Customer Table, a customer can be represented as: Column 1 - Customer ID, Column 2 - First Name, Column 3 - Last Name, Column 4 - Date of Birth. With this information combined, a row of data will always represent one unique customer. 
There are 21 rules for a true relational database model defined by Dr. Codd: http://it.toolbox.com/blogs/enterprise-solutions/characteristics-of...

Hopefully it will help!
 []

Posted On: 
October 18, 2012 09:16 PM

Replied On:
October 19, 2012 10:02 AM
Student's Message: Msg No. 548525
Subject: BH and RH

AoA Sir,

How many records of data can be written inside one block at the Physical layer; in other words, one block header contains how many records?

Regards

Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, You can define as many records as you can in a block header.
 []

Posted On: 
October 18, 2012 06:02 PM

Replied On:
October 19, 2012 09:53 AM
Student's Message: Msg No. 548407
Subject: MANAGMENT SYSTEM
SIR KYA IS COURSE K BAAD HUM DBMS BANANA SEEK LAY GA ?
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, learning to build a DBMS is a different course. Here in this course you will learn how to handle a Relational DBMS using SQL(Structured Query Language), because of its market value.
 []

Posted On: 
October 18, 2012 05:27 PM

Replied On:
October 19, 2012 09:48 AM
Student's Message: Msg No. 548388
Subject: SQL
AOA Sir,
sir in this course  we used SQL server or no?
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:

Dear student, Yes we will learn Structured Query Language so called SQL using MS SQL Server.

 [0]

Posted On: 
October 18, 2012 03:13 PM

Replied On:
October 18, 2012 03:43 PM
Student's Message: Msg No. 548293
Subject: Mapping?

AoA Sir,

we studied about external/ conceptual mapping and conceptual/ internal mapping....out of these which is part of and responsibility of Operating system and which is done by DBMS? Kindly explain?

Regards

Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:

Dear Student,

Flow is as under:

 A database user sends a request to access any particular data, then, that request is caught by DBMS and interprets it. DBMS examines the external schema, the external/conceptual schema, internal schema and its mapping as well as the storage structure. And finally DBMS executes the desired operation/s on database. So, DBMS is responsible for all these.

As for as concerns Operating Systems, its functions is to allocate and de-allocate memory, file management and provides required resources to complete a transaction.

Hope it helps you

 []

Posted On: 
October 18, 2012 03:07 PM

Replied On:
October 18, 2012 04:29 PM
Student's Message: Msg No. 548292
Subject: MS Visio

AoA Sir,

In your earlier posts you said that MS Visio can be used to import database schema from SQL to create database model or conceptual schema...Is it possible that I make a database model in MS Visio and then export the model to MS SQL and begin populating the database?

Regards

Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, Yes it is possible. For this purpose you need to install SQL Server 2005 or later.
 []

Posted On: 
October 18, 2012 12:02 PM

Replied On:
October 18, 2012 02:48 PM
Student's Message: Msg No. 548128
Subject: Database Schema?

AoA Sir,

The database schema which we studied before is different from Internal schema and Conceptual Schema?  e.g. the Schema of Name field is 25 byte of string  this is database schema, what would be Internal and conceptual schema in this case?

Regards

Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:

Dear Student,

Database schema comprises conceptual as well as internal schema. Schema defines what type of data will be stored in the database. Schema defines at different level of database schema like at conceptual level, internal level.

For an example as gave in your question.

Database Schema of field Name is 25 byte of String.

Here “Name” whose type is character is a conceptual schema and allocation for this attribute, indexing etc defines the internal schema. Now in your case 25 byte is the internal scheme which is incomplete.

 

Hope it helps you

 []

Posted On: 
October 18, 2012 12:00 PM

Replied On:
October 18, 2012 02:56 PM
Student's Message: Msg No. 548126
Subject: Intentions and Extension?

AoA Sir,

What is the difference between Intention and Extension of the database? Kindly explain with suitable examples e.g. a table of student with his Name, Age, Roll number and Address as fields Kindly explain what will be intention and what will be extensions in this case?

Regards

Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:

Dear Student,

Database Schema is also known as Intension of database. And you know very well that database schema defines the structure of database. Here in your given query the structure of table name Student consists of field/ attributes, data type etc. whereas Extension of database is the number of records at any particular time in a given relation. Actually Extension is the number of rows (tuples) present in a relation / table. This is time dependent. Whereas Intension is a constant value that gives the name, structure of relation / table and the constraints laid on it. 
In your situation the table name 'Student' would be the Intention and if you insert some records into your table, for example five student records. Then this would be its extention. Here the extention would be five (5).

