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CS507 Information Systems Short Notes - CS507 Short Questions & Answers - CS507 Information Systems Books

CS507 Information Systems Short Notes - CS507 Short Questions & Answers - CS507 Information Systems Books

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CS507: Information Systems

Difference Between Logical & Physical Intrusion

CS507 Recommended Books Names by VU

CS507 Information System Glossary

CS507 Important Terms FAQs

CS507 Organizational Information Systems

CS507 Solved Subjective Questions from Text Book (chapter 15 - 16)

CS507 Solved Subjective Questions from Text Book (chapter 11- 14)

CS507 Solved Subjective Questions from Text Book (chapter 4 - 10))

CS507 Solved Subjective Questions from Text Book (chapter 1- 3)


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Replies to This Discussion

Difference Between Logical & Physical Intrusion

Question: what is Difference between logical intrusion & physical intrusion


Instructor's Reply:

Dear student,

Checking of email or use of computer by an unauthorized person on your system is termed as logical intrusion.

Install viruses/bugs intentionally or un intentionally

Damaging or stealing data

Wire tapping – spying on communication within the organization

For example, illegally view the email, files etc exchanged within the organization.

Whereas, Physical intrusion means to physically interact with the computer hardware, network devices etc. like inserting/removing external disks, translating the keys pressed to enter password/ pin number called key loggers.
Book Title: Management Information Systems
Author: Laudan & Laudan
Edition: 8th edition
ISBN:  
Publisher:  
URL:  
Copyright:  
Book Store:  

Book Title: Introduction to Information Technology
Author: Turban, Rainer & Potter
Edition: 2nd edition
ISBN:  
Publisher:  
URL:  
Copyright:  
Book Store:
 

CS507 Information System Glossary

CS507 Glossary
Arrow : It indicates the flow of procedure in a flow chart

Connector : Connector are used in flow charts to reduce the number of flow lines

Data Flow Diagram : A data flow diagram (DFD) is graphic representation of the "flow" of data through a process. It is used for the visualization of data processing.

Flow chart : A schematic representation of a sequence of operations in a computer program

Flow diagrams : A flow diagram is a graphical means of presenting, describing, or analyzing a process.

Flow lines : It represents the movement of data

HOD : It satnds for head of department

Predefined Process : Where two or more steps are repeated in a standard sequence, they are collectively represented by predefined process.

Shipment : The act of sending off something or dispatching   

Single attribute : In which one value completely defines the attributes. E.g the age of a person

Terminator : It indicates from where the process starts and where its end

CS507 Important Terms FAQs

FAQs Related to CS507
Question: What is a service sector?
Answer: Final product is intangible, so information is critical at various steps, e.g. preparation, delivery and customer satisfaction. Quality maintenance is an issue which requires structured reporting.

Question: What is trading sector?
Answer: Every organization has some plans and targets that have to be achieved, there are some systems, rules and procedures which must be planned and scheduled timely. For this, plan is developed and these plans are implemented and monitored time to time. Monitoring requires information for each product, e.g. • Customer profiles • Customer Comments • Volume of sales

Question: What is Data and Information?
Answer: Data is the raw facts and figures but information is the processed form of data. Example: data of all the employees working in an organization can be converted into information when we perform different operation on this data. For example we get data about all the employees working in HRM department now this data is called information.

Question: What is Conglomerate organization structure?
Answer: Conglomerate organization structure means a corporation made up of a number of companies that works in different fields. In other words different companies are merged in a corporation but their activities are different from their parent company.

Question: what is Flat Organization Structure?
Answer: This is a type of organizational structure that has few level of management between executive levels and the other front line staff of the organization. The main objective of this structure is to minimize the bureaucracy by including the employees in decision making process. The well trained employees can be more productive for an organization if they become the part of the decision making process. This structure is suitable for small organizations and individual units of large organization. The flat structure can be more productive if the role of middle management is eliminated by assigning more responsibilities to the lower level employees. www.vuzs.info

Question: What is Information Quality?
Answer: Information Quality is a survival issue for both public and private sectors: companies & governments with the best information have a clear competitive edge. IQ is based on rigorous relevant research, analysis, and practical experience.

