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I am Sharing my Yesterday's PAPer. And, attaching  important files for preparation!

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Cs610 today's paper!
Total 52 questions, 40 McQs and 12 Subjective questions 
70% McQs from my file lolz  (that file which I have shared on this group )
I have taken screen shots of subjective part 
Questions of 2 marks!

Q1 During transmission of the data from source to destination in a network of 50 computers, some packets contain errors. in this situation , which field of ip data gram header will indicate about errors..?

Q2. Which types of protocols are used to exchange internal and external routing information in autonomous groups? Just write the names

Q3. When you have a large network then why sequential approach is not suitable for address resolution?

Q4. Which protocol is capable of buffering the outgoing and incoming data in both direction?

Questions of 3 marks

Q1. IT engineers wants to build four physical networks to connect with internet without using web netting . If he has three different public IP addresses for these networks, can he assign one IP address to two different networks due to shortage of IP address ? Support your answer with reason.

Q2. Tcp/IP support different of address resolution algorithm in a real environment . Write their names.

Q3. suppose an Organisation has multiple local area computer networks that are connected with each other's through routers and RIP is used to manage routing information . You are required to write three main drawbacks of using RIP.

Question of 5 marks 
Q.tcp's widely used because TCP connections deliver the data from one end to other end in real .so why TCP connections are called virtual connections? Give at least three reasons .

Q. Suppose ABC university has different heterogenous computer networks where fragmentation technique is used to solve the problem of varried networks. How does it work with different MTU sizes data gram ? Justify your answer with at least five solid reasons.

Q.suppose a security agency has adopted TCP in its computer network for more reliability. Which process is used by TCP to establish reliable connection ? Explain the process by giving all steps involved in this process.

Q. Suppose an organization has more than one autonomous system where EGP is used to exchange routing information between networks. Justify with reasons why EGP does not use routing metrics? Briefly explain with an example 
Good luck!



Mid Term Files!


Some Solved Mcqs!

1) Formats Of PAckets = Internet layer
2) The address __________ identifies the physical network to which the computer is attached, while the _______ identifies an individual computer on that network.
prefix , suffix (Page 85)

3) Whenever it handles a packet, IP software needs to separate the destination address into a _________ and __________► prefix, suffix (Page 87)

4) Mapping between a protocol address and a hardware address is called Address Resolution. ►True (Page 93)

5) To reduce network traffic, ARP software extracts and saves the information from a response so that it can be used for subsequent packets.ARP manages the Table as a cache short-term storage.

6) ARP is almost always used to bind a ___-bit IP address to a ___-bit Ethernet address.
► 32, 48 (Page 98)

7)Address mask defines how many bits of address are in prefix.

8) A datagram cannot be larger than ______ of a
network over which it is sent. IP header

9) ________ field of header indicates whether a datagram is a fragment or a complete datagram.

10) Base header is fixed size i.e. 40 octets

11) In IPv6 the type of address used for collection of computers with same prefix. Are known as ► Non of the given (Page 114)

12) Connectionless service, Message-Oriented protocol, best effort delivery service, arbitrary interaction and operating system independent are the characteristics of _____________
► UDP (Page 110)

application-to-application communication and end-to-end communication.

13) UDP and TCP are both_________ Transport (Page 101)

14) IPV6 addresses are 128 bits.

15) VBR is used ordinary data (not sure)

16) _______ protocols of TCP/IP layering model specify how to ensure reliable transfer.
► Transport Layer

17) the 3-way handshake used to create a connection, requires each end to
generate a random 32-bit sequence number.

18) ________identifies which application program on receiving computer should receive the data
► Destination Port

19) In TCP when a computer sends a segment, the__________ and _______ fields refer to incoming data.

20) A popular use of _____ is TCP Splicing. It interconnects two independent TCP
connections and performs segment rewriting. NAPT

21) A standard protocol exits that allows a host to inform a nearby router whenever the host needs to join or leave a particular multicast group IGMP

22) _______ is ideal in a situation where the group is small and all members are attached to contiguous Local Area Networks.
► Flood-and –Prune (Page 143)

23) Configuration-and-tunneling is ideal in a situation where the group is
geographically dispersed (i-e., has a few members at each site, with sites separated by
long distances).