Hope it helps you

 

Subject: ***Schemas?***

AoA sir,

What is the difference between Conceptual Schema and Internal Schema? Kindly explain with examples?

Regards

Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, Actually conceptual level, view or schema is used to store the structure of whole database of the organization. This includes table structure consisting fields. Only DBA deals with conceptual schema. Is the physical representation of the database on the computer and this view is found at the lowest level of abstraction of database. 
For example, a column name CUST_ID can be defined in conceptual schema as: CUST_ID: integer (4)
Whereas the internal level indicates how the data will be stored in the database and describes the data structures, file structures and access methods to be used by the database. It describes the way the DBMS and the operating system perceive the data in the database.
For example, a column name CUST_ID can be defined in internal schema as: CUST_ID: 4 decimal offset 0 unique
 []

Posted On: 
October 18, 2012 11:00 AM

Replied On:
October 18, 2012 12:51 PM

Student's Message: Msg No. 548069
Subject: Asalmualikum

sir 
i dont understand the digrams?

Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:

Dear student, the description of each diagram is available in handouts. Just try to read the text first, and then follow the diagram. Any diagram which you found difficult can be discussed here on mdb. As there are about seven diagrams here in Lesson two so, discussion on each diagram will be cumbersome.

 []

Posted On: 
October 18, 2012 10:43 AM

Replied On:
October 18, 2012 12:43 PM

Student's Message: Msg No. 548045
Subject: Asalmualikum
dear sir tell me some thing about Engineering benifits of software?
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:

Dear student, Engineers took many benefits from different kinds of softwares. Like Civil engineers use Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools and Software engineers use many types of compilers and Integrated Development Environments (IDEs). A comprehensive list of engineering softwares and their use can be found here:http://www.crazyengineers.com/community/threads/tip-list-of-free-en...



Subject: Query
Respected Sir
Plz explain Schema Design...........
Thanks
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:

Dear Student,

Schema Design is a way to write up the structure of database tables by using a formal language like SQL. Structure means name, type, columns etc. Now there are different tools available in the market that generates automatically code from the given database connection. For example

Microsoft Visio creates database schema diagrams from a given database connection.

 

Hope it helps you

 []

Posted On: 
October 18, 2012 09:59 AM

Replied On:
October 18, 2012 10:22 AM
Student's Message: Msg No. 548012
Subject: Query
Respected Sir 
Plz explain Data Base Management system......
Thanks
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:

Dear Student,

A Database Management System is software that manages the users and database:  execution of user’s applications to access and modify database data so that the data security, data integrity, and data reliability is guaranteed for each application and each application is written with an assumption that it is the only application active in the database.

For example SQL Server, MySQL, Oracle.

 []

Posted On: 
October 18, 2012 09:34 AM

Replied On:
October 18, 2012 10:24 AM
Student's Message: Msg No. 547999
Subject: All in one?

AoA Sir,

Can DBA, database designer, Application programmer be a single person?  or it necessarily have to be 3 or 2?

Regards

Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:

Dear Student,

Number of database designer, application programmer mainly depends upon the size and complexity of database. So, it’s a variation here, but mainly DBA is a single person in an organization.

Hope it helps you

 []

Posted On: 
October 18, 2012 09:16 AM

Replied On:
October 18, 2012 12:34 PM
Student's Message: Msg No. 547993
Subject: DBA

AoA Sir,

We studied that managing database is costly...whereas I think only one person DBA is required with a computer and then there are so many freeware DBMS available online(e.g. MYSQL, MS Access)...DBA needs to make custom database for the organization and create suitable GUI for the users...I think this does not cost much....kindly clarify?

Regards

Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, both DBMSs(MS Access, MySQL) you mentioned in your post have limited free capabilities and use. For complete services, you need to purchase licence from their vendors.   
 []

Posted On: 
October 17, 2012 09:33 PM

Replied On:
October 18, 2012 10:03 AM
Student's Message: Msg No. 547836
Subject: ===Difference b/w meta and schema====
Q1: what is difference b/w meta data and schema? both are same but why use two name?
Q2:what is difference b/w recovery procedure and Resource?
Q3: In data Levels, Data occurrences mean enter data in records?
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:

Dear Student,

 

Metadata is a way to define the formal description of data. For example “Ahmad” is the name of a student and certainly there is a data. Its metadata is “that it’s a string/character type data” and metadata is only for machine to process not for ordinary user.

