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Computer Graphics (COMP136) Quiz 1
a) Robert Burton
b) Ivan Sutherland
c) Pytor Tchaikovsky
d) Turner Whitted
a) Scientific Visualization
b) Computer Aided Geometric Design
c) Video Games
d) Stopmotion animation
a) Discerning visible portions of polygons
b) Shading visible polygons
c) “Rasterizing” polygons: finding which pixels of the screen correspond to a triangle
d) All of the above
e) None of the above
a) They leave undesirable “stairstep” effects on nonaxisaligned lines
b) Their blue electron gun can misfire and hit red pixels
c) They don’t easily draw fullscreen images
d) They suffer from fixed resolution
a) Fools the human eye into thinking the horizontal refresh rate is faster
b) Is distracting and can cause eye fatigue
c) Is necessary because of the shape of the rods in the human eye
d) Is no longer used in any system
a) Because it is polarized into the horizontal plane
b) Because it is measured in nanometers (nm)
c) Because it is the only range our rods and cones effectively receive
d) Because it is the only range emitted by light bulbs
a) The distance of the backplane from the pinhole
b) The size of the pinhole
c) The distance to the objects
d) The type of film (or recording device) used
a) The memory size and number of vectors it can draw per second
b) The number of triangles and number of fragments it can process per second
c) The number of OpenGL state changes it can handle per second
d) The number of monitors it can support
a) Current render color
b) Current position of the camera
c) Current position of key vertices of the model
d) Current position of lights in scene
a) True
b) False
a) It is efficient in its memory usage
b) It can call functions defined in FORTRAN or assembly
c) It has no intrinsic memory handling functions
d) Many libraries have been created by other C/C++ users which anyone can use.
a) True
b) False
a) True
b) False
a) Stroke Text
b) Raster Text
c) Math Text
d) None of the above
a) Its mathematical complexity (i.e. it’s BigO value)
b) Its difficulty to render to the screen
c) Its memory stamp (the amount of space taken up in memory to store it)
d) Its transformation from mathematical to polygonal primitives
a) A property dependant only on the object
b) A property dependant only on the illumination used
c) A property dependant on the object and the illumination used
d) A property independent of the object or the illumination used
a) Ignoring the z component of a model
b) Moving the camera infinitely far along the axis of projection
c) Mapping the current point position along similar triangles to the viewing plane
Computer Graphics (COMP136) Quiz 2
1) In class we discussed several ways of handling movement in video games. These included the idle function updating each time step, the keyboard updating the position, and a mix of these. Which of the following examples would be based ONLY on updates in the idle function
a) Asteroid movement in ASTEROIDS
b) Paddle movement in PONG
c) Ship movement in ASTEROIDS
2) Implicit functions are defined by the positions of a set of vertices
a) true
b) false
3) In every case of Marching Squares, the final image shown is the only possible solution given the input data
a) true
b) false
4) In Marching Squares, it is always true that a square will have 0, 2, or 4 edges with crossings.
a) true
b) false
5) The abstract data type used to create Quadtrees is usually a balanced tree structure
a) true
b) false
6) A “Picking” Input Device is an example of a
a) Sampling Based Input Device
b) Request Based Input Device
c) Physical Input Device
d) Logical Input Device
7) A “Phantom” Input Device is an example of a
a) Sampling Based Input Device
b) Request Based Input Device
c) Physical Input Device
d) Logical Input Device
8) When the computer program stalls to receive user input, this is an example of
a) Sampling Based Input
b) Request Based Input
c) Event Based Input
9) When the computer program is interrupted to handle user input, this is an example of
a) Sampling Based Input Device
b) Request Based Input Device
c) Event Based Input
10) When the computer checks for input, but only receives input if such exists, this is an example of
a) Sampling Based Input Device
b) Request Based Input Device
c) Event Based Input
11) There are (at least) two kinds of animation: scripted and simulated. In scripted animation,
a) The objects are always just in their correct position
b) The program solves kinematic equations for the current position of all objects to be animated
c) The program reads the directors’ comments in the script and places the objects where it feels best fulfills those comments
d) The program queries a database to know the current position of all objects to be animated
12) Scalar multiplication with a vector is allowed in our mathematical rules.
a) true
b) false
13) Points may be multiplied by vectors.
a) true
b) false
14) As defined in class: a point is defined as [ax, ay, az, a]^{T} where a can be ANY value.
a) true
b) false
15) Given the vector [1, 2, 3, 0]^{T} and the point [3, 2, 1, 1]^{T}, the equation for the plane defined by them is
a) 3x + 2y + 1z – 10 = 0
b) 1x + 2y + 3z – 10 = 0
c) 3x + 2y + 1z + 10 = 0
d) 1x + 2y + 3z + 10 = 0
16) An orthogonal set of vectors
a) Can be made up of any set of vectors
b) Must be made up of the basis vectors (e_{1}, e_{2}, and e_{3})
c) Must be a set of linearly dependent vectors
d) Must be a set of linearly independent vectors
17) If you want a rotation of 270 degrees around the zaxis, the value in the first row, second column should be
a) sin(270)
b) –sin(270)
c) cos(270)
d) –cos(270)
18) Which of the following affine transforms does NOT affect vectors?
a) Translation
b) Scale
c) Rotation
d) Shear
19) Which of the following affine transforms is NOT used in rotation around a specific axis and point?
a) Translation
b) Scale
c) Rotation
20) All of the following are true about affine transforms EXCEPT:
a) All lines are mapped to lines
b) All angles are preserved
c) All parallel lines remain parallel
21) The first OpenGL function specified (i.e. the top function in your code) is the first one applied to the points.
a) true
b) false
22) The last column of an affine transform matrix does not affect vectors.
a) true
b) false
23) A Coordinate System (or frame) is
a) A vector space
b) An affine vector space
c) An affine, Euclidean vector space
d) A nonlinear, affine, Euclidean vector space
Computer Graphics (COMP136) Quiz 3
This is a standard multiple choice test. Each question has only one correct answer. Please mark that one answer clearly on the answer sheet provided. If any question has more than one answer filled in, it will be marked wrong. There are XX questions. You will have XX minutes.
