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MCQ was mostly moaz file.

subjective

1  In NTFS, where the backups of boot block are stored and why?

2  Find the root directory sector. Where reserved sector = 1 and sector per FAT = 9. Use appropriate assumption where needed?

3  Which file system keeps the backup of its boot block?

4  How Accessing NTFS volume in DOS?

5  How to recover a Deleted Files?

6  Structure of Partitioning Table

7  primary  partitioning

8  Write the functionality of abs read and abs write?

9  From where, in partition table’s data part we can check the drive is bootable or not.
10  Write the anatomy of NTFS ?

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Replies to This Discussion

Today my CS609 PAPER

 

What is difference b/w Primary and extended Partition?

LBA and CHS address of the MBR.

 Major enhancements on FAT 32 comparing with FAT 12 and FAT 16?

Which file system keeps the backup of its boot block?

Recovery of deleted contents of file Steps

Structure of Partitioning Table

How can we read/write the disk block when LSN is given?

Why we convert cluster number to sector number

How contents of small and large files are managed in MFT?

Advantages and disadvantages of FAT32

suppose we read the contents of Drive parameter block and get the following information .
Number of reserved blocks=2
Number of blocks in FAT= 7
Number of blocks in root directory=32
Find the number of systems blocks .make the appropriate assumptions when needed.
Read more at http://vustudents.ning.com/forum/topics/today-paper?groupUrl=cs609s...

is ka ans bta do koi :(

mcqs were brand new zero meter 4 me ,, only 7,8 from past paper

Write down the procedure to convert a cluster number into sector number? Write down some advantage and disadvantage of FAT32?
How can we recover the deleted contents of file? Explain each step of recovery in detail.
Why it is not feasible to calculate FSInfo block information again and again in FAT32? How contents of small and large files are managed in MFT?
What is the CHS and LBA address of MBR?
Write down the structure of data part of partitioning table?

  Allah mian bachay sb ko ameen 

fari sis 3,4,5 ka ans kia hai

Question:In DOS practically we can store 64 blocks per cluster, you are required to calculate the size of that cluster?

Q (8) How many maximum toot directly entries are possible in FAT12, FACT16??(3)

 Q (9) Write down structure past partition??(5) 

someone please answer these questions

sameena answer of fari questn 3,4,5 are

How can we recover the deleted contents of file? Explain each step of recovery in detail. 
Ans:
*When a file is deleted it is marked as 0xE5 at the start of file entry, but the contents of file still
remain there on the disk.
*The contents can be recovered by placing a valid file name, the character in place of E5,
recovering the chain of file.
*The clusters which are used by deleted files if over written by other files then it can be
recovered.

question:Why it is not feasible to calculate FSInfo block information again and again in FAT32?
Answer:

In the FAT32 there is a special reserved block called FSInfo sector. The block contains some information required by the operating system while cluster allocation/deallocation to files. In FAT12 and 16 this information is calculated when ever required. This calculation at the time of allocation is not feasible in FAT32 as the size of FAT32 is very large and such calculations will consume lots of time, so to save time this information is stored in the FSInfo block and is updated at the time of allocation/deallocation.

Question:How contents of small and large files are managed in MFT?
Answer:

There is an entry for each file in the MFT. There can be difference in the way a file is managed depending upon the size of the file.

plz or log b shair kr dain papers r mcqs kahn sa aa rrya hain

Held on 30-08-2015 CS609_System Programming Spring2015 Final Term

Q. 41 when we talk about FAT32, what is the size of FSInfo block? (2 marks)

Q. 42 LSN of FSInfor can be found from -------? (2 marks)

Q. 43 what of the size of each entry in root directory? (2 marks)

Q. 44 If temp = LBA % (heads_per_cylinder * sectors_per_track) then write formulae for head and sector using CHS address scheme. (2 marks)

Q. 45 Is LSN = 0 and LBA = 0 are same or not? Why or why not? (3 marks)

Q. 46 Why it is not feasible to calculate FSInfo block information again and again in FAT32? (3 marks)

Q. 47 In NTFS, where the backups of boot block are stored and why? (3 marks)

Q. 48 How many root directory entries are possible FAT12 and FAT16? (3 marks)

Q. 49 Elaborate the structure of data part in partition table. (5 marks)

Q. 50 Write down procedure to convert a cluster number into sector number? (5 marks)

Q. 51 Write some advantages and disadvantages of FAT32 (5 marks)

Q. 52 How can we recover the contents of deleted files?  (5 marks)

1 question of 3 marks and 2 questions of 5 marks from moaaz final term file and about 25 MCQ also from past moaaz final term

Remember me in your prayers!