Schema is the formal representation (structure) of a database system defined by a formal language. It defines what the name of the table is, and what the name and type of each column is. For example in a relational database, schema is a diagram consists of tables or relations, fields/attributes and the relationship between these.

Recovery procedure is a mechanism to get back data after any disaster/crash / failure of database or a system.

Resource is something else, its any entity that can exist independently like any person, any building, data, machines, employee etc.

Data occurrences mean enter data in records its true.

 

Hope it helps you

 []

Posted On: 
October 17, 2012 06:29 PM

Replied On:
October 18, 2012 04:20 PM
Student's Message: Msg No. 547713
Subject: Disadvantage of DB
Salamz Respected Sir hru: Sir Your way of delivering lecture is just amazing but Sir I'm confuse related the disadvantage of DB i.e: Higher costas if we see the economy of scale i.e : advantage of DB so how could we be consider this thing again in disadvantage? 
Thank You Sir!
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Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, first of all thank you very much and I am fine. As for as you query concern a DBMS delivers economy of scale because it is optimized for processing large amounts of data. It handles thousands of records in an integrated way. When we see on the second side of it, having high cost involving licence and maintenance cost. 
Lets take an examsple of www.amazon.com. They have millions of online users and this website is processing hundreds of transactions per day. Suppose they pay for there backend databases and its maintence $300000 per year. And they are gaining benefits / profit by using this database about10000000. So, here they will forget its licence and maintenance cost due to it benefits.
 []

Posted On: 
October 17, 2012 02:33 PM

Replied On:
October 17, 2012 02:46 PM
Student's Message: Msg No. 547567
Subject: schema
schema is the structure of the table in which we represent our data
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Correct!



Lesson 4

Subject: SCHEMA..
Respected Sir,
i read your reply about Schema and try to understand it...
Sir, can we say that "The organization about data of DATA" is called schema?
i'm rite or not?
kindly guide me.
regards.
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, you are some what right. Please read my following lines too for better understanding of schema. Take the example of a Warehouse, its like a huge database with all the products inside like shoes(Company, Colour and Size etc). The shoes section in the warehouse becomes our schema, and the clothes section becomes the other schema all belonging to the same database (Warehouse).  Here what this all means is that schemas in databases allow us to have virtual databases within one big database, hence we can have the same table name but with different fields, each belonging to two different schemas. 

Hopefully, this will become more easier now...
 [BC100401919]

Posted On: 
October 24, 2012 12:07 AM

Replied On:
October 24, 2012 12:18 PM
Student's Message: Msg No. 551268
Subject: bc100401919 question
Respected Sir,

Is DBMS gives the options to operate in wide area or not? Mean like virtual classes. one is in Lahore and second is in another city?
Regards
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, unfortunately you have not asked your question clearly. However, It seems that you are asking for the distributed databases. Actually, in recent years the availability of databases and computer networks has given rise to a new field: distributed databases. A distributed database is an integrated database which is built on top of a computer network rather than on a single computer. The data which constitute the database are stored at the different sites(cities) of the computer network, and the application programs which are run by the computer access data at different sites(cities).  
 [MC110400824]

Posted On: 
October 22, 2012 11:41 PM

Replied On:
October 23, 2012 11:07 AM
Student's Message: Msg No. 550560
Subject: Conceptual schema
Respected Sir,
I cannot understand the term Conceptual schema and internal schema..that is in lecture 3.
Kindly guide me.
Best regards,
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, Actually conceptual level, view or schema is used to store the structure of whole database of the organization. This also includes table structure consisting fields. It is depicted in graphical format using E-R or object-modeling notations. Following are the design goals for a conceptual model schema. 
1. All entity types are included. 
2. All relationships are documented. 
3. All attributes, primary keys, and secondary keys are included. 
For example, a column name CUST_ID can be defined in conceptual schema as: CUST_ID: integer (4) 
Whereas the internal level indicates how the data will be stored in the database and describes the data structures, file structures and access methods to be used by the database. It describes the way the DBMS and the operating system perceive the data in the database.
For example, a column name CUST_ID can be defined in internal schema as: CUST_ID: 4 decimal offset 0 unique
 [BC110200179]