1) Which of the following is NOT true about quaternions?
a) They are made up of 4 numbers
b) They should always be normalized to length 1
c) They can be used to represent all affine transforms
d) They can be used to define the rotation of an object
2) Which of the following does NOT figure into the Field of View of a pinhole camera?
a) The direction of projection
b) The distance from the center of projection to the projection plane
c) The size of the projection plane
3) This projection technique has the direction of projection perpendicular to the viewing plane, but the viewing direction is NOT perpendicular to one of the principle faces.
a) Orthographic Parallel Projection
b) Axonometric Parallel Projection
c) Oblique Parallel Projection
4) This projection technique does NOT have the direction of projection perpendicular to the viewing plane.
a) Orthographic Parallel Projection
b) Axonometric Parallel Projection
c) Oblique Parallel Projection
5) This projection technique has the direction of projection perpendicular to the viewing plane, and the viewing direction is perpendicular to one of the principle faces.
a) Orthographic Parallel Projection
b) Axonometric Parallel Projection
c) Oblique Parallel Projection
6) When transforming a random AxisAligned Bounding Box defined by the points (near_{x}, near_{y}, near_{z}) and (far_{x}, far_{y}, far_{z}) to the standard orthographic viewing box, which affine transforms are used?
a) shear and translation
b) rotation and scale
c) scale and shear
d) translation and scale
7) In class, we discussed the purpose of the front and back clipping planes in OpenGL. Which of the following was NOT a purpose for using clipping planes?
a) division by zero
b) objects behind the center of projection mapping onto the projection plane
c) avoiding the problems of infinite viewing volume size
8) In class, we discussed how the image of the Double Eagle Tanker was obtained for the large poster in the main hall of Sitterson. It required rendering several perspective images using OpenGL. Which of the following was NOT a step required in that process?
a) handling projection planes nonorthogonal to the viewing direction
b) cutting a single projection plane into many separate projection planes
c) rotating the viewing direction to be the same as the –z direction
d) handling several different centers of projection
9) In OpenGL, there are several different matrices. We have discussed two of them in class. Which one of the below would be used in conjunction with a glRotatef function call?
a) GL_MODELVIEW
b) GL_PROJECTION
10) In OpenGL, there are several different matrices. We have discussed two of them in class. Which one of the below would be used in conjunction with glFrustum?
a) GL_MODELVIEW
b) GL_PROJECTION
11) Which of the following is the order that geometry operations are performed in OpenGL (where we read the order from left to right)?
a) GL_PROJECTION à GL_MODELVIEW à Perspective division
b) GL_MODELVIEW à GL_PROJECTION à Perspective division
c) Perspective division à GL_PROJECTION à GL_MODELVIEW
d) GL_MODELVIEW à Perspective division à GL_PROJECTION
e) GL_PROJECTION à Perspective division à GL_MODELVIEW

For the next 4 questions, match the pictures on the right with the corresponding term on the left. The arrows in the picture denote light rays. The dashed lines represent the material type to be considered. The key is in the interaction of the light rays with the material.
12) Specular
13)

Diffuse
14) Transparent
15) Translucent
answers: b,d,c,a
16) In “Utah” graphics, lights are simplified in order to approximate light/matter interaction with a minimum amount of work. Which of the following is NOT true about the simplifications made in “Utah” graphics lights?
a) Light intensity and color are folded into one value.
b) Lights are assumed to have zero size
c) Spotlights can not be handled
d) Soft shadows can not be handled
17) The Phong reflection model simplifies lightmatter interactions into (essentially) 4 vectors and a number of constants. Each piece of the Phong model uses different vectors and constants. Which portion does NOT include taking a dot product?
a) Ambient
b) Diffuse
c) Specular
18) The Phong reflection model simplifies lightmatter interactions into (essentially) 4 vectors and a number of constants. Which piece of the Phong model is responsible for giving spheres their bright white spots?
a) Ambient
b) Diffuse
c) Specular
19) The Phong reflection model simplifies lightmatter interactions into (essentially) 4 vectors and a number of constants. Which of the following is NOT a vector needed for the Phong reflection model?
a) Surface Normal
b) Direction to Viewer
c) Direction to Material Center
d) Direction to Light
20) True or false: In the Phong Reflection model, ambient light is the same everywhere.
a) true
b) false
21) In the Phong reflection model, there are 3 constants (a, b, c) which are used to describe the qualities of which of the following phenomena?
a) The material reaction to ambient, diffuse and specular light (respectively)
b) The amount to perturb reflection vectors as they are mirrored across the normal
c) The size (in each dimension) which the light is assumed to have
d) The attenuation of a point light source with distance
22) As discussed in class, when obtaining normals for a triangle, which of the following mathematical constructs is NOT used?
a) PointPoint subtraction
b) Vector dot products
c) Vector cross products
d) Vector normalization
As promised after the second quiz was handed back: Questions 2331: Please fill in the following matrix. This is to be the general rotation matrix for rotation around the xaxis.
[ (23) (24) (25) 0 ]
[ (26) (27) (28) 0 ]
[ (29) (30) (31) 0 ]
[ 0 0 0 1 ]
a) sin(Θ)
b) –sin(Θ)
c) cos(Θ)
d) 1
e) 0
23) d
24) e
25) e
26) e
27) c
28) b
29) e
30) a
31) c
Computer Graphics (COMP136) Quiz 4
This is a standard multiple choice test. Each question has only one correct answer. Please mark that one answer clearly on the answer sheet provided. If any question ahs more than one answer filled in, it will be marked wrong. There are 22 questions. You will have 25 minutes.
1) In class, we discussed three forms of shading for “Utah” graphics. Which was the oldest?
a) Flat Shading
b) Phong Shading
c) Gouraud Shading
2) In class, we discussed three forms of shading for “Utah” graphics. Which was the first to use per vertex normals?
a) Flat Shading
b) Phong Shading
c) Gouraud Shading
3) In class, we discussed three forms of shading for “Utah” graphics. Which is the most advanced which OpenGL can perform for you?
a) Flat Shading
b) Phong Shading
c) Gouraud Shading
4) In class, we discussed three forms of shading for “Utah” graphics. Which can best show specular highlights?
a) Flat Shading
b) Phong Shading
c) Gouraud Shading
5) True or false. “Utah” graphics solves for global illumination.
a) true
b) false
6) In class, we discussed two forms of texture mapping: Image to world space and world space to image. Each suffers from different problems related to minification and magnification. Which of the two shows the following problem: When the texture is larger than the screen space it maps to, many texture units (texels) are never sampled?