Assalam-o-alaikum
Held on 30-08-2015 CS609_System Programming Spring2015 Final Term
1 question of 3 marks and 2 questions of 5 marks from moaaz final term file and about 25 MCQ also from past moaaz final term
Remember me in your prayers!
See attached file

Attachments:

Find the root directory sector. Where reserved sector = 1 and sector per FAT = 9. Use appropriate assumption where needed?
Answer:

Root DIR Sector: reserved sectors +2 * (size of FAT) = 1 + 2 * 9 = 19
How Accessing NTFS volume in DOS?

Answer:

 NTFS volume cannot be accessed in DOS using DOS based function like absread( ) etc.
• DOS device drivers does not understand the NTFS data structures like MFT etc.
• If NTFS volume is accessed in DOS, it will fire the error of Invalid Media.

Structure of Partitioning Table?

Answer:

Total size of Partition Table is 512 bytes.
First 446 bytes contains code which loads the boot block of active partition and is executed at Boot Time.
Rest of the 66 bytes is the Data part.
Last two bytes of the Data part is the Partition table signature.

How to recover a Deleted Files?

Answer:

The contents can be recovered by placing a valid file name, character in place of E5 and then recovering the chain of file in FAT.
If somehow the clusters used by deleted file have been overwritten by some other file, it cannot be recovered.

In NTFS, where the backups of boot block are stored and why?
Answer:

The NTFS "Backup Boot Sector" isn't really part of the NTFS Volume; it's actually stored in a 
sector immediately following the last sector of the Volume, which makes an NTFS Volume's 
partition size 1 sector larger than its Volume size!

Write the functionality of abs read and abs write?

Answer:

abs read( )
is used to read a block given its LSN
abs write( )
is used to write a block given its LSN
absread(int drive, int nsects, long lsec, void *buffer);
abswrite(int drive, int nsects, long lsec, void *buffer);

 Write the anatomy of NTFS ?

Answer:

In NTFS based system. The FAT and root 
Directory has been replaced by the MFT. It will generally have two copies the other copy 
will be a mirror image of the original. Rests of the blocks are reserved for user data. In the 
middle of the volume is a copy of the first 16 MTF record which are very important to the 
system.

From where, in partition table’s data part we can check the drive is bootable or not.
Answer:

In the data part of partition table there are 16 byte code for each partition the first byte out of these 16 bytes 
decide whether it is a bootable drive or not if value stored in this byte is 80h than it is a boot device and if zero 
than it is not a boot device.

Which file system keeps the backup of its boot block?

Answer:

jmp code part
OSName
BIOS
Parameter Block
codepart:
Q (1) Write down the highest capacity of disc using IDE and extended BIOS function?? (2)

The highest capacity of disk can be accessed using bios functions is •63x16x1024x512= 504 MB approx.

Q (2) How larger file content can be managed using Fat?? (2)

 Larger files would be comprised of numerous clusters.

The first Cluster # can be read from FCB for rest of the Cluster, a chain is maintained within the FAT. As large files would be composed of many clusters the first Cluster number is obtained from FCB and the subsequent clusters can be obtained from FAT by using the previous cluster Number to obtain the next cluster number and so on

Q (3) when we talk about FAT32, what is the size of FS info bock?? (2)

On a FAT32 volume, the FAT can be a large data structure, unlike on FAT16 where it is limited to a maximum of 128K worth of sectors and FAT12 where it is limited to a maximum of 6K Worth of sectors. FS Info block contains information required at the time of allocation/de-allocation to the file. Size of FAT 32 is huge at allocation/de-allocation time so calculating these values is not feasible, therefore these are stored in FS Info block.

