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Cs609 midterm subjective (22 lectures)

Question:

What is head in terms of hard disk drive?

Answer:

Head is a device through which we can read or write data on the surface of disk.


Question:

What is the advantage of using large cluster size?

Answer:

By using large cluster, seek time will be reduced.


Question:

What are maximum possible entries in FAT12?

Answer:

In FAT12 we can have 2^12=4096 entries.


Question:

What are maximum possible entries in FAT16?

Answer:

In FAT16 we can have 2^16=65536 entries.


Question:

What is mirroring?

Answer:

Mirroring means update all the copies of FAT at a same time. As we have number of copies of FAT.

Question:

What is meant by lost chains of clusters?

Answer:

Lost chains are chains in FAT which apparently don’t belong to any file.


Question:

What is meant by computer viruses?

Answer:

Viruses are special programs having ability to embed themselves in system resources and there on propagate them.


Question:

What are different types of computer viruses?

Answer:

Partition Table Virus Boot Sector Virus File Viruses


Question:

How computer virus can be detected?

Answer:

We can detect virus by searching their signature in memory or executable files. Signature is a part of virus code that is unique for that particular virus only and hence can be used to identify the Virus. To find a virus this code should be searched in memory and in files. If match is found then the system is infected.


Question:

What are three different states of computer virus?

Answer:

Dormant State Activation State Infection State


 

 

Question:

What is paging?

Answer:

In paging we divide the process into fixed size pages and only few of them can be loaded anywhere in the memory.


Question:

What is the difference between Isolated I/O and Memory Mapped I/O?

Answer:

In case of Isolated I/O, I/O ports are used to hold data temporary while sending/receiving the data to/from the I/O device. If the similar function is performed using a dedicated part of main memory then the I/O operation is memory mapped.


Question:

What is reentrant procedure?

Answer:

If values within the registers are unchanged on return of a function as compared to the values which were stored in registers on entry into the procedures then the procedure is called reentrant procedure.


Question:

Why hardware interrupts are non preemptive?

Answer:

The reason for this non-preemptive can be understood by the example illustrated as below. Let’s first consider that the hardware interrupts are preemptive for argument sake. If a character ‘A’ is input a H/W interrupt will occur to process it, while this interrupt is being processed another character is input say ‘B’ in case the interrupts have been preemptive the previous instance will be preempted and another instance for the H/W interrupt call will be generated, and similarly consider another character is input ‘C’ and the same happened for this input as well. In this case the character first to be fully processed and received will be ‘C’ and then ‘B’ will be processed and then ‘A’. So the sequence of input will change to CBA while the correct sequence would be ABC.


Question:

What is the advantage of parallel communication?

Answer:

Parallel communication is much faster, but is only economically feasible for shorter distances.


 

 

Question:

What are different types of serial communication?

Answer:

There are two types of serial communication. Synchronous Communication Asynchronous Communication


Question:

What are the advantages and disadvantages of serial communication?

Answer:

The advantage of serial communication is less cost and its disadvantage is that the speed of transmission is reduced.


Question:

What is null modem?

Answer:

Modem is generally used to send/receive data to/from an analog telephone. If data is to be transferred from one computer to another through some media which can carry digital data then the modem can be eliminated and the UART on both computers can be interconnected. Such arrangement is called a NULL modem.


Question:

What is real time clock?

Answer:

Real time clock is a device incorporated into the PC to update time even if the computer is off. It has the characteristics which enables it to update time even if the computer is off.


Question:

What is DMA?

Answer:

DMA is a device which can acquire complete control of the buses and hence can be used to transfer data directly from port to memory or vice versa. Transferring data like this can prove faster because a transfer will consume 2 bus cycles if it is performed using the processor. So in this approach the processor is bypasses and its cycles are stolen and are used by the DMA controller.


 

 

Question:

What is rotational delay?

Answer:

While accessing a selected block the time required by the disk to rotate to the specified sector is called rotational delay


Question:

What is seek time?

Answer:

While accessing a selected block time required by the head to reach the particular track/cylinder is called seek time.


Question:

What is access time?

Answer:

The accumulative time that is required to access the selected block is called access time Access time includes the delay required by disk rotation as well as head movement.


Question:

What is the difference between LBA and LSN address?

Answer:

LSN is also indexed like LBA the only difference is that LBA is the address relative to the start of physical drive (i.e. absolute), whereas LSN address is the address from the start of logical partition i.e. relative.


Question:

What is the purpose of file control block?

Answer:

Control information about files is maintained in a data structure called the File control block (FCB). The FCB for each file is created and stored in the disk.

Question:

What does LBA stands for?

Answer:

Logical block addressing


Question:

What does LSN stands for?

Answer:

Logical sector number


Question:

What's the reason, why the upper four bits are ignored in the FAT 32?