a) Image to world space
b) World space to image
7) In class, we discussed two forms of texture mapping: Image to world space and world space to image. Each suffers from different problems related to minification and magnification. Which of the two shows the following problem: When the texture is smaller than the screen space it maps to, many screen units (pixels) receive no direct mapped value?
a) Image to world space
b) World space to image
8) In class, we discussed linear sampling and mipmapping as solutions for minification and magnification. Which of the two solves the problem of minification: when the input texture is larger than the screen space it maps to?
a) Linear sampling
b) Mipmapping
9) The text proposes the following as a way to assign texture coordinates to an enclosed 3D model: Surround the model by some 3D primitive (like a sphere, cylinder or cube) and then map the texture coordinates of the 3D primitive onto the model. Which of the following was not a method for mapping texture coordinates onto the model from the primitive.
a) mapping coordinates from the sphere by the normal of the sphere
b) mapping coordinates from the sphere by expanding from the center of the sphere
c) mapping coordinates from the sphere by following the normal of the object
d) mapping coordinates from the sphere by finding the closest point on the sphere from the object surface
10) In class, we discussed two types of surfaces which could be approximated with environment maps. Which of the following was not approximated by using environment maps?
a) diffuse surfaces
b) reflective surfaces
c) transparent surfaces
11) When using a cube for your environment map, multiple renderings needed to occur. How many total scene renderings needed to occur?
a) 3
b) 5
c) 7
d) 9
12) Which of the following three techniques requires a programmable graphics processor for realtime performance?
a) texture maps
b) bump maps
c) environment maps
13) We discussed in class how to use Alpha Blending in OpenGL. There were several issues that had to be handled when you used nonopaque objects. Which of the following was not one of those issues?
a) sorting the transparent objects
b) drawing the opaque objects fronttoback or backtofront
c) drawing the opaque v. transparent objects in a specific order
d) rendering transparent objects fronttoback or backtofront
14) In order to create shadow volumes, the programmer has to maintain “silhouette edges”. These are calculated using all of the following vectors except
a) surface normals
b) vector to the light
c) vector to the viewer
15) OpenGL has several buffers. In the shadow volume algorithm described in class, which of the following OpenGL buffers was not used?
a) accumulation buffer
b) color buffer
c) stencil buffer
d) depth buffer
16) The powerful thing about the accumulation buffer is
a) its larger window size than the color buffer
b) its higher bit per pixel rate than the color buffer
c) its higher resolution than the color buffer
d) its ability to perform the XOR operation
Consider the following problem from lighting: A point (P_{1}) is at (0, 0, 0) with normal equal to 1/(2*sqrt(2))*(sqrt(2), 2, sqrt(2)). The light is located at (0, 1, 0). The viewer is located at (1, 1, 1). The specular and diffuse coefficients for the light are both (1, 1, 1), with the ambient portion as (.2, .2, .2). What is the reflection vector? (HINT: You needn’t use all of the information given)
[ (17) ]
r = [ (18) ]
[ (19) ]
Choose from the values below:
a) 0
b) 1
c) 1
d) 1/sqrt(2)
e) 1/sqrt(3)
17) d
18) a
19) d
Consider the following problem from texture lookup: Given the following 2x2 texture:
[ (1, 0, 0) (1, 1, 1) ]
[ (1, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) ]
With coordinates assigned as below:
[ (0, 1) (1, 1) ]
[ (0, 0) (1, 0) ]
What is the color with texture coordinate of (1/2, 2/3) using linear interpolation?
[ (20) ]
color = [ (21) ]
[ (22) ]
Choose from the values below:
a) 0
b) 1/3
c) 2/3
d) 5/6
e) 1
20) d
21) b
22) b
Computer Graphics (COMP136) Quiz 6
This is a standard multiple choice test. Each question has only one correct answer. Please mark that one answer clearly on the answer sheet provided. If any question ahs more than one answer filled in, it will be marked wrong. There are 20 questions. You will have 20 minutes.
1) We discussed several global illumination algorithms in class. Which of the following listed can properly handle diffusediffuse reflections
a) Ray Tracing
b) Radiosity
c) Photon Mapping
d) RenderMan
2) We discussed several global illumination algorithms in class. Which of the following is generally characterized by shiny spheres and checkerboards?
a) Ray Tracing
b) Radiosity
c) Photon Mapping
d) RenderMan
3) We discussed several global illumination algorithms in class. Which of the following listed can properly handle caustics?
a) Ray Tracing
b) Radiosity
c) Photon Mapping
d) RenderMan
4) In radiosity a matrix is formed of size mxm. Which of the following can be known if the (i, j) position in the matrix is zero?
a) patch i is much larger than patch j
b) patch i is much smaller than patch j
c) patch i is visible from patch j
d) patch i is not visible from patch j
5) Given any implicit equation, which of the following is true for all (x, y, z) that make the equation exactly zero?
a) All those points are inside the object defined by the implicit equation
b) All those points are on the surface of the object defined by the implicit equation
c) All those points are outside the object defined by the implicit equation
d) You can’t know anything without knowing what the implicit equation is
6) When solving raysphere intersections using the implicit equation for a sphere, you must solve the quadratic equation. Which of the following do you know if the B^{2}4AC (i.e. the part under the square root) is negative?
a) The ray intersects the sphere at a negative t… discard this result
b) The ray intersects the sphere at a positive t… continue to the solution
c) The ray does not intersect the sphere… discard this result
d) The ray begins inside the sphere… this is a special case
7) When solving for raypolygon intersections, after intersecting the ray with a plane, the dominant component of the plane normal is found. this is used to
a) ignore any component other than the dominant when you project to 2D
b) ignore the dominant component when you project to 2D
c) solve the insideoutside test only for that component
8) If solving for insideoutside of a triangle using barycentric coordinates, and you have two barycentric coordinates solved (bc1 = .57, bc2 = .62) which of the following do you know?
a) The point is outside the triangle
b) The point is on the boundary of the triangle
c) The point is inside the triangle
d) The hit point is on the “back face” of the triangle
9) True or false. The majority of the execution time of a ray tracer is spent in rayobject intersection code.
a) true
b) false
10) Snell’s law is used to calculate which one of the following rays?
a) start rays
b) shadow rays
c) reflection rays
d) transmission rays
11) True or false. You might as well recurse on reflection and transmission rays until you hit nothing. This always is bound to happen.
a) true
b) false
12) When you hit a surface in ray tracing, generally shadow rays are tested against all objects in a scene. If these rays come back saying they hit an object in the scene, which of the following do you do?
a) add none of the light from that light source to the object
b) add only the ambient light from that light source to the object
c) add all EXCEPT the ambient light from that light source to the object (i.e. diffuse and specular)
d) add all components (i.e. ambient, diffuse and specular) from that light source to the object.
