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ANS PG 328,353                                                                 

Software safety and hazard analysis [LEV95] are software quality assurance activities that focus on the identification and assessment of potential hazards that may affect software negatively and cause an entire system to fail. If hazards can be identified early in the software engineering process, software design features can be specified that will either eliminate or control potential hazards



Define the importance Human resource management in the terms of the Software Mangemet?

ANS    PG 40

Project Human Resource Management includes the processes required to make the most effective use of the people involved with the project. It includes all the project stakeholders—sponsors, customers, partners, and individual contributors. Following are some major processes:

Organizational Planning—identifying, documenting, and assigning project

roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships.

  • Staff Acquisition—getting the human resources needed assigned to and working on the project.
  • Team Development—developing individual and group competencies to enhance project performance.


These processes interact with each other and with the processes in the other

knowledge areas as well. Each process may involve effort from one or more

individuals or groups of individuals, based on the needs of the project.


 Define the Risk & Change Management Concepts ?

ANS PG 334


Risk analysis and management are a series of steps that help a software team to understand and manage uncertainty. Many problems can plague a software project. A risk is a potential problem - it might happen, it might not But regardless of the outcome, it's a really good idea to identify it, assess its probability of occurrence, estimate its impact, and establish a contingency plan should the problem actually occur. Any project can encounter uncertainties in the form of increased costs, schedule delays, and diminished qualities. Unless tackled, these uncertainties can lead to

major project disasters. The uncertainties encountered during project execution are the potential project risks. Every software project has to grapple with the new risks threatening information security along with the conventional risks, such as hardware failure, time and cost escalation, defects, or resource crunch.Risk can be defined as the possibility of loss. Risk arises due to the inability to achieve objectives within defined cost, schedule, and technical constraints. Risk management focuses the project manager’s attention on those portions of the project most likely to cause trouble and compromise participants’ win conditions. In other words, risk management is a set of actions that helps the project manager plan to deal with uncertain occurrences. It is through risk management that project managers assess risks and manage to reduce risks to an acceptable level.




 Explain the WBS?

ANS   PG 241

Work breakdown structure (WBS) is a technique to decompose the project for the purpose of management and control. It provides the framework for organizing and managing the work. The WBS is commonly used at the beginning of a project for defining project scope, organizing Gantt schedules and estimating costs It lives on, throughout the project, in the project schedule and often is the main path for reporting project costs.

WBS includes activities like management, procurement, installation, software development etc.Many of the WBS development tasks are derived from the development method that will be used, and from the design and architecture of the system. WBS is related to planning and scheduling a project .It is a functional decomposition of the tasks of the project.


Define the disadvantages of the SLOC?

ANS  PG 230

Despite being accurate in providing figures to calculate the effort required for a project, the SLOC technique has a drawback. The SLOC technique is language-dependent. The effort required to calculate source lines of code may not be the same for all languages. For example, to conceive and write 8 lines of code that accomplish a task in the assembly language may require 15 minutes. However, you may need only five

minutes to complete the same lines of code if it is written in Visual Basic

Define the Project scheduling?
ANS  PG 284

Software project scheduling is an activity that distributes estimated effort

across the planned project duration by allocating the effort to specific software engineering tasks. It is important to note, however, that the schedule evolves over time. During early stages of project planning, a macroscopic schedule is developed. This type of schedule identifies all major software engineering activities and the product functions to which they are applied. As the project gets under way, each entry on the macroscopic schedule is refined into a detailed schedule. Here specific software tasks (required to accomplish an activity) are identified and scheduled.




 Define the SQA Concept?

ANS PG 121

SQA is the process of evaluating the quality of a product and enforcing adherence to software product standards and procedures. It is an umbrella activity that ensures conformance to standards and procedures throughout the SDLC of a software product.


 Write the Over view about RISK REFINEMENT?

ANS PG 326

During early stages of project planning, a risk may be stated quite generally. As time passes and more is learned about the project and the risk, it may be possible to refine the risk into a set of more detailed risks, each somewhat easier to mitigate, monitor, and manage One way to do this is to represent the risk in condition-transition-consequence (CTC) II format [GLU94). That is, the risk is stated in the following form:

Given that <condition> then there is concern that (possibly) <consequence>.

Using the CTC format for the reuse risk noted in Section 6.4.2, we can write:

Given that all reusable software components must conform to specific design standards and that some do not conform, then there is concern that (possibly) only 70 percent of the planned reusable modules may actually be integrated into the as-built system, resulting in the need to custom engineer the remaining 30 percent of components

Draw the Product Orientation table According to the WBS?

ANS PG 253


 Define the Product risk ? 5 makrks
ANS PG 308

Product risks crop up in the form of changing requirements during product development. Incomplete and unclear requirements are a risk to the product during development.Similarly, problems in meeting design specifications can also be categorized as risk to product development. Risks could arise if the project deliverables or objectives are not clearly defined or if technical data is missing. The possibility of several alternatives at any given time during the project is also a cause of concern. If errors are not recognized during the design phase, they could turn into risks for the project. Similarly, risks could arise due to the size and complexity of the product or while achieving client acceptance of the product


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