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CS601 Data Communication Assignment No. 03 Solution and Discussion Fall 2013 Due Date 21 Jan,2013

Assignment No. 03

Semester: Fall 2013

CS601-Data Communication

Total Marks: 15


Due Date: 20/01/2014


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Question 1:   (10 Marks)


a) Assume that a sports channel is using FM (frequency modulation) for broadcasting its transmission. You are required to calculate the bandwidth of broadcasted signal (modulated) in KHz for each of the following signals:


  • Modulating signal with a bandwidth of 15 KHz.
  • Modulating signal with frequencies of 4000 to 7000 Hz.              


b) Suppose a radio channel is using AM (Amplitude modulation) for broadcasting its transmission. You are required to calculate the bandwidth of broadcasted signal in KHz for each of the following signals:                         


  • Modulating signal with a bandwidth of 6 KHz.
  • Modulating signal with frequencies of 3000 to 6000 Hz.                   


Question 2:   (5 Marks)


Radio waves transmission utilizes five different types of propagation. You are required to identify at least one application (that uses the particular propagation) for each of the given propagation types.










Line of sight







NOTE: Every student should provide his/her own work, exact copying of the assignment (or some portion of the assignment) from the internet or other students will lead to copy case and zero marks will be awarded. Do not put any query on MDB about this assignment, if you have any query then email at




Deadline: Your assignment must be uploaded/submitted on or before 20th January 2014.

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Replies to This Discussion

Please Discuss here about this assignment.Thanks

Our main purpose here discussion not just Solution

We are here with you hands in hands to facilitate your learning and do not appreciate the idea of copying or replicating solutions.

Assignment 03 file in doc



For low radio frequencies, terrestrial antennas radiate electromagnetic waves that travel along the surface of the Earth as if in a waveguide. The attenuation of surface waves increases with distance, ground resistance, and transmitted frequency. Attenuation is lower over seawater, which has high conductivity, than over dry land, which has low conductivity. At frequencies below 3 megahertz, surface waves can propagate over very large distances. Ranges of 100 km (about 60 miles) at 3 megahertz to 10,000 km (6,000 miles) at 1 kilohertz are not uncommon.

Tropospheric propagation describes electromagnetic propagation in relation to thetroposphere.

The service area from a television (TV) or frequency modulated (FM) radio transmitter extends to just beyond the optical horizon, at which point signals start to rapidly reduce in strength. Viewers living in such a "deep fringe" reception area will notice that during certain conditions, weak signals normally masked by noise increase in signal strength to allow quality reception. Such conditions are related to the current state of the troposphere.

The ionosphere is a region of the upper atmosphere, from about 85 km (53 mi) to 600 km (370 mi) altitude, and includes thethermosphere and parts of the mesosphere and exosphere. It is distinguished because it is ionized by solar radiation. It plays an important part in atmospheric electricity and forms the inner edge of the magnetosphere. It has practical importance because, among other functions, it influences radio propagation to distant places on the Earth.

Line of Sight:Line of sight (LoS) is a type of propagation that can transmit and receive data only where transmit and receive stations are in view of each other without any sort of an obstacle between them. FM radio, microwave and satellite transmission are examples of line-of-sight communication.

Space propogation: The radio waves having high frequencies are basically called as space waves. These waves have the ability to propagate through atmosphere, from transmitter antenna to receiver antenna. These waves can travel directly or can travel after reflecting from earth’s surface to the troposphere surface of earth. So, it is also called as Tropospherical Propagation. In the diagram of medium wave propagation, c shows the space wave propagation. Basically the technique of space wave propagation is used in bands having very high frequencies. E.g. V.H.F. band, U.H.F band.

Thanks For Sharing 

1 Q

Part (b): 18 KHz Answer (m i right or wrong???) 

BW of FM = 2 (b + 1 ) B

Beta is a factor depends on modulation technique with common value of "4".

BM of FM = 2(1+4)B

BM of FM = 10*Bandwidth of modulation signal (in our hanouts)

Q 1 

Part (b)

AM requires the twice the BW of orignal signal so,

BW of AM = 3*6 = 18 khz (mera ans 3 hi nkla ha)

Answer ko nkalne ke units b match krna ho ge.


How to convert hertz to kilohertz

1Hz = 0.001kHz


1kHz = 1000Hz

Hertz to kilohertz formula

The frequency f in kilohertz (kHz) is equal to the frequency f in hertz (Hz) divided by 1000:

f(kHz) = f(Hz) / 1000


Convert 300 hertz to kilohertz:

f(kHz) = 300Hz / 1000 = 0.3kHz

modulation signal with frequencies of 4000 to 7000 Hz = f(Hz)= (7000 Hz - 4000 Hz) = 3000Hz

when we convert Hertz to kilohertz

f(kHz) = 3000 / 1000

f(kHz) = 3 KHz


  • Modulating signal with frequencies of 3000 to 6000 Hz. same method with "AM"


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