13) Which of the following Ray Tracing additions works to remove jaggies alone?
a) multisampling
b) jittering
14) In the Pixar short “Geri’s Game”, the character Geri was created using which of the following techniques?
a) Fractals
b) Bump mapping
c) Environment mapping
d) CatmullClark Subdivision Surfaces
15) In the Pixar short “Geri’s Game”, the trees in the background were created using which of the following techniques?
a) Fractals
b) Bump mapping
c) Environment mapping
d) CatmullClark Subdivision Surfaces
16) In the Pixar short “Geri’s Game”, Geri’s glasses seemed to bend the light as it passed through. Which of the following techniques was used?
a) Fractals
b) Bump mapping
c) Environment mapping
d) CatmullClark Subdivision Surfaces
For questions 1720. Given a triangle with the following vertices, please solve for the equation of the plane it lies on (Ax + By + Cz + D). (Please note that the normal of the plane can go in either of two directions. Only one is offered in the following answers, so if you don’t see your answer, try the negative of it! And don’t forget to normalize your result.)
v1 = (0, 0, 2*sqrt(3))
v2 = (0, 2*sqrt(3), 0)
v3 = (2*sqrt(3), 0, 0)
17) What is A?
a) 0
b) 1/sqrt(3)
c) 1/sqrt(2)
d) 1
18) What is B?
a) 0
b) 1/sqrt(3)
c) 1/sqrt(2)
d) 1
19) What is C?
a) 0
b) 1/sqrt(3)
c) 1/sqrt(2)
d) 1
20) What is D?
a) 0
b) 1
c) 2
d) 3
Computer Graphics (COMP136) Quiz 7
This is a standard multiple choice test. Each question has only one correct answer. Please mark that one answer clearly on the answer sheet provided. If any question ahs more than one answer filled in, it will be marked wrong. There are 20 questions. You will have 20 minutes.
1) The following drawing illustrates which of the following?
Use the following set of curves to match with the questions below.
(A) (B) (C)
2) Which is an example of degree elevation? A
3) Which is an example of deCasteljau subdivision? B
4) Which is an example of a degree 2 curve? B
5) Which of the following properties of rational Bezier curves fails if the weight assigned to a control point is negative? (P.S. The property missing below is Linear Independence of the control functions… FYI)
a) Coordinate System Independence
b) ConvexHull
c) Symmetry
d) Variation Diminishing
e) Endpoint interpolation
6) Which of the following properties of Bezier curves guarantees that a line passes through the control polygon as many times or more times than the line passes through the Bezier curve itself?
a) Coordinate System Independence
b) ConvexHull
c) Symmetry
d) Variation Diminishing
e) Endpoint interpolation
7) Which of the following properties of Bezier curves guarantees that any affine transform performed on the control points also directly applies to the curve itself?
a) Coordinate System Independence
b) ConvexHull
c) Symmetry
d) Variation Diminishing
e) Endpoint interpolation
8) True or false. The Bernstein polynomials as defined in class work for 2D Curves as well as 3D Curves.
a) true
b) false
9) Which of the following parts of our Bezier curve discussion was compared to 3D projections onto a 2D plane?
a) End point tangency
b) deCasteljau subdivision
c) Degree elevation
d) Swept surfaces
e) Rational Beziers (i.e. weights)
10) When extracting surface locations of 3D Bezier surfaces, two techniques were presented: evaluation of the Bernstein polynomials and deCasteljau subdivision. Which of those two allowed for easy and accurate solutions to the surface normal?
a) Evaluation of the Bernstein polynomials
b) deCasteljau subdivision
11) Which of the following is a good use of Bezier volumes?
a) Design of airplane wings
b) Global Illumination rendering
c) Freeform deformation
d) Surface normal extraction
12) If two Bezier curves meet at the same point as shown in the control polygons shown below, what is the MAXIMUM continuity they can have? (NOTE the two edges that meet are not of the same length, but do have the same direction)
a) C^{0}
b) C^{1}
c) C^{2}
d) G^{0}
e) G^{1}
13) True or false. BSplines are a way of creating sets of Bezier curves with a guaranteed continuity at their join points.
a) true
b) false
14) Which of the following is considered the Father of Fractals?
a) Lyle Ramshaw
b) Benoit Mandelbrot
c) Bernard Julia
d) Ivan Sutherland
15) In class, we discussed 3 forms of Fractals. Which one required some randomness and several thousand loop executions to give a result?
a) Nonlinear fractals
b) Iterated Function Systems
c) LSystems
16) In class, we discussed 3 forms of Fractals. Which one could be represented by strings with recursion rules?
a) Nonlinear fractals
b) Iterated Function Systems
c) LSystems
17) Which of the following fractals could have a fractal of degree 2.7?
a) Koch Snowflake
b) A sponge with infinite holes
c) Serpinsky Gadget
d) A fern with very high branching factor
18) In class, two examples were shown of how to use sets of affine transforms to create complex seeming animations. Which required glPushMatrix and glPopMatrix?
a) the cars with wheels spinning around a globe
b) the links of a chain swinging back and forth
19) True or false. When creating an animation of a person walking using sets of affine transforms the animator should set the cycle of the legs to a different control variable than the cycle for the arms.
a) true
b) false
20) In class, we discussed physicallybased simulation. In order to maintain a simulation, a set of variables must be maintained called “state variables”. State variables are those variables which must be maintained from one timestep to the next in a simulation to maintain correct simulation. Of all of the following variables, only one is NOT a state variable. Which is it?
a) mass
b) position
c) velocity
d) acceleration
DDA abbreviated for __________________.
Digital differential analyzer
Discrete data analyzer
Different Analog differential analyzers
_________ is used to move a point, or a set of points, linearly in space
Transformation
Translation
Scaling
None
_________________ is the set of points that are equidistant from its origin
Circle
Parabola
Line
Ellipse
Tomography is the technique used in ____________________.
