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SEMESTER FALL 2015
DEVLOPMENT ECONOMICS (ECO501)
ASSIGNMENT NO. 01
DUE DATE: December 02, 2015
More than two centuries ago, the Reverend Thomas Malthus put forward a theory of the
relationship between population growth and economic development, which is influential
today. Writing in his 1798 Essay on the Principle of Population and drawing on the
concept of diminishing returns, Malthus postulated a universal tendency for the
population of a country, unless checked by dwindling food supplies, to grow at a
geometric rate, doubling every 30 to 40 years. At the same time, because of diminishing
returns to the fixed factor, land, food supplies could expand only at a roughly arithmetic
rate. In fact, as each member of the population would have less land to work, his or her
marginal contribution to food production would actually start to decline. Because the
growth in food supplies could not keep pace with the burgeoning population, per capita
incomes (defined in an agrarian society simply as per capita food production) would have
a tendency to fall so low as to lead to a stable population existing barely at or slightly
above the subsistence level. Malthus therefore contended that the only way to avoid this
condition of chronic low levels of living or absolute poverty was for people to control
their population. Hence we might regard Malthus, indirectly and inadvertently, as the
father of the modern birth control movement. Modern economists have given a name to
the Malthusian idea of a population inexorably forced to live at subsistence levels of
income. They have called it the low-level equilibrium population trap or, more simply,
the Malthusian population trap.
Being an economist, critically analyze the Malthusian theory of population. Was Malthus
right about the rate of growth of food production? What important factor for increasing
the level of output did Malthus overlook? Discuss in the light of industrial and
agricultural revolution in today’s developed nations.
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video lecture 10-11-12 for this assignment ................
yeh 2no links aap ko more clearly batae ga....aur aap critically bohut acha es link ko dakh ker likh saktay hai jawab
3rd point ki mjy smj ni aa ri... plz koi discuss kr skta????
seemi yeh unhi points me discuss ho jae ga kay chunkay dunya me aggricultural and industralization me taraki hoi to malthus ki theory puri nahi otarti kion kay insan nay technologies ko use kar kay food and production me izafa kia...jis tarah population bhari logo nay resources paida kia food kay etc
kia kise na assigment bana le hy ?share plz
can anyone guide me that it is fine if I arrange it in my own words?
MALTHUS THEORY OF POPULATION
Malthus offered his theory in following words : " By nature human food increases a slow arithmetical ratio, man himself increases in a quick geometrical ratio unless wants and vice stop him. "
Further he says that then the population increases then the means of subsistence it is checked by the nature.
IMPORTANT POINTS OF THEORY OF POPULATION
1. RATE OF POPULATION GROWTH :- According to this theory of population increases according the geometrical ratio.1,2,4,8,16,32.
2. INCREASES IN FOOD SUPPLY :- Due to the application of the law of diminishing return, supply can not increase according the rate of population growth. It increasing according the arithmetical progression i.e. 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8.
3. THE RATE OF POPULATIONS GROWTH IS FASTER THAN A FOOD SUPPLY :- Population increases according to geometrical progression i.e 1,2,4,8,16 and 32.
4. SUBSISTENCE LEVEL :- Malthus conclude that real wages can not rise much above the subsistence level because increase in the wages will lead to an increase in the supply of workers due to rise in population. If wages fall below this level , the surplus labour supply will die due to starvation.
Malthus also suggests measure in this regard. These are two types :
1. PREVENTIVE CHECKS : - These are applied by man.
i) Late Marriages :- He says that late marriages are good for human health and character. Every man should have only as many children as he can easily support.
ii) Family Planning Programmed.
iii) Opening Health Clinics.
iv) Use of Contraceptive Medicines.
2. POSITIVE CHECKS OF NATURE :- To keep balance between food supply and population nature reduces the population according the food supply. So Malthus appeals to the people to keep population equal to the means of subsistence.
CRITICISM ON MALTHUS THEORY OF POPULATION
This theory has been criticized on the following grounds :
1. NO HISTORICAL WITNESS :- According the Marshall in the past population has not increased in geometrical progression.
2. IMPROVEMENT IN TECHNOLOGY : An improvement in technology has improved the standard of living of the people, in spite of a rise in population.
3. INCREASE IN FOOD PRODUCTION :- Due to industrial revolution, food production rate is higher than rate of population growth in some countries.
4. INCREASE IN LABOUR :- An increase in population increases in supply of labour which is an important factor for the utilization of resources.
5. TOTAL RESOURCES IGNORED :- Malthus only compares the population only with food supply and ignores the other resources, like minerals and technology.
6. RAPID FALL IN BIRTH RATE :- In the advanced countries, birth rate is falling than the rate of production.
7. IMPORT OF FOOD :- Today food shortage problem can be solved by importing the food from other countries.
8. PESSIMISTIC APPROACH :- Malthus is hopeless about the future of human beings and it is not favorable for economic development.
9. LAW OF DIMINISHING RETURN :- The law of diminishing return can be prevented which Malthus ignores.
10. WRONG ASSUMPTION :- Malthus says that increase in the means of subsistence will increase the population, which is not true.
yes it's fine.basically we just share over point of view about Malthus theory,and knowledge we can understand.
its basically malthus theory of population....pehlay eski theory ko explain kare phir criticize kar day.....na yeh aaj kay dor me apply ho sakti hai aur wo uskay apna zamana kay lia thi...phir na he usnay around kay countries me dakhi jaha aisa nahi ho raha tha matlab uski theory kay ulat ho raha tha....sirf aaj kay dor me india aisa mulk hai jo uski theory per pura otar raha hai