Posted On: 
October 22, 2012 11:25 PM

Replied On:
October 23, 2012 11:59 AM
Student's Message: Msg No. 550551
Subject: Data immunity..........
Sir,
      What is data immunity?What does data immunity has to do with File server & client server when the database is recieved by the Server with DBMS ?Does it has to be known to the DBA whether the data supplied to the server is in the knowledge of DBA and by knowing that if he/she doesn't have the data in the database then the server will automatically recall it as data immunity?And what does a DBA have to do with File server when also the clients in the client server are recieving their data known by the DBA by either a single user DBMD environment or a multiuser DBMS environment who can be unaware about this data immunity where both the users have not yet approached the logical or physical data independence for a external level before entering it into the data base which is then sent to the server?
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Instructor's Reply:

Dear student, try to understand this term with respect to data independence. Data immunity being a characteristic of DBMS means that any authorized user has right to change structure / organization of the data using any application program (software). Try to watch the lecture again for further clarity.

Hopefully now it will be fine.

 [BC110200179]

Posted On: 
October 22, 2012 11:11 PM

Replied On:
October 23, 2012 11:49 AM
Student's Message: Msg No. 550544
Subject: File server & Client server
Sir,
      Can you please define Data processing,File servers & client servers in short,only the basics?
      Thank you,sir,
      Wajahat Ahmed.
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Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, the processing of data means some operation performed on data. After that operation data will be converted into information. As for as File Server concern, in any client / server model, a file server is a computer responsible for the central storage and management of data files so that other computers on the same network can access the files. It allows users to share information over a network without having to physically transfer files by USBs or some other external storage device. More information can be found at: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/S/server.html
Client / Server Model: This model represents relationship between two computer programs in which one program, the client, makes a service request from another program, the server, which fulfills the request. In a network, the client/server model provides a convenient way to interconnect programs that are distributed efficiently across different locations.
For example, to check your bank account from your computer, a client program in your computer forwards your request to a server program at the bank. That program may in turn forward the request to its own client program that sends a request to a database server at another bank computer to retrieve your account balance. The balance is returned back to the bank data client, which in turn serves it back to the client in your personal computer, which displays the information for you. For more details please visit: http://compnetworking.about.com/od/basicnetworkingfaqs/a/client-ser...



Lesson: 5

Student's Message: Msg No. 553604
Subject: First Assignment
how many lectures are included for the first Assignment?
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, the first assignment will from first 6 lectures.
 [DC110200049]

Posted On: 
October 31, 2012 01:49 PM

Replied On:
October 31, 2012 04:09 PM

Student's Message: Msg No. 553561
Subject: AOA
sir i am trying to download SQL 2000 server from lms but failed. plz tell me any link of this software from which i download easily. 
with thanks
Sidra
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, the files on LMS are complete and work fine. Please email us what type of problems you are facing regarding to downloading.
 [MC110203011]

Posted On: 
October 30, 2012 08:37 PM

Replied On:
October 31, 2012 09:47 AM

Student's Message: Msg No. 553237
Subject: Meta Data Vs Schema
Dear Sir, do we mean the same for meta data and schema, as the internal structure (Tables, Format, Numbering etc).
Regards
kashif.
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Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, there is slight difference between schema and metadata. Let’s take the example of a warehouse for better understanding. Warehouse is like a huge database with all the products inside like shoes(Shoe_ID, colour and size etc). The shoes section in the warehouse becomes our schema, and the clothes section becomes the other schema all belonging to the same database (warehouse). We then have a catalog that describes the warehouse contents. That is if we have shoes, what type are they, what colour are they, in which section are they found, the description of the shoes is then the metadata. Here what this all means is that schemas in databases allow us to have virtual databases within one big database, hence we can have the same table name but with different fields, each belonging to two different schemas. On the other side the description of the tables like the fields, datatypes and constraints is thus the metadata. 
Hopefully, now you will be able understand easily!