Xrays photography
Pixel paint
Entertainment
Artis's paintbrush
The _______________ tests are performed for the midpoints between pixels near the circle path at each sampling step
Circle function
Twice the radius of circle is called as ____________________.
Diameter
Area
2*Pi Radian
Circumference
The given primitives are clipped to the boundaries of ________________ and primitives lying outside are not drawn.
Clipping rectangle
Parity is a concept used to determine which _________________ lie within a polygon.
Pixels
Edge
Vertices
Points
Save a line with both endpoints inside all clipping boundaries is called as ______________.
Trivial accept
Total inside
Trivial reject
Total outside
Various curve functions are useful in ________________________.
Object modeling
Graphics applications
Animation path specifications
All of the given
According to the architecture of raster graphics system, display processor memory will act as _____________.
Video controller
The process of moving the points so that the POV is at the origin looking down the +Y axis is called normalization.
True
False
Translation moves objects without _____________________.
Deformation
Scaling and Rotation
Rotation
Scaling
The _______________ technique has the direction of projection perpendicular to the viewing plane, but the viewing direction is NOT perpendicular to one of the principle faces.
Orthographic Parallel Projection
Locations can be translated or "transformed" from one coordinate system to the other.
True
False
Computer Graphics (COMP136) Quiz 2
1) In class we discussed several ways of handling movement in video games. These included the idle function updating each time step, the keyboard updating the position, and a mix of these. Which of the following examples would be based ONLY on updates in the idle function
a) Asteroid movement in ASTEROIDS
b) Paddle movement in PONG
c) Ship movement in ASTEROIDS
2) Implicit functions are defined by the positions of a set of vertices
a) true
b) false
3) In every case of Marching Squares, the final image shown is the only possible solution given the input data
a) true
b) false
4) In Marching Squares, it is always true that a square will have 0, 2, or 4 edges with crossings.
a) true
b) false
5) The abstract data type used to create Quadtrees is usually a balanced tree structure
a) true
b) false
6) A “Picking” Input Device is an example of a
a) Sampling Based Input Device
b) Request Based Input Device
c) Physical Input Device
d) Logical Input Device
7) A “Phantom” Input Device is an example of a
a) Sampling Based Input Device
b) Request Based Input Device
c) Physical Input Device
d) Logical Input Device
8) When the computer program stalls to receive user input, this is an example of
a) Sampling Based Input
b) Request Based Input
c) Event Based Input
9) When the computer program is interrupted to handle user input, this is an example of
a) Sampling Based Input Device
b) Request Based Input Device
c) Event Based Input
10) When the computer checks for input, but only receives input if such exists, this is an example of
a) Sampling Based Input Device
b) Request Based Input Device
c) Event Based Input
11) There are (at least) two kinds of animation: scripted and simulated. In scripted animation,
a) The objects are always just in their correct position
b) The program solves kinematic equations for the current position of all objects to be animated
c) The program reads the directors’ comments in the script and places the objects where it feels best fulfills those comments
d) The program queries a database to know the current position of all objects to be animated
12) Scalar multiplication with a vector is allowed in our mathematical rules.
a) true
b) false
13) Points may be multiplied by vectors.
a) true
b) false
14) As defined in class: a point is defined as [ax, ay, az, a]^{T} where a can be ANY value.
a) true
b) false
15) Given the vector [1, 2, 3, 0]^{T} and the point [3, 2, 1, 1]^{T}, the equation for the plane defined by them is
a) 3x + 2y + 1z – 10 = 0
b) 1x + 2y + 3z – 10 = 0
c) 3x + 2y + 1z + 10 = 0
d) 1x + 2y + 3z + 10 = 0
16) An orthogonal set of vectors
a) Can be made up of any set of vectors
b) Must be made up of the basis vectors (e_{1}, e_{2}, and e_{3})
c) Must be a set of linearly dependent vectors
d) Must be a set of linearly independent vectors
17) If you want a rotation of 270 degrees around the zaxis, the value in the first row, second column should be
a) sin(270)
b) –sin(270)
c) cos(270)
d) –cos(270)
18) Which of the following affine transforms does NOT affect vectors?
a) Translation
b) Scale
c) Rotation
d) Shear
19) Which of the following affine transforms is NOT used in rotation around a specific axis and point?
a) Translation
b) Scale
c) Rotation
20) All of the following are true about affine transforms EXCEPT:
a) All lines are mapped to lines
b) All angles are preserved
c) All parallel lines remain parallel
21) The first OpenGL function specified (i.e. the top function in your code) is the first one applied to the points.
a) true
b) false
22) The last column of an affine transform matrix does not affect vectors.
a) true
b) false
23) A Coordinate System (or frame) is
a) A vector space
b) An affine vector space
c) An affine, Euclidean vector space
d) A nonlinear, affine, Euclidean vector space
Questions 2432: Please fill in the following matrix. This is to be the general rotation matrix for rotation around the yaxis.
[ (24) (25) (26) 0 ]
[ (27) (28) (29) 0 ]
[ (30) (31) (32) 0 ]
[ 0 0 0 1 ]
a) sin(Θ)
b) –sin(Θ)
c) cos(Θ)
d) 1
e) 0
24) c
25) e
26) a
27) e
28) d
29) e
30) b
31) e
32) c
Computer Graphics (COMP136) Quiz 3
This is a standard multiple choice test. Each question has only one correct answer. Please mark that one answer clearly on the answer sheet provided. If any question has more than one answer filled in, it will be marked wrong. There are XX questions. You will have XX minutes.