Question: what is the download link for handouts.
Answer: http://vulms.vu.edu.pk/Courses/CS507/Downloads/CS507_1.zip or http://vulms.vu.edu.pk/Courses/CS507/Downloads/CS507_2.zip

Question: What is difference between primary, secondary and tertiary resources.
Answer: Primary Resources: Autobiographies correspondence descriptions of travel diaries literary works interviews personal narratives paintings and photographs Secondary Resources: Biographies prior books & papers on a topic literary criticism & interpretation history & historical criticism political analyses reviews of law and legislation essays on morals and ethics analyses of social policy study and teaching material Tertiary Resources: Abstracts bibliographies chronologies classifications dictionaries & encyclopedias directories guidebooks and manuals population registers statistics

Question: What type of information increases when organization is expanding?
Answer: When an organization is becoming expanded nation wide or world wide, the importance of information system also increases. It becomes very difficult to keep the whole records of an organization manually. So there is a great need of developing an information system to handle growing information. Your question is what kind of information increases, with the organizational point of view information will be about all the activities and all the personnel involved in the organizational activities should be saved. An organizational information system keeps record of its employees, its products, its sales & purchase, records of different locations in which the organization’s branches are located, records of its customers and all the other required information relevant to the organization.

Question: What is audience centered?
Answer: Every one should receive that part of information that is relevant to the user. The specific information must reach to the specific user in accurate and correct manner. vuzs A design philosophy and a process in which the needs, wants, and limitations of end users of a product are given extensive attention at each stage of the design process. User-centered design can be characterized as a multi-stage problem solving process that not only requires designers to analyze and foresee how users are likely to use a product, but also to test the validity of their assumptions with regards to user behavior in real world tests with actual users. Such testing is necessary as it is often very difficult for the designers of a product to understand intuitively what a first-time user of their design experiences, and what each user's learning curve may look like. vuzs

Question: What is OPEN SYSTEM?
Answer: An open system is a system that directly interacts with its environment. It exchanges feedback with its environment regularly. The obtained feedback is analyzed and then used in decision making and in achieving organizational goals. The interaction between the parts of the system themselves and between them and the environment can be identified in terms of flow of goods, materials, money, labor, machines, information, communication, etc. There may also be interactions between elements in the environment that are important to the particular problem, for example a link between the firm's competitors and their suppliers, or between the firm's customers and their customers. Consult the following link to learn more about the “Open System in an Organization” http://managementhelp.org/misc/orgs-open-systems.pdf

Question: What is DFD?
Answer: A data flow diagram (DFD) is a graphical representation of the "flow" of data through an information system. DFDs can also be used for the visualization of data processing. On a DFD, data items flow from an external data source or an internal data store to an internal data store or an external data sink, via an internal process.
 

CS507 Organizational Information Systems

Organizational Information  Systems

CHAPTER  OUTLINE 

8.1 Transaction Processing  Systems
8.2 Functional Area Information  Systems
8.3 Enterprise Resource  Planning Systems
8.4 Customer Relationship  Management  Systems
8.5 Supply Chain Management  Systems
8.6 Electronic Data Interchange  and  Extranets
LEARNING  OBJECTIVES 
  • Describe transaction  processing systems.
  • Describe functional area information systems and the support they provide for each functional area of the organization.
  • Describe enterprise resource planning systems.
LEARNING  OBJECTIVES (continued) 
  • Describe customer  relationship management systems.
  • Describe supply chain management systems.
  • Discuss electronic data interchange and extranets.
Chapter  Opening Case 
Toyota Production System
Toyota  Production System (continued) 
Electronic dashboard showing  status of assembly line
Toyota  Production System (continued)
Toyota  Production System (continued) 
How light curtains work
8.1 Transaction  Processing Systems  (TPS) 
 