 



Subject: assalm olkium
Why we use in  DFDs Level 0 diagrame  proccessing  stages no 1.0,2.0,3.0ets instead of 1,2,3 ? 
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Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, it is not hard and fast rule to use 1.0 instead of 1. Its upto the database designer, which label he/she uses for the major processes. Please read secod paragraph of lecture no.6 labeled "Detailed Data Flow Diagrams" for details. 
 [MC110402936]

Posted On: 
October 29, 2012 01:07 PM

Replied On:
October 31, 2012 10:02 AM

Student's Message: Msg No. 552760
Subject: spacial question
Respacted Sir 
AOA
Why we use to write in  DFDs Level 0 diagrame  proccessing  stages no 1.0,2.0,3.0ets instead of 1,2,3 ? 
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, it is not hard and fast rule to use 1.0 instead of 1. Its upto the database designer, which label he/she uses for the major processes. Please read secod paragraph of lecture no.6 labeled "Detailed Data Flow Diagrams" for details.
 [MC110200070]

Posted On: 
October 29, 2012 04:59 AM

Replied On:
October 31, 2012 10:52 AM

Student's Message: Msg No. 552723
Subject: Internal Schema Mapping
Sir still is unclear about this. Can you kindly explain it again here?
Regards,
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
   Dear student, internal mapping describes how conceptual records are stored and retrieved to and from the storage device. It means that internal mapping tells the DBMS that how the conceptual records are physically represented. If the structure of the stored database is changed, then the mapping must be changed accordingly.
Example, Suppose some records of students are stored at physical level. The User-1 requests record of a particular student through user-interface.  The DBMS receives the request and checks the user's external schema, and conceptual schema in data dictionary. The DBMS also checks the user's authorization to access the record. If user is not authorized then his/her request is rejected. If user is authorized, then his request is passed to the conceptual level. In this case, DBMS uses the logical record interface to request the logical record. DBMS checks the internal mapping to see corresponding internal structure. DBMS identifies the internal objects or items that are required to the operating system on physical level. 
   On physical level, the records of students are stored. The operating system is responsible to search the correct block that contain the requested record on the disk and then to retrieve it. A block may contain multiple records. The retrieved block of records is placed in the buffer in memory and operating system passes the address of required record within the buffer to DBMS. The DBMS receives only the requested complete record of the student in coded form (as it is coded i.e. in binary form) from the buffer. The DBMS uses the conceptual-internal mapping to decide what items pass to the conceptual level through logical record interface. 

Hopefully, it will help now!
 [MC110400824]

Posted On: 
October 28, 2012 09:40 PM

Replied On:
October 31, 2012 11:06 AM

Student's Message: Msg No. 552700
Subject: Why we use Ring Sum operator and AND Operator
Respected Sir,
a.o.a
Sir, i can't understand properly that, why we use Ring Sum operator and AND Operator...
Kindly guide me and also explain the difference.
Best Regards.
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Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:

Dear student, Ring Sum operator is used when data from a source process can flow to one of the mentioned destination. In other words data flows to one destination which is mentioned. While in the case AND operator data from a source process will/must flow to all the connected destinations. 

 [MC110400824]

Posted On: 
October 28, 2012 07:45 PM

Replied On:
October 31, 2012 11:36 AM

Student's Message: Msg No. 552692
Subject: Difference between physical design and implimentation
Respected Sir,
a.o.a
i read n listen the topic Database Design and Physical Design of  DATABASE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS carefully and understand it easily but, when i read and listen the next topic Implementation then i become confuse to understand the Difference between Physical design and implementation?
Kindly guide me in this regards..
Best regards.
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Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, In physical design phase we select a dbms which meets our organizational needs and environment. And then implement our designed database on this specific dbms. Suppose we made a database for a university, and have selected ORACLE dbms for implementation. 
While, in implementation phase we have to write any softwares / user programs which will select data from our database which has been implemented ORACLE. 
Common example is ORACLE forms.   



Student's Message: Msg No. 552609
Subject: bc100401919 question
Respected Sir,

Is it totally necessary to have flow charting concept and its usage in DBMS even DBA is known all about data flow?

Regards
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, every database is different. So, knowing about the each database flow is essential for the DBA.
 [MC120201193]

Posted On: 
October 25, 2012 07:58 PM

Replied On:
October 31, 2012 11:45 AM

Student's Message: Msg No. 552371
Subject: APPLICATION PROGRAMMER
IF DBA ADD SOME ATTRIBUTE ACCORDING TO THE REQUIREMENT OF USERIN DATABASE THEN WHOES PERSON PROGRAMMED THAT CHANGE.
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Instructor's Reply:
It depends upon the availability of the employees in the department. If there are some Trainee DBA's and programmers, then this work will be done by those trainees / programmers. If the DBA is alone, then he / she will do modifications him / herself. 



