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CS609 GDB No.1 Solution & Discussion Due Date: February 19, 2016

CS609 - System Programming GDB No.1 Solution Fall 2015 Due Date: February 19, 2016

A Graded Discussion Board for System Programming (CS609) will be opened on Thursday 18 February, 2016 and it will be closed on Friday 19 February, 2016.

 

Discussion Topic

A physical smallest storage unit on a hard disk is termed as a sector and number of sectors collectively form a cluster.  Storing a file’s contents into a continuous series of sectors on a hard disk is considered as the best way of storing, as in this way the file’s contents can be easily accessed, so, the size of cluster is very important.

In view of the above, you are required to answer of the following:

Should we increase or decrease the number of sectors in cluster for effective file handling in hard disks?

Note: You have to provide at least two proper reasons to support your answer in either case by keeping the cost and capacity factors of current hard disks in your mind.


Read the following instructions carefully before sending your comments:

 

  1. GDB will have weight-age of 5% of your total subject marks.
  2. Your discussion must be based on logical facts.
  3. You should post your comments on the Graded Discussion Board & not on the Regular MDB. Both will run parallel to each other during the time specified above.
  4. Your comments should be relevant to the topic i.e. clear and concise (Maximum 4-5 lines answer).
  5. Books, websites and other reading material may be consulted before posting your comments. (Do not copy the material as it is.)
  6. No extra time will be given for discussion.
  7. You cannot participate in the discussion after the due date or through e-mail.

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We are here with you hands in hands to facilitate your learning and do not appreciate the idea of copying or replicating solutions.

A sector, being the smallest physical storage unit on the disk, is almost always 512 bytes in size because 512 is a power of 2 (2 to the power of 9). The number 2 is used because there are two states in the most basic of computer languages — on and off.

Each disk sector is labelled using the factory track-positioning data. Sector identification data is written to the area immediately before the contents of the sector and identifies the starting address of the sector.

The optimal method of storing a file on a disk is in a contiguous series, i.e. all data in a stream stored end-to-end in a single line. As many files are larger than 512 bytes, it is up to the file system to allocate sectors to store the file's data. For example, if the file size is 800 bytes, two 512 k sectors are allocated for the file.

A cluster can consist of one or more consecutive sectors. The number of sectors is always an exponent of 2. A cluster could consist of 1 sector (2^0), or, more frequently, 8 sectors (2^3). The only odd number a of sectors a cluster could consist of is 1. It could not be 5 sectors or an even number that is not an exponent of 2. It would not be 10 sectors, but could be 8 or 16 sectors.

They are called clusters because the space is reserved for the data contents. This process protects the stored data from being over-written. Later, if data is appended to the file and its size grows to 1600 bytes, another two clusters are allocated, storing the entire file within four clusters.

unused areas on the disk.

Most disks used in personal computers today rotate at a constant angular velocity. The tracks near the outside of the disk are less densely populated with data than the tracks near the center of the disk. Thus, a fixed amount of data can be read in a constant period of time, even though the speed of the disk surface is faster on the tracks located further away from the center of the disk.

Modern disks reserve one side of one platter for track positioning information, which is written to the disk at the factory during disk assembly.

It is not available to the operating system. The disk controller uses this information to fine tune the head locations when the heads move to another location on the disk. When a side contains the track position information, that side cannot be used for data. Thus, a disk assembly containing two platters has three sides that are available for data.

Cluster size, however, is not a predetermined size, but rather is determined by the size of the disk volume itself, with small volumes (disk sizes) resulting in smaller clusters, and larger volumes (disk sizes) using larger cluster sizes. For the most part, a cluster ranges in size from 4 sectors or 2,048 bytes to 64 sectors or 32,768 bytes. You should be aware that you may, on some occasions, find 128-sector clusters in use at 65,536 bytes per cluster, as well as some floppy disks with smaller clusters that is usual at just 1 sector per cluster. In all cases, the sectors in a cluster are continuous, therefore each cluster is a continuous block of space on the disk.

A sector is the smallest addressable unit of a hard disk. A cluster is a fixed number of contiguous sectors (but not necessarily physically contiguous). To a certain extent, you can decide how many sectors are in a cluster. All files are allocated space in clusters of sectors using a file allocation table (FAT). 

A cluster, in the context of a hard disk, is a group of sectors within a disk and is the grouping by which disk files are organized. A cluster is larger than a sector, and most files fill many clusters of disk space. The hard drive is able to find all the clusters on a disk because each cluster possesses its own ID.

Should we increase or decrease the number of sectors in cluster for effective file handling in hard disks?
yes or no 

I think Answer is No

yr mujy samj nhi aaraha poch kia hy ,jb ky cluster size very karta hy hard disk ky size py 

koe to help kre yes or no

plzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz solution share kryn ,,,,,,,,,,,, time is vry short...

no h answer but reason to btyn na

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