Batch Processing
Online Transaction Processing  (OLTP) 
Rudy Giuliani checking  out of a Wal-Mart using a bar code  scanner that produces data captured by  a transaction processing system 
Note: the barcode scanner  is an example of source data automation
  • Transaction  processing system (TPS)  monitors, collects, stores and processes data generated from all business transactions.
  • Batch Processing is when the firm collects data from transactions as they occur, placing them in groups or batches, then prepares and processes the batches periodically (say, every night).
  • Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) is when business transactions are processed online as soon as they occur.
  • Source data automation involves collecting data from sensors (e.g., barcode scanners) and entering the data directly into a computer without human intervention.
How Transaction  Processing Systems Manage Data
8.2 Functional  Area Information Systems 
  • Functional  area information Systems provide information mainly to lower- and middle-level managers in the functional areas via a variety of reports.
  • Functional area information Systems are designed to support a functional area by increasing its internal effectiveness and efficiency in the following areas:
    • Accounting
    • Finance
    • Marketing
    • Operations (POM)
    • Human Resources Management
Examples  of Information Systems Supporting the Functional  Areas
Functional  Area Information Systems Reports 
  • Routine reports
  • Ad hoc (on demand) reports
    • Drill-down reports
    • Key-indicator reports
    • Comparative reports
  • Exception reports
  • Summary  reports provide summarized information, with less detail.
  • Detailed reports provide high levels of detailed data, often in support of summary reports.
  • Note that this detailed report provides the underlying data for “Remove Catch Basin”, which is
  • the second item on the preceding summary report.
  • drill-down report allows users to click on an item in a report and be able to access
  • underlying details about that item.
  • RSSbus is a mashup tool that gives you the tools to quickly create structured feeds out of
  • anything;  not just news and blog postings, but business data or application data that
  • you own or have access to. (Note: RSSBus is not special, it just had an interesting
  • video on drill-down.)
          Summary Report 
summary report is one type of routine report
         Detailed Report 
detailed report is another type of routine report
      Drill-Down Report 
Drill-down  report is a type of ad-hoc report
  • key indicator report summarizes the performance of critical activities.
  • The key indicator in this report is the number of prison inmates per 100,000 of population in 1996-1997.
       Key-Indicator Report 
Key-indicator  report is a type of ad-hoc report
      Comparative Report 
Comparative  report is one type of ad-hoc report.
  • This comparative  report compares managed health care to  traditional fee-for-service
  healthcare. Let’s use one example: Advice to smokers to quit.
  • * Fee-for-service has a 37% compliance rate on seven Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) preventive measures. See purple arrow.
  • * The minimum managed care plans have a 30% compliance rate. (left end of bar)
  • * The maximum managed care plans have a 85% compliance rate. (right end of bar)
  • * The average of all managed care plans (National Health Plan average) is 61% compliance.
  • (see red arrow).
  • We can see that there is quite a bit of information in this graphical comparative report.
        Exception Report
  • Exception  reports include only information that falls outside certain threshold standards.
 