Q (4) LSN of Fs info block can be found from (2)

LSN of Fs info block can be found from FAT

Q (5) Write down major enhancement in FAT32 comparing FAT12, Fat16 (3)

In the FAT32 there is a special reserved block called FSInfo sector. The block contains some information required by the operating system while cluster allocation/deallocation to files. In FAT12 and 16 this information is calculated when ever required. This calculation at the time of allocation is not feasible in FAT32 as the size of FAT32 is very large and such calculations will consume lots of time, so to save time this information is stored in the FSInfo block and is updated at the time of allocation/deallocation.

Q(6) in which storage media head touches the surface of disc once in which it does not and why it is so?? (3)

The head is touching the surface of floppy disk which rotates at a low speed of 300 RPM.

•The head is not touching the surface of hard disk which run at high speeds up to 9600 RPM but is at a few microns distance from the surface

Q (7) why it is not feasible to calculate FS info block info again and again FAT32?? (3)

This calculation at the time of allocation is not feasible in FAT32 as the size of FAT32 is very large and such calculations will consume lots of time, so to save time this information is stored in the FSInfo block and is updated at the time of allocation/deallocation

Q (8) How many maximum root directly entries are possible in FAT12, FACT16??(3)

Answer: FAT12 and FAT16 media typically uses 512 root directory entries.

Q (10) Write down so advantages and disadvantages of FAT32?? (5)

Advantages

FAT32 supports disk partitions as large as 2 Terabytes. FAT16 only supports partitions up to 2 gigabytes.

It wastes much less disk space on large partitions, since the minimum cluster size remains amere 4K for partitions under 8GB.

Disadvantages

FAT32 is not compatible with DOS, pre-OSR2 Windows 95, and Windows NT 4.0 and below.

One cannot convert a FAT16 partition to FAT32 unless one re-partitions. Third party tools (e.g., Partition Magic), however, are available that can do this.

FAT32 does not allow compression.

FAT32 is not compatible with older disk management software, motherboards and BIOSes.

May be slightly slower than FAT16.

What is difference b/w Primary and extended Partition?

Partition defined in the MBR (Master Boot Record) is primary partition.

• Each Primary Partition contains information about its respective O.S.

• However if only one O.S. is to be installed then extended partitions.

The extended partition may again be divided into a number of partitions, information about further partitions will be kept in extended partition table which will be the first physical block within extended partition (i.e. it will not the first block of primary partition.). Moreover there can be extended partitions within extended partitions and such that in then end there are number of logical partitions this can go on till the last drive number in DOS.

LBA and CHS address of the MBR.

Sec = 1 or LBA = 0

Partition Table at CHS = 001 is also called MBR (Master Boot Record).

 Major enhancements on FAT 32 comparing with FAT 12 and FAT 16?

The major difference between FAT 16 and FAT 32 is of course the FAT size. FAT32 evidently will contain more entries and can hence manage a very large disk whereas FAT16 can manage a space of 2 GB maximum practically.

Which file system keeps the backup of its boot block?

Anatomy of a FAT based file system keeps the backup of its boot block.

Recovery of deleted contents of file Steps

Two task should be performed to undelete a file.

- Replacing the 0xE5 entry in FCB by a valid file name character.

-- placing the appropriate values in FAT for representation of file cluster chain.

How can we read/write the disk block when LSN is given?

If the LSN address is known the absread() function can be used to read a block and abswrite() can be used to write on it as described

absread( ) is used to read a block given its LSN

abswrite( ) is used to write a block given its LSN

absread(int drive, int nsects, long lsec, void *buffer);

abswrite(int drive, int nsects, long lsec, void *buffer);

Why we convert cluster number to sector number

To access the block within cluster using BIOS services the cluster number should be converted into LSN (Logical Sector Number). All the system calls use the LSN address.

All the system calls use the LSN address. Cluster number should be converted into LSN to access the blocks within the cluster. The user data area is divided into clusters. The first cluster in user data area is numbered 2 in a FAT based systems. A cluster is not the same as block and also there are no system calls available which use the cluster number.

All the system calls use the LSN address. If the cluster number is known it should be converted into LSN to access the blocks within the cluster. Moreover all the information about file management uses the cluster number rather than the LSN for simplicity and for the purpose of managing large disk space

How contents of small and large files are managed in MFT?