Student's Message: Msg No. 552365
Subject: Meaning Of Term Real World System
Dear Sir,
A.O.A! How are you dear sir? I hope u will be fine.I don't understand the term real world system quite well so please clear me this term with some practical examples in database environment.Thanks 
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Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, in our course 'real world system' means the sytem we are running manually in registers or files. For example, student registration system.  
 [MC120201193]

Posted On: 
October 25, 2012 07:36 PM

Replied On:
October 31, 2012 12:06 PM

Student's Message: Msg No. 552364
Subject: SCHEMA
I AM TOTALY CONFUSE BY THE TERM OF EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL SCHEMA  AND ALSO FORMAT OR STRUCTURED OF THE DATABASE? IS INTENSION?..... IS THE STRUCTURED OR INTERNAL SCHEMA OF THE DATABASE?.......PLZ SEND ME PPT SLIDE FOR SUCH DIFFERENCE.
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Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, 
1). External schema is used to store the definitions of different views in order to support different user groups. It includes a number of user views. Each external schema describes the part of the database that a particular user group is interested in and hides the rest of the database from that user group. 
2). While internal schema describes the physical storage structure of the database. The internal schema uses a physical data model and describes the complete details of data storage and access paths for the database.
Yes, Intension is a constant value that gives the name, structure of table and the constraints laid on it.

Hopefully, this will help!



Student's Message: Msg No. 552364
Subject: SCHEMA
I AM TOTALY CONFUSE BY THE TERM OF EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL SCHEMA  AND ALSO FORMAT OR STRUCTURED OF THE DATABASE? IS INTENSION?..... IS THE STRUCTURED OR INTERNAL SCHEMA OF THE DATABASE?.......PLZ SEND ME PPT SLIDE FOR SUCH DIFFERENCE.
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, 
1). External schema is used to store the definitions of different views in order to support different user groups. It includes a number of user views. Each external schema describes the part of the database that a particular user group is interested in and hides the rest of the database from that user group. 
2). While internal schema describes the physical storage structure of the database. The internal schema uses a physical data model and describes the complete details of data storage and access paths for the database.
Yes, Intension is a constant value that gives the name, structure of table and the constraints laid on it.

Hopefully, this will help!
 [MC120201193]

Posted On: 
October 25, 2012 07:33 PM

Replied On:
October 31, 2012 12:17 PM

Student's Message: Msg No. 552363
Subject: VIEW
IS IT TRUE OR NOT?   
ALL DATA INCLUDING ALL DEPARTMENT OF AN ORGANIZATION PLACED ON DATABASE OR INTERNAL/PHYSICAL LEVEL AND AT LOGICAL LEVEL ONLY THAT DATA PLACED  WHOSE REQUIRED BY THE EXTERNAL USERS?                  
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Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, it seems that your question is incomplete. However, I guessed an answer. Here it is: All the data is stored in the database. The external level includes a number of user views. Each user view describes the part of the database that a particular user group is interested in and hides the rest of the database from that user group. In simple words, the external users can access data for which the DBA has given access to them.
 [MC120201193]

Posted On: 
October 25, 2012 07:29 PM

Replied On:
October 31, 2012 12:39 PM

Student's Message: Msg No. 552360
Subject: STRUCTURE
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FORMATE,SCHEMA, STRUCTURE AND INTENSION? PLZ YOU SEND ME A POWER POINT SLIDE (PICTURISED VIEW) FOR THIS DIFFERENCE KINDLY?
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Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, please note down the concepts you have asked: 
Data format: Data format refers to the type of data and how it will represt in the system. 
Schema: To understand schema, let’s take the example of a Warehouse, its like a huge database with all the products inside like shoes(Company, Colour and Size etc). The shoes section in the warehouse becomes our schema, and the clothes section becomes the other schema all belonging to the same database (Warehouse). Here what this all means is that schemas in databases allow us to have virtual databases within one big database, hence we can have the same table name but with different fields, each belonging to two different schemas. 
Structure: It means how the data is being stored. In relational, objects or object-relational format. 
Intention: Intension is a constant value that gives the name, structure of table and the constraints laid on it 

These are very basic terms and are so easy. No need for pictorial lesson, however I will try to send you any power point slides related to it. 