Answer:

The upper 4 bits are stated by Microsoft as being reserved and might have a special meaning in future FAT32 implementations.


Question:

How deleted files are recovered?

Answer:

The contents can be recovered by placing a valid file name character in place of E5 and then recovering the chain of clusters in FAT. If somehow the clusters used by deleted file have been overwritten by some other file, it can not be recovered.


Question:

What is DPB and what is difference between DPB and BPB?

Answer:

BIOS parameter block is a data structure maintained by DOS in the boot block for each drive. Whereas DPB is an internal data structure of DOS and resides in main memory. Information in DPB is derived from BPB.

Question:

What is boot block?

Answer:

A dedicated block usually at the beginning (first block on first track) of a storage medium that holds special data used to start a system. Boot block contains some code and data. It is executed at the booting time.


Question:

Is it necessary to remember all the bytes attributes (from exam point of view) of corresponding FAT12, FAT16, and FAT32?

Answer:

In case of large or complicated structures, hint or its details will be given to you. But you need to understand them well and you have to understand their usage. You need to remember important registers their values. Like it will not be mentioned that service number will be stored in AH register.


Question:

What is the difference between push, pushf, pushfd and pop, popf, popfd?

Answer:

Push transfers bits of EFLAGS onto the stack. PUSHF saves a 16 bit value while PUSHFD saves a 32 bit value onto the stack. This action can be reversed through POPF or POPFD instructions.


Question:

What is the difference between logical address and physical address?

Answer:

Logical address is the address at which a memory location appears to reside from the perspective of an executing application program. This may be different from the physical address due to the operation of a memory management unit (MMU) between the CPU and the memory bus. Physical memory may be mapped to different logical addresses for various purposes. For example, the same physical memory may appear at two logical addresses and if accessed by the program at one address, data will pass through the processor cache whereas if it is accessed at the other address, it will bypass the cache. Physical address, also real address, or binary address, is the memory address that is electronically (in the form of binary number) presented on the computer address bus circuitry in order to enable the data bus to access a particular storage cell of main memory.


Question:

What is meant by BCD?

Answer:

Binary-coded decimal (BCD) is an encoding for decimal numbers in which each digit is represented by its own binary sequence. Its main virtue is that it allows easy conversion to decimal digits for printing or display and faster decimal calculations.


Question:

From where I can download the setup of BorlandC?

Answer:

You can download borlandc from download section of CS609 from your VULMS account.


Question:

What is the purpose of using LPT ports?

Answer:

LPT (line print terminal) is the usual designation for a parallel port connection to a printer or other device on a personal computer. Most PCs come with one or two LPT connections designated as LPT1 and LPT2. Some systems support a third, LPT3. Whatever the number, LPT1 is the usual default. You can add a parallel port for a second printer or other device by buying and adding a parallel port adapter card to your computer. An LPT port can be used for an input device such as QuickCam, a video camera.


Question:

Why in 32 bit addressing, accessing speed is fast if the addresses are multiples of 4 and slow if odd?

Answer:

As you know when we have 32 bit data bus we can transfer 4 bytes in single bus cycle. So for this purpose address should be a multiple of 4. If it is odd then you may need more than 1 bus cycle to transfer 4 bytes, which automatically reduce the speed.


Question:

What is the method to get interrupt vector from interrupt vector table?

Answer:

We’ll multiply interrupt number by 4.


Question:

What are different methods to avoid loading redundant copies of TSR program?

Answer:

Use global variables as flag Use a memory area as a flag which is global to all programs e.g. IVT.


 

 

Question:

What is block transfer mode of DMA?

Answer:

In block transfer mode entire block is transferred on each trigger. This transfer halts the CPU, and will transfer each memory location one at a time. This mode disables the module when the transfer is complete. During the transfer, the bus remains under the control of the DMA controller, so the CPU cannot access the bus.


Question:

What is synchronous serial I/O?

Answer:

Synchronous communication occurs when sender and receiver share a common signal pulse. This common signal pulse helps to synchronize their actions. For example, the sender always sends the next bit over the line immediately prior to a new clock pulse and the receiver knows that when the clock pulse occurs it can now retrieve this bit. Sender and receiver are therefore "synchronized". So a timing signal is required to identify the start and end of a bit in synchronous communication.


Question:

What does IDE stands for?

Answer:

IDE stand for integrated drive electronics.

Question:

Explain DMA mode register?

Answer:

As its name suggests, the mode register determines a channel's operating mode. You can specify if the next DMA transfer will happen as a single transfer, a block transfer, or a demand transfer. It also specifies if the channel is to cascade two DMA controllers. In most cases you won't have to change this later setting since this happens when the computer is booted.


Question:

Explain DMA mask register?

Answer:

There are two mask registers. They are used to either turn off or reactivate a channel. If a DMA channel is to be deactivated, the preferred option is to turn off the channel.


 

 

thanks

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