There is an entry for each file in the MFT. There can be difference in the way a file is managed depending upon the size of the file.

Write down the structure of data part of partitioning table?

Ans:

*The data part of the partitioning table contains information about four different partitions for

different kinds of OS.

*Every partition information piece is 16 bytes wide.

*The last two bytes at the end of the partition the data part is the partition table signature.

*The value of partition table signature should be AA55 indicate that the code part have valid

code for execution.
Which file system keeps the backup of its boot block? 2marks
Ans:
FAT32 File System keeps the backup of its boot block.
What are computer viruses? 2marks
Ans:
A computer virus is a malware program, when it is executed, it replicates by inserting copies of
itself into other computer programs, data files, the boot sector of the hard drive. When this
replication succeeds the affected areas are then said to be "infected". This small program called
computer virus.
Absread() and abswrite() functions are used for? 2marks
Ans:
Absread( ) function is used to read a block LSN is given.
Abswrite( ) function is used to write a block given its LSN.
What is the diffrence between sectors and tracks? 2marks
Ans:
The difference between sectors and tracks is that tracks are the circular division of the disk where
sectors are longitudinal division of the disk.
It means that the track is a single ring of data on one side of a disk and tracks are divided into
several numbered divisions known as sectors.
Explain the usage of lower three bits (0,1 and 2) in DMA Mask-1 register. 3marks
Ans:
The lower bits 0 and 1 contain the channel number.
The lower bit 2 is set if the channel to be masked.
How many maximum root directory entries are possible in FAT12 and FAT16? 3marks
Ans:
FAT12 and FAT16 media typically uses 512 root directory entries.
Why it is not feasible to calculate FSInfo block information again and again FAT32? 3marks
Ans:
FSInfo block is a special reserved block. This block has some information required by OS for
cluster allocation and deallocation to files. This calculation is not feasible in FAT 32 because the
size of FAT32 is very large. As this calculation will consumes lot of time.
That is why it is not feasible to calculate FSInfo block information again and again FAT32.
How cross references of clusters can be detected? 3marks
Ans:
A cluster is called cross reference if it lie in more than one file chain. It can be detected by
traversing through out the chain of files and then marking the cluster number while traversal.
Find the root directory sector. Where reserved sectors=1 and sector per FAT=9. Used appropriate assumption where needed. 5marks
Ans:
Root directory sector can find by this formula Reserved Sectors + 2 * (size of FAT)
So,
Root DIR Sector = Reserved Sectors + 2 * (size of FAT) = 1 + 2 * 9 = 19
How can we recover the deleted contents of file? Explain each step of recovery in detail. 5marks
Ans:

*When a file is deleted it is marked as 0xE5 at the start of file entry, but the contents of file still
remain there on the disk.
*The contents can be recovered by placing a valid file name, the character in place of E5,
recovering the chain of file.
*The clusters which are used by deleted files if over written by other files then it can be
recovered.
How descriptor describes a memory segment and what are the attributes of memory segment?5marks
ANS:
Descriptor describes a memory segment as: The descriptor describes a Memory Segment by
storing the attributes related to memory segment.
The attributes of memory segment: The attributes of memory segment are base address, it length
and access rights.
Write down the structure of data part of partitioning table? 5marks
Ans:
*The data part of the partitioning table contains information about four different partitions for
different kinds of OS.
*Every partition information piece is 16 bytes wide.
*The last two bytes at the end of the partition the data part is the partition table signature.
*The value of partition table signature should be AA55 indicate that the code part have valid
code for execution.
70% mcq’s from moaz file and 30% new

How descriptor describes a memory segment and what are the attributes of memory segment?

A Descriptor describes a Memory Segment by storing attributes related to a Memory Segment. Significant attributes of a Memory Segment can be its base (starting) address, it length or limit and its access rights

Some subjective from old papers.

2. Which control information PSP contains?

It contains control information like DTA (Disk Transfer Area) and command line parameters.
7. Define followings terms.
1. Heads:
A device called a head reads and writes data in a hard drive.
2. Sectors:
sectors are longitudinal division of the disk
3. Tracks
: tracks are the circular division of the disk
10. How Scan disk identify bad sectors using surface scan?