1) Which of the following is NOT true about quaternions?
a) They are made up of 4 numbers
b) They should always be normalized to length 1
c) They can be used to represent all affine transforms
d) They can be used to define the rotation of an object
2) Which of the following does NOT figure into the Field of View of a pinhole camera?
a) The direction of projection
b) The distance from the center of projection to the projection plane
c) The size of the projection plane
3) This projection technique has the direction of projection perpendicular to the viewing plane, but the viewing direction is NOT perpendicular to one of the principle faces.
a) Orthographic Parallel Projection
b) Axonometric Parallel Projection
c) Oblique Parallel Projection
4) This projection technique does NOT have the direction of projection perpendicular to the viewing plane.
a) Orthographic Parallel Projection
b) Axonometric Parallel Projection
c) Oblique Parallel Projection
5) This projection technique has the direction of projection perpendicular to the viewing plane, and the viewing direction is perpendicular to one of the principle faces.
a) Orthographic Parallel Projection
b) Axonometric Parallel Projection
c) Oblique Parallel Projection
6) When transforming a random AxisAligned Bounding Box defined by the points (near_{x}, near_{y}, near_{z}) and (far_{x}, far_{y}, far_{z}) to the standard orthographic viewing box, which affine transforms are used?
a) shear and translation
b) rotation and scale
c) scale and shear
d) translation and scale
7) In class, we discussed the purpose of the front and back clipping planes in OpenGL. Which of the following was NOT a purpose for using clipping planes?
a) division by zero
b) objects behind the center of projection mapping onto the projection plane
c) avoiding the problems of infinite viewing volume size
8) In class, we discussed how the image of the Double Eagle Tanker was obtained for the large poster in the main hall of Sitterson. It required rendering several perspective images using OpenGL. Which of the following was NOT a step required in that process?
a) handling projection planes nonorthogonal to the viewing direction
b) cutting a single projection plane into many separate projection planes
c) rotating the viewing direction to be the same as the –z direction
d) handling several different centers of projection
9) In OpenGL, there are several different matrices. We have discussed two of them in class. Which one of the below would be used in conjunction with a glRotatef function call?
a) GL_MODELVIEW
b) GL_PROJECTION
10) In OpenGL, there are several different matrices. We have discussed two of them in class. Which one of the below would be used in conjunction with glFrustum?
a) GL_MODELVIEW
b) GL_PROJECTION
11) Which of the following is the order that geometry operations are performed in OpenGL (where we read the order from left to right)?
a) GL_PROJECTION à GL_MODELVIEW à Perspective division
b) GL_MODELVIEW à GL_PROJECTION à Perspective division
c) Perspective division à GL_PROJECTION à GL_MODELVIEW
d) GL_MODELVIEW à Perspective division à GL_PROJECTION
e) GL_PROJECTION à Perspective division à GL_MODELVIEW

For the next 4 questions, match the pictures on the right with the corresponding term on the left. The arrows in the picture denote light rays. The dashed lines represent the material type to be considered. The key is in the interaction of the light rays with the material.
12) Specular
13)

Diffuse
14) Transparent
15) Translucent
answers: b,d,c,a

16) In “Utah” graphics, lights are simplified in order to approximate light/matter interaction with a minimum amount of work. Which of the following is NOT true about the simplifications made in “Utah” graphics lights?
a) Light intensity and color are folded into one value.
b) Lights are assumed to have zero size
c) Spotlights can not be handled
d) Soft shadows can not be handled
17) The Phong reflection model simplifies lightmatter interactions into (essentially) 4 vectors and a number of constants. Each piece of the Phong model uses different vectors and constants. Which portion does NOT include taking a dot product?
a) Ambient
b) Diffuse
c) Specular
18) The Phong reflection model simplifies lightmatter interactions into (essentially) 4 vectors and a number of constants. Which piece of the Phong model is responsible for giving spheres their bright white spots?
a) Ambient
b) Diffuse
c) Specular
19) The Phong reflection model simplifies lightmatter interactions into (essentially) 4 vectors and a number of constants. Which of the following is NOT a vector needed for the Phong reflection model?
a) Surface Normal
b) Direction to Viewer
c) Direction to Material Center
d) Direction to Light
20) True or false: In the Phong Reflection model, ambient light is the same everywhere.
a) true
b) false
21) In the Phong reflection model, there are 3 constants (a, b, c) which are used to describe the qualities of which of the following phenomena?
a) The material reaction to ambient, diffuse and specular light (respectively)
b) The amount to perturb reflection vectors as they are mirrored across the normal
c) The size (in each dimension) which the light is assumed to have
d) The attenuation of a point light source with distance
22) As discussed in class, when obtaining normals for a triangle, which of the following mathematical constructs is NOT used?
a) PointPoint subtraction
b) Vector dot products
c) Vector cross products
d) Vector normalization
As promised after the second quiz was handed back: Questions 2331: Please fill in the following matrix. This is to be the general rotation matrix for rotation around the xaxis.
[ (23) (24) (25) 0 ]
[ (26) (27) (28) 0 ]
[ (29) (30) (31) 0 ]
[ 0 0 0 1 ]
a) sin(Θ)
b) –sin(Θ)
c) cos(Θ)
d) 1
e) 0
23) d
24) e
25) e
26) e
27) c
28) b
29) e
30) a
31) c
Computer Graphics (COMP136) Quiz 4
This is a standard multiple choice test. Each question has only one correct answer. Please mark that one answer clearly on the answer sheet provided. If any question ahs more than one answer filled in, it will be marked wrong. There are 22 questions. You will have 25 minutes.
1) In class, we discussed three forms of shading for “Utah” graphics. Which was the oldest?
a) Flat Shading
b) Phong Shading
c) Gouraud Shading
2) In class, we discussed three forms of shading for “Utah” graphics. Which was the first to use per vertex normals?
a) Flat Shading
b) Phong Shading
c) Gouraud Shading
3) In class, we discussed three forms of shading for “Utah” graphics. Which is the most advanced which OpenGL can perform for you?
a) Flat Shading
b) Phong Shading
c) Gouraud Shading
4) In class, we discussed three forms of shading for “Utah” graphics. Which can best show specular highlights?
a) Flat Shading
b) Phong Shading
c) Gouraud Shading
5) True or false. “Utah” graphics solves for global illumination.
a) true
b) false
6) In class, we discussed two forms of texture mapping: Image to world space and world space to image. Each suffers from different problems related to minification and magnification. Which of the two shows the following problem: When the texture is larger than the screen space it maps to, many texture units (texels) are never sampled?
a) Image to world space
b) World space to image
7) In class, we discussed two forms of texture mapping: Image to world space and world space to image. Each suffers from different problems related to minification and magnification. Which of the two shows the following problem: When the texture is smaller than the screen space it maps to, many screen units (pixels) receive no direct mapped value?
a) Image to world space
b) World space to image
8) In class, we discussed linear sampling and mipmapping as solutions for minification and magnification. Which of the two solves the problem of minification: when the input texture is larger than the screen space it maps to?