24) _________ performs local multicast and uses IP-in-IP encapsulation to send
multicast datagrams from one site on the Internet to another. ► Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol

25) We use the term _______ to refer to a measure of the path that routing software use when choosing a route.

26) We use the term _______ to refer to a measure of the path that routing software use when choosing a route. ► routing (Computer Networks and Internets, page330)

My Friend's Cs610 PAper!

Q 41) network Administrator wants to assign three IP addresses on different host in anetwork each address starts with 0 bit write a class to which ip address is belong

Q)Network administrator wants to implement an ARP TECHNIque in which all hosts calculate their own tables. just enlist its name.

Q) which type of network address translation devices are available?

NAT translates the IP source address of the outgoing datagram to the global IP address. NAT also translates the destination address of incoming datagram to the private site address. (not sure) 

Q. which standard will be implented to improve the computational efficeny of table lookup method for address resolution? List the names and discuss each.

There are two standard implementations to improve computational efficiency:
• Hashing
• Direct indexing
Hashing is the transformation of a string of characters into a usually
shorter fixed-length value or a key that represents the original string. Hashing is used to
index and retrieve items in a database because it is faster to find the item using the shorter
hashed key than to find it using the original value. It is also used in many encryption
It is less generally known technique. It is possible only is cases where protocols
address are assigned from a compact range.

Q 48) consider an organization where alarge scale network is developed having both the static and dynamic environments for routin. How an administrator can handle these static and dynamic routings when some update or change is required ?
Ans: Routing can be handled by a static routing table built by the system administrator. Static tables do not dynamically adjust to changing network conditions, so each change in the table is made manually by the network administrator. Routing can be handled by a dynamic routing table that responds to changing network condition. Dynamic routing tables are built by routing protocols.

Q 52 ) Suppose XYZ compute networks in its different departments where UDP is preferred for communication. You are required to enlist any five characteristics of UDP:

UDP has the following characteristics.
• It is an end-to-end protocol or It provides application-to-application communication.
• It provides connectionless service.
• It is a Message-Oriented protocol.
• It uses best-effort delivery service.
• It follows arbitrary interaction.

Q 51)Suppose a manufacturing organization has a network of 400 computers. Network engineer is given a task to track a problem whenever it happens in the nework , to achieve this goal he prefers ICMP protocol. YOU are required to enlist any three types of error messages and two types of informational messages which are identified by internet control message protocol?
Answer: Internet control Message Protocol (ICMP) defines error and informational
messages. These are given as follows:
These are as follows:
• Source quench
• Time exceeded
• Destination unreachable
• Redirect
• Fragmentation required
These are as follows:
• Echo request/reply
• Address mask request /reply
• Router discovery
Q. why there is the need of autonomous system in internet?

Ans: An autonomous system can be thought of as a set of networks and routers under one
administrative authority. The term is flexible. It can be or correspond to an entire
intuition or a single corporation. It is needed because no routing protocol can scale to
entire Internet.

Q) For a single admininstrator territory to have its autonomy there is always a gateway and territories regularly exchange useful information with neighboring territories In this case which Gateway Protocol will you suggest? Write at least four characeristics of protocol suggested in this situation

Q: How an administrator can handle static and dynamic routing.
Ans: Routing can be handled by a static routing table built by the system administrator. Static tables do not  dynamically adjust to changing network conditions, so each change in the table is made manually by the  network administrator. Routing can be handled by a dynamic routing table that responds to changing network condition. Dynamic  routing tables are built by routing protocols.

Q: IS TCP/IP suit including ARP. What kind of messages are in ARP.
The TCP/IP protocol suite includes an Address Resolution Protocol (ARP).
The ARP standard defines two basic message types:
• Request
• Response

What is Extension Header in Ipv6?
Ans: Additional information is stored in optional extension headers, followed by data.

Q: What are multicast routing protocols? Give names of 5 of them
Ans: Several multicast protocols exist. Some of the proposed protocols are:

Which multicast protocol used in an organization …p 144 n 145
2 charctries of server…..p 146
Is BGP uses TCP?......p 138
Interior protocols names………p 137
3 marks
Typs of delay…….79
UDP characteristics with example ……..p 120 n 121
Y internet multi cast is difficlt………..p 142
Y reliability is imp n how we manage ths?......123 n r b agy pchy hy is se related data
5 marks waly sb cncptual que thy kch yad hn
Software engineer ks tra security manage krta hy kon sa method use kry ga.
TYPES OF messages in ICMP. 3 types of ERROR messages and 2 typs of INFORMATIONAL message likhni thin
Page 97 pe jo table given hy ADDRESS RESOLUTION SUMMRY wala wo b achi tra tyar kren 4 mcqs to usi mn se thy

1.What is standard type of frame in Ethernet?

