a. Is the transmission medium a part of the physical layer? Why or why not?
b. What is the significance of the twisting in twisted-pair cable?
c. What is the purpose of cladding in an optical fiber? Discuss its density relative to the core.
d. How does sky propagation differ from line-of-sight propagation?
b. Twisting ensures that both wires are equally, but inversely, affected by external
influences such as noise.
c. The inner core of an optical fiber is surrounded by cladding. The core is denser
than the cladding, so a light beam traveling through the core is reflected at the
boundary between the core and the cladding if the incident angle is more than the
d. In sky propagation radio waves radiate upward into the ionosphere and are then
reflected back to earth. In line-of-sight propagation signals are transmitted in a
straight line from antenna to antenna.
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