a) Linear sampling
b) Mipmapping
9) The text proposes the following as a way to assign texture coordinates to an enclosed 3D model: Surround the model by some 3D primitive (like a sphere, cylinder or cube) and then map the texture coordinates of the 3D primitive onto the model. Which of the following was not a method for mapping texture coordinates onto the model from the primitive.
a) mapping coordinates from the sphere by the normal of the sphere
b) mapping coordinates from the sphere by expanding from the center of the sphere
c) mapping coordinates from the sphere by following the normal of the object
d) mapping coordinates from the sphere by finding the closest point on the sphere from the object surface
10) In class, we discussed two types of surfaces which could be approximated with environment maps. Which of the following was not approximated by using environment maps?
a) diffuse surfaces
b) reflective surfaces
c) transparent surfaces
11) When using a cube for your environment map, multiple renderings needed to occur. How many total scene renderings needed to occur?
a) 3
b) 5
c) 7
d) 9
12) Which of the following three techniques requires a programmable graphics processor for realtime performance?
a) texture maps
b) bump maps
c) environment maps
13) We discussed in class how to use Alpha Blending in OpenGL. There were several issues that had to be handled when you used nonopaque objects. Which of the following was not one of those issues?
a) sorting the transparent objects
b) drawing the opaque objects fronttoback or backtofront
c) drawing the opaque v. transparent objects in a specific order
d) rendering transparent objects fronttoback or backtofront
14) In order to create shadow volumes, the programmer has to maintain “silhouette edges”. These are calculated using all of the following vectors except
a) surface normals
b) vector to the light
c) vector to the viewer
15) OpenGL has several buffers. In the shadow volume algorithm described in class, which of the following OpenGL buffers was not used?
a) accumulation buffer
b) color buffer
c) stencil buffer
d) depth buffer
16) The powerful thing about the accumulation buffer is
a) its larger window size than the color buffer
b) its higher bit per pixel rate than the color buffer
c) its higher resolution than the color buffer
d) its ability to perform the XOR operation
Consider the following problem from lighting: A point (P_{1}) is at (0, 0, 0) with normal equal to 1/(2*sqrt(2))*(sqrt(2), 2, sqrt(2)). The light is located at (0, 1, 0). The viewer is located at (1, 1, 1). The specular and diffuse coefficients for the light are both (1, 1, 1), with the ambient portion as (.2, .2, .2). What is the reflection vector? (HINT: You needn’t use all of the information given)
[ (17) ]
r = [ (18) ]
[ (19) ]
Choose from the values below:
a) 0
b) 1
c) 1
d) 1/sqrt(2)
e) 1/sqrt(3)
17) d
18) a
19) d
Consider the following problem from texture lookup: Given the following 2x2 texture:
[ (1, 0, 0) (1, 1, 1) ]
[ (1, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) ]
With coordinates assigned as below:
[ (0, 1) (1, 1) ]
[ (0, 0) (1, 0) ]
What is the color with texture coordinate of (1/2, 2/3) using linear interpolation?
[ (20) ]
color = [ (21) ]
[ (22) ]
Choose from the values below:
a) 0
b) 1/3
c) 2/3
d) 5/6
e) 1
20) d
21) b
22) b
Computer Graphics (COMP136) Quiz 4
This is a standard multiple choice test. Each question has only one correct answer. Please mark that one answer clearly on the answer sheet provided. If any question ahs more than one answer filled in, it will be marked wrong. There are 22 questions. You will have 25 minutes.
23) In class, we discussed three forms of shading for “Utah” graphics. Which was the oldest?
a) Flat Shading
b) Phong Shading
c) Gouraud Shading
24) In class, we discussed three forms of shading for “Utah” graphics. Which was the first to use per vertex normals?
a) Flat Shading
b) Phong Shading
c) Gouraud Shading
25) In class, we discussed three forms of shading for “Utah” graphics. Which is the most advanced which OpenGL can perform for you?
a) Flat Shading
b) Phong Shading
c) Gouraud Shading
26) In class, we discussed three forms of shading for “Utah” graphics. Which can best show specular highlights?
a) Flat Shading
b) Phong Shading
c) Gouraud Shading
27) True or false. “Utah” graphics solves for global illumination.
a) true
b) false
28) In class, we discussed two forms of texture mapping: Image to world space and world space to image. Each suffers from different problems related to minification and magnification. Which of the two shows the following problem: When the texture is larger than the screen space it maps to, many texture units (texels) are never sampled?
a) Image to world space
b) World space to image
29) In class, we discussed two forms of texture mapping: Image to world space and world space to image. Each suffers from different problems related to minification and magnification. Which of the two shows the following problem: When the texture is smaller than the screen space it maps to, many screen units (pixels) receive no direct mapped value?
a) Image to world space
b) World space to image
30) In class, we discussed linear sampling and mipmapping as solutions for minification and magnification. Which of the two solves the problem of minification: when the input texture is larger than the screen space it maps to?
a) Linear sampling
b) Mipmapping
31) The text proposes the following as a way to assign texture coordinates to an enclosed 3D model: Surround the model by some 3D primitive (like a sphere, cylinder or cube) and then map the texture coordinates of the 3D primitive onto the model. Which of the following was not a method for mapping texture coordinates onto the model from the primitive.
a) mapping coordinates from the sphere by the normal of the sphere
b) mapping coordinates from the sphere by expanding from the center of the sphere
c) mapping coordinates from the sphere by following the normal of the object
d) mapping coordinates from the sphere by finding the closest point on the sphere from the object surface
32) In class, we discussed two types of surfaces which could be approximated with environment maps. Which of the following was not approximated by using environment maps?
a) diffuse surfaces
b) reflective surfaces
c) transparent surfaces
33) When using a cube for your environment map, multiple renderings needed to occur. How many total scene renderings needed to occur?
a) 3
b) 5
c) 7
d) 9
34) Which of the following three techniques requires a programmable graphics processor for realtime performance?
a) texture maps
b) bump maps
c) environment maps
35) We discussed in class how to use Alpha Blending in OpenGL. There were several issues that had to be handled when you used nonopaque objects. Which of the following was not one of those issues?
a) sorting the transparent objects
b) drawing the opaque objects fronttoback or backtofront
c) drawing the opaque v. transparent objects in a specific order
d) rendering transparent objects fronttoback or backtofront
36) In order to create shadow volumes, the programmer has to maintain “silhouette edges”. These are calculated using all of the following vectors except
a) surface normals
b) vector to the light
c) vector to the viewer
37) OpenGL has several buffers. In the shadow volume algorithm described in class, which of the following OpenGL buffers was not used?