Student's Message: Msg No. 552359
Subject: INTENSION OR EXTENTION
IF WE CHANGE IN THE INTENTION OF THE DATABASE IS A PARMANENT CHANGE OR NOT WE REPAIRE THAT CHANGE AFTER CHANGING?
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, these changes would not be permament. We can modify them whenever we want.
 [MC120200988]

Posted On: 
October 25, 2012 06:17 PM

Replied On:
October 31, 2012 01:51 PM

Student's Message: Msg No. 552320
Subject: Ring Sum Operator & AND Operator of DFD
Please explain Ring Sum Operator & AND Operator of DFD in details?
Are these both operators only used with Separator or we can use them with any other symbol of DFD?
Regards,
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, Ring Sum operator is used when data from a source process can flow to one of the mentioned destination. In other words data flows to one destination which is mentioned. While in the case AND operator data from a source process will/must flow to all the connected destinations. 
These sysmbols are only used with separator symbol.
 [BC110200179]

Posted On: 
October 25, 2012 03:42 PM

Replied On:
October 25, 2012 04:44 PM

Student's Message: Msg No. 552245
Subject: Who sends data to Material Planning Deptartment?
Sir,
      How does a material planning departmrnt recieves data and how this data can directly be sent to the second departmrnt whereas in the context diag.you were showing no connectivity between material planning departmernt & second department and instead they were approaching purchasing system alone?
Why do we want or use Data flow diagram ?Is it required for Database design or application programmimg or implementations or is it required for all of these?
Thank you,
Wajahat Ahmed.
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:

Dear student, As for as context Level diagram it just consists of whole system surrounded by external entities, showing just input and outputs of data. The information you are asking for can be found by drawing a Level Zero DFD of this system. Here in this figure the input is coming from Material Planning department. 
Also keep in mind that application programming and implementations are dependent on database design. And a data flow diagram shows what kinds of information will be input to and output from the every part of the system, where the data will come from and go to, and where the data will be stored (database). It does not show information about the timing of processes, or information about whether processes will operate in sequence or in parallel.

 [BC110200179]

Posted On: 
October 25, 2012 03:22 PM

Replied On:
October 25, 2012 04:28 PM

Student's Message: Msg No. 552228
Subject: What is Requirement analysis?
Sir,
     What is requirement analysis?
     What is external entities?
     Why are tools used in DB designs?

Thanks,
Yours sincerely,
Wajahat Ahmed
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Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:

Dear student, Requirements analysis is the process of determining user expectations for a new or modified software / product. These are the needs that the system must fulfill. Suppose, we want to develop a software. First of all we will ask the user his / her needs for whom the software is being developed. He will tell us that he / she wants that the software should do the following tasks: 
1. Online printing facility.
2. Calculator. 
3. Mini Game ets. 
Here, these three would be called his / her requirements as a user. And this phenomenon would be called requirements analysis. 
2) An thing like person, place or event will be called as External Entities are Ahmad, Furniture, Student, Employee, Computer,Vehicle etc are examples of external entities. 
3).You can use MS Visio for database design.

 [MC120200988]

Posted On: 
October 24, 2012 03:25 PM

Replied On:
October 24, 2012 04:57 PM

Student's Message: Msg No. 551638
Subject: Difference between Database Applications and Database Management Systems
I was revising some previous concepts and I get confused at these two definitions Database Applications and Database Management Systems. My question is are they same or different?
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear Student, basically database applications are tools and processes used for developing the databases. For example PL/SQL Developer and Toad are best examples.While Database Management System is the software that is used for maintaining or sustaining that database. For example Microsoft SQL Server and Oracle.  
 [BC100200590]

Posted On: 
October 24, 2012 02:26 PM

Replied On:
October 24, 2012 04:46 PM

Student's Message: Msg No. 551600
Subject: CS403
Difference between database desing and application programs.
Post Your Comments
Other Students' Comments: 0

Instructor's Reply:
Dear student, Actually database design is the process of producing a detailed data model of a database. The process of doing database design generally consists of a number of steps which will be carried out by the database designer. Usually, the designer must: 
1. Identify Eentities
2. Identify Relationships
3. Identify Attributes
4. Presenting Entities and Relationships: Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD)
5. Assigning Keys
6. Defining the Attribute's Data Type
5. Normalization
Whereas, An application program  is any software program that is designed to perform a specific function directly for the user.
Examples of application programs include word processors; database programs; Web browsers; development tools; drawing, paint, and image editing programs; and communication programs. Visit http://searchsoftwarequality.techtarget.com/definition/application-... for more information please.



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