  • This image shows  a financial transaction exception report using  SAP from the University of
  • Toronto in 2003.
8.3 Enterprise  Resource Planning  Systems (ERP) 
   The major objective of ERP systems is to tightly integrate the functional areas of the organization and to enable seamless information flows across the functional areas.
  • Enterprise  Resource Planning (ERP) systems integrate the planning, management and use of all resources of the organization. That is, ERP systems are designed to break down the information silos of an organization.
  • Many information systems were developed for specific functional areas and did not communicate with systems in other functional areas. Therefore, these systems are referred to as information silos.
Problems  with information silos
         ERP Systems (continued)
SAP Modules
ERP Systems (continued) 
    A business process is a set of related steps or procedures designed to produce a specific outcome.
8.4 Customer  Relationship  Management 
    • Includes a one-to-one  relationship between a customer and a  seller.
    • One simple idea “Treat different customers differently.”
    • Helps keep profitable customers and maximizes lifetime revenue from them.
  • Customer  relationship management (CRM)  is an enterprisewide effort to acquir and retain customers.
  • The customer life cycle: engage, transact, fulfill, and support.
     The Need for CRM 
  • It costs six  times more to sell to a new customer  than to sell to an existing one.
  • A typical dissatisfied customer will tell 8-10 people.
  • By increasing the customer retention rate by 5%, profits could increase by 85%.
  • Odds of selling to new customers = 15%, compared to the odds of selling to existing customers (50%)
  • 70% of complaining customers will remain loyal if problem is solved
    The Customer Life Cycle
          Customer Value
  • The  value of a customer  to a company depends on three dimensions: the duration of the
  • relationship, the number of relationships (e.g., the number of products from a
  • company that a customer purchases), and the profitability of the relationship.
Customer  Touch Points 
 Telephone 
Conventional mail 
Help desk 
Web site 
      E-mail 
         Store
        CRM Applications 
CRM systems provide applications  in 3 major areas:
Sales - sales force automation (SFA).
Marketing – support marketing campaigns & provide opportunities for cross-selling, up-selling and bundling.
Customer  Service – can take many Web-based forms. 
  • Sales  force automation (SFA) functions provide such data as sales prospect and contact information, product information, productconfigurations and sales quotes.
  • Cross-selling is the marketing of complementary products to customers.
  • Up-selling is the marketing of higher-value products or services to customers.
  • Bundling is a type of cross-selling in which a vendor sells a combination of products together
  • at a lower price than the combined costs of the individual products.
        Customer Service 
  • Customer service  can take many forms and includes:
    • Technical and other information and services
    • Customized products and services
    • Tracking account or order status
    • Personalized Web pages
    • FAQs
    • E-mail and automated response
    • Call centers
Software  as a Service for CRM (IT’s About Business 8.2)
        Putting it all together 
The relationships among  SCM, ERP, and CRM
8.5 Supply  Chain Management  Systems (SCM) 
Supply chain
Supply chain management  (SCM) 
Interorganizational information  system (IOS)
Global information system
  • Supply  chain refers to the flow of materials, information, money, and services from raw material suppliers, through factories and warehouses, to the end customers.
  • Supply chain management (SCM) is the function of planning, organizing and optimizing the supply chain’s activities.
  • Interorganizational information system (IOS) involves information flows among two or more organizations.
  • Global information systems are interorganizational information systems that connect companies located in two or more countries.
Supply  Chain (recall Figure 2.2)
Warner’s  Digital Supply Chain (IT’s About Business 8.3)
The Structure  & Components of Supply Chains 
A supply chain involves  three segments:
Upstream
Internal
Downstream
Tiers of suppliers
    • Upstream, where sourcing or procurement from external suppliers occurs.
    • Internal, where packaging, assembly or manufacturing takes place.
    • Downstream, where distribution takes place, frequently by external distributors.
  • Tiers of suppliers, a supplier may have one or more subsuppliers, and the subsupplier may
  • have its own subsupplier(s) and so on.
       Generic Supply Chain
The Flows  of the Supply Chain 
  • Material flows
  • Information flows
  • Financial flows
  • Material  flows are the physical products, raw materials, supplies and so forth that flow along the chain.
  • Information flows are all data related to demand, shipments, orders, returns and schedules as well as changes in any of these data.
  • Financial flows are all transfers of money, payments and credit-related data.
  • A supply chain involves a product life cycle approach, from “dirt to dust”.
Problems  Along the Supply Chain 
  • Poor customer service
  • Poor quality product
  • High inventory costs
  • Loss of revenues
  • New technologies
Problems  Along the Supply Chain (continued) 
  • Problems stem mainly  from two sources:
    • Uncertainties due to demand forecast, delivery times, quality problems in materials and parts that can create production delays;
    • The need to coordinate several activities, internal units and business partners.
  • Bullwhip effect refers to erratic shifts in orders up and down the supply chain.
      The Bullwhip Effect
Issues  of Global IOS Design 
  • Cultural differences
  • Localization
  • Economic and Political Differences
  • Legal issues
  • Cross-border data transfer which refers to the flow of corporate data across nations’ borders.
8.6 Electronic  Data Interchange (EDI)  and Extranets 
Electronic data interchange  (EDI)
Extranets
  • Electronic  data interchange (EDI) is a communication standard that enables
  • business partners to exchange routine documents, such as purchase orders,
  • electronically.
  • Extranets link business partners to one another over the Internet by providing
       EDI Benefits 
  • Minimize data entry  errors
  • Length of messages are shorter
  • Messages are secured
  • Reduces cycle time
  • Increases productivity
  • Enhances customer service
  • Minimizes paper usage and storage
         EDI Limitations 
  • Significant initial  investment to implement
  • Ongoing operating costs are high due to the use of expensive, private VANs
  • Traditional EDI system is inflexible
  • Long startup period
  • Multiple EDI standards exist
Comparing  Purchase Order Fulfillment Without EDI 
Comparing  Purchase Order Fulfillment With EDI
          Extranets 
  • The main goal  of extranets is to foster collaboration  between business partners.
  • An extranet is open to selected B2B suppliers, customers and other business partners.
The Structure  of an Extranet
      Types of Extranets 
A company and its  dealers, customers or suppliers 
 
An industry’s extranet 
Joint ventures and other  business partnerships
  • A  company and its dealers,  customers or suppliers – centers around one company.
  • An industry’s extranet – major players in an industry team up to create an extranet.
  • Joint ventures and other business partnerships – partners in a joint venture use extranet as a vehicle for communications and collaboration.
   Chapter Closing Case 
The JetBlue Fiasco

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