a) accumulation buffer
b) color buffer
c) stencil buffer
d) depth buffer
38) The powerful thing about the accumulation buffer is
a) its larger window size than the color buffer
b) its higher bit per pixel rate than the color buffer
c) its higher resolution than the color buffer
d) its ability to perform the XOR operation
Consider the following problem from lighting: A point (P_{1}) is at (0, 0, 0) with normal equal to 1/(2*sqrt(2))*(sqrt(2), 2, sqrt(2)). The light is located at (0, 1, 0). The viewer is located at (1, 1, 1). The specular and diffuse coefficients for the light are both (1, 1, 1), with the ambient portion as (.2, .2, .2). What is the reflection vector? (HINT: You needn’t use all of the information given)
[ (17) ]
r = [ (18) ]
[ (19) ]
Choose from the values below:
f) 0
g) 1
h) 1
i) 1/sqrt(2)
j) 1/sqrt(3)
39) d
40) a
41) d
Consider the following problem from texture lookup: Given the following 2x2 texture:
[ (1, 0, 0) (1, 1, 1) ]
[ (1, 0, 0) (0, 0, 0) ]
With coordinates assigned as below:
[ (0, 1) (1, 1) ]
[ (0, 0) (1, 0) ]
What is the color with texture coordinate of (1/2, 2/3) using linear interpolation?
[ (20) ]
color = [ (21) ]
[ (22) ]
Choose from the values below:
f) 0
g) 1/3
h) 2/3
i) 5/6
j) 1
42) d
43) b
44) b
Computer Graphics (COMP136) Quiz 6
This is a standard multiple choice test. Each question has only one correct answer. Please mark that one answer clearly on the answer sheet provided. If any question ahs more than one answer filled in, it will be marked wrong. There are 20 questions. You will have 20 minutes.
1) We discussed several global illumination algorithms in class. Which of the following listed can properly handle diffusediffuse reflections
a) Ray Tracing
b) Radiosity
c) Photon Mapping
d) RenderMan
2) We discussed several global illumination algorithms in class. Which of the following is generally characterized by shiny spheres and checkerboards?
a) Ray Tracing
b) Radiosity
c) Photon Mapping
d) RenderMan
3) We discussed several global illumination algorithms in class. Which of the following listed can properly handle caustics?
a) Ray Tracing
b) Radiosity
c) Photon Mapping
d) RenderMan
4) In radiosity a matrix is formed of size mxm. Which of the following can be known if the (i, j) position in the matrix is zero?
a) patch i is much larger than patch j
b) patch i is much smaller than patch j
c) patch i is visible from patch j
d) patch i is not visible from patch j
5) Given any implicit equation, which of the following is true for all (x, y, z) that make the equation exactly zero?
a) All those points are inside the object defined by the implicit equation
b) All those points are on the surface of the object defined by the implicit equation
c) All those points are outside the object defined by the implicit equation
d) You can’t know anything without knowing what the implicit equation is
6) When solving raysphere intersections using the implicit equation for a sphere, you must solve the quadratic equation. Which of the following do you know if the B^{2}4AC (i.e. the part under the square root) is negative?
a) The ray intersects the sphere at a negative t… discard this result
b) The ray intersects the sphere at a positive t… continue to the solution
c) The ray does not intersect the sphere… discard this result
d) The ray begins inside the sphere… this is a special case
7) When solving for raypolygon intersections, after intersecting the ray with a plane, the dominant component of the plane normal is found. this is used to
a) ignore any component other than the dominant when you project to 2D
b) ignore the dominant component when you project to 2D
c) solve the insideoutside test only for that component
8) If solving for insideoutside of a triangle using barycentric coordinates, and you have two barycentric coordinates solved (bc1 = .57, bc2 = .62) which of the following do you know?
a) The point is outside the triangle
b) The point is on the boundary of the triangle
c) The point is inside the triangle
d) The hit point is on the “back face” of the triangle
9) True or false. The majority of the execution time of a ray tracer is spent in rayobject intersection code.
a) true
b) false
10) Snell’s law is used to calculate which one of the following rays?
a) start rays
b) shadow rays
c) reflection rays
d) transmission rays
11) True or false. You might as well recurse on reflection and transmission rays until you hit nothing. This always is bound to happen.
a) true
b) false
12) When you hit a surface in ray tracing, generally shadow rays are tested against all objects in a scene. If these rays come back saying they hit an object in the scene, which of the following do you do?
a) add none of the light from that light source to the object
b) add only the ambient light from that light source to the object
c) add all EXCEPT the ambient light from that light source to the object (i.e. diffuse and specular)
d) add all components (i.e. ambient, diffuse and specular) from that light source to the object.
13) Which of the following Ray Tracing additions works to remove jaggies alone?
a) multisampling
b) jittering
14) In the Pixar short “Geri’s Game”, the character Geri was created using which of the following techniques?
a) Fractals
b) Bump mapping
c) Environment mapping
d) CatmullClark Subdivision Surfaces
15) In the Pixar short “Geri’s Game”, the trees in the background were created using which of the following techniques?
a) Fractals
b) Bump mapping
c) Environment mapping
d) CatmullClark Subdivision Surfaces
16) In the Pixar short “Geri’s Game”, Geri’s glasses seemed to bend the light as it passed through. Which of the following techniques was used?
a) Fractals
b) Bump mapping
c) Environment mapping
d) CatmullClark Subdivision Surfaces
For questions 1720. Given a triangle with the following vertices, please solve for the equation of the plane it lies on (Ax + By + Cz + D). (Please note that the normal of the plane can go in either of two directions. Only one is offered in the following answers, so if you don’t see your answer, try the negative of it! And don’t forget to normalize your result.)
v1 = (0, 0, 2*sqrt(3))
v2 = (0, 2*sqrt(3), 0)
v3 = (2*sqrt(3), 0, 0)
17) What is A?
a) 0
b) 1/sqrt(3)
c) 1/sqrt(2)
d) 1
18) What is B?
a) 0
b) 1/sqrt(3)
c) 1/sqrt(2)
d) 1
19) What is C?
a) 0
b) 1/sqrt(3)
c) 1/sqrt(2)
d) 1
20) What is D?
a) 0
b) 1
c) 2
d) 3
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