• It attempts to write a block.

• After write it reads back the block contents.

• Performs the CRC test on data read back.

• If there is an error then the data on that block is not stable the cluster of that block should be marked bad.

• The cluster is marked bad by placing the appropriate code for bad cluster so that they may not be allocated to any file,
1: Write the anatomy of NTFS ?

Answer:

In NTFS based system. The FAT and root

Directory has been replaced by the MFT. It will generally have two copies the other copy

will be a mirror image of the original. Rests of the blocks are reserved for user data. In the

middle of the volume is a copy of the first 16 MTF record which are very important to the

system.

2: In NTFS, where the backups of boot block are stored and why? 3 Marks

Answer:

The NTFS "Backup Boot Sector" isn't really part of the NTFS Volume; it's actually stored in a sector immediately following the last sector of the Volume, which makes an NTFS Volume's partition size 1 sector larger than its Volume size!

Calculate the sector no for the following

I C H

We have the following info blocks per cluster = 8 ., first user block number = 20

Answer:

Sector No. = (Clust_no – 2)* Blocks per Clust + First User Block #

Sector No. = (2)* 8 +20=36

4: How Accessing NTFS volume in DOS?

Answer:

• NTFS volume cannot be accessed in DOS using DOS based function like absread( ) etc.

• DOS device drivers does not understand the NTFS data structures like MFT etc.

• If NTFS volume is accessed in DOS, it will fire the error of Invalid Media.

How to recover a Deleted Files?

Answer:

• The contents can be recovered by placing a valid file name, character in place of E5 and then recovering the chain of file in FAT.

• If somehow the clusters used by deleted file have been overwritten by some other file, it cannot be recovered.

Structure of Partitioning Table

Answer:

• Total size of Partition Table is 512 bytes.

• First 446 bytes contains code which loads the boot block of active partition and is executed at Boot Time.

• Rest of the 66 bytes is the Data part.

• Last two bytes of the Data part is the Partition table signature.

Mathematical translation for LBA translation?

Answer:

LBA address = (C * H’ +H)* S’ + S – 1

Where

C = Selected cylinder number

H’ = No. of heads

H = Selected head number

S’=Maximum Sector number

S= Selected Sector number

Write down procedure to convert a cluster number into sector number

Answer:-

NTFS simply the following formula will be used to translate the sector number into

cluster number. Sector # = Cluster # * Sector Per Cluster

What is usage of cd. and cd..

Answer:

 

Q1) suppose we read the contents of Drive parameter block and get the following information . 
Number of reserved blocks=2 
Number of blocks in FAT= 7 
Number of blocks in root directory=32 
Find the number of systems blocks .make the appropriate assumptions when needed.

Answer:

Q. 41 when we talk about FAT32, what is the size of FSInfo block? (2 marks)

Answer: On a FAT32 volume, the FAT can be a large data structure, unlike on FAT16 where it is limited to a maximum of 128K worth of sectors and FAT12 where it is limited to a maximum of 6K worth of sectors.
Q. 42 LSN of FSInfor can be found from -------? (2 marks)

Answer: LSN of FSINfo can be found from FAT(file Allocation Table).
Q. 43 what of the size of each entry in root directory? (2 marks)Answer:
The Root Directory is a series of entries describing files.Each entry is 32 bytes

Q. 44 If temp = LBA % (heads_per_cylinder * sectors_per_track) then write formulae for head and sector using CHS address scheme. (2 marks)

• Conversely LBA address can be translated into

CHS address

cylinder = LBA / (heads_per_cylinder *

sectors_per_track)

temp = LBA % (heads_per_cylinder *

sectors_per_track)

head = temp / sectors_per_track

sector = temp % sectors_per_track + 1
Q. 45 Is LSN = 0 and LBA = 0 are same or not? Why or why not? (3 marks)

Answer: LBA = 0 is not the same as LSN=0. The LBA=0 block is the first block on disk. Whereas each logical partition has LSN=0 block which is the first block in logical drive and is not necessarily the first block on physical drive.

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