802.3 define by IEEE

2. Why multicasting for internet is difficult?
Internet multicast routing is difficult because internet multicast allows arbitrary
computer to join multicast group at any time.It allows arbitrary member to leave
multicast group at any time. It also allows arbitrary computer to send message to a group (even if not a member)

what happed datagram larger than mtu?
Router detects datagram larger than network MTU and then it splits into pieces and each piece is smaller than outbound network MTU.

4. what mechanism is used by tcp?
TCP achieves reliability by mechanism of retransmission. An acknowledgement is used to verify that data has arrived successfully. If acknowledgement does not arrive, the previous data is retransmitted.

5. why EGP doesnt use routing metrics?

Although EGP is a dynamic routing protocol, it uses a very simple design. It does not use metrics and therefore cannot make true intelligent routing decisions We can’t use EGP in routing metric because EGP is used among autonomous systems. The destinations lie throughout Internet

6. types of multicasting protocol

7. where ICMP message should be sent?
ICMP message is sent in response to incoming datagrams with problems. ICMP
message is not sent for ICMP message.

8. Enlist 3 x error message and 2 x informational message shown by ICMP?
These are as follows:
• Source quench
• Time exceeded
• Destination unreachable
• Redirect
• Fragmentation required
These are as follows:
• Echo request/reply
• Address mask request /reply
• Router disco

9. which wiring scheme is suitable in limited area in low cost?
10 base T twist pair

10. EGP and IGP are the types of what?
It is used among routers within autonomous system. The destinations lie within IGP.
It is used among autonomous systems. The destinations lie throughout Internet

11. how one computer transmit the data in token ring topology?
When a computer waits to transmit it waitsa token. After transmission computer
transmits token on ring. Next computer is then ready to transmit, receive and then
12. Mention the qualities of server which differentiate it from the client? 
"It is a special-purpose, privileged program.
"It is dedicated to provide one service.
"It can handle multiple remote clients simultaneously.
"It invoked automatically when system boots.
"It executes forever.
"It needs powerful computerand operating system.
"It waits for client contact.
"It accepts requests from arbitrary clients.

1. Difference between UDP and TCp? 2 marks

2. Packet is independent of source address? Give two advantages of this property? 2 marks
It has several benefits. It allows fast and efficient routing. Packet switch need not hove complete information about all destinations in spite it just has next hop so reduces total information and increases dynamic robustness. The network can continue to function even if topology changes without notifying entire network.

3. Which NAT variant fails if application use IP Address instead of DOmain? 2 marks
Twice Nat
4. How computer transmit data on token ring network? 3 marks.

5. if company want to shift from IPV4 to IPV6 which type of IPV6 notation it use? 3 marks
Page 114 handout

6. How network admin handle static and dynamic routing on same network when a change or update is required? 3 marks
moaz file page2
7. Which gateway protocol is used by EGP? give its 2 Properties. ? 3 Marks
"Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
"It provides routing among autonomous systems (EGP).
"It provides policies to control routes advertised.
"It uses reliable transport (TCP).

8. In a shared network everybody want to get the data, which stretegy could be used to avoid conflict in Ethernet. 5 marks\
There is no central control management when computers transmit on Ethernet.
For this purpose the Ethernet employs CSMA to coordinate transmission among multiple attached computers.
CSMA is a coordination scheme that defines how to take turns using a shared cable.

Computer that detects a collision sends special signal to force all other interfaces to detect collision. Computer then waits for other to be idle before transmission. But if both computers wait for same length of time, frames will collide again. So the standard specifies maximum delay and both computers choose random delay, which is lesser. After waiting, computers use carrier sense to avoid subsequence collision. The computer with shorter delay will go first and other computer may transmit later.
9. Write down complete names of multicast routing protocols. 5 marks.

10. Which device is used when IP Address interact with global internet, Describe all steps.? 5 marks

NAT will be used page 128 hadout

Great effort Sam

Thanks for sharing 

but  SaM & 

Dear Fellows,

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