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Edu101 assignment #1
Fall 2016
Q 2: Compare modernism and post modernism philosophy in educational context?

Differences between Modernism and Postmodernism
- Modernism is a momentous transmission from traditional to modern methods, whereas postmodernism is more a cultural paradigm that goes ahead from new methods to more advanced ones.- Modernism is a historical, political event and intellectual, whereas postmodernism is philosophical and discursive period that to kind is involved in crisis of the modernity.-Changes in modernism essence, means modernism emphasis on cultural separation, whereas postmodernism is a process based on cultural Entidifferezierung.
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 - Modernism is kind of cultural formulation, but postmodernisms a kind of format of the formulation of culture.- Modernism is a kinds of the oral and cultural essence, whereas postmodernism is a kind of the shape cultural formulation.-Social stratification essence, mean modernism producers and audience of the modernism and postmodernism should seeks in social class and stratifications that on the spot appearance and fall.- Modernism focuses on figurative nature (relative form an devolving form), but postmodernism is anti-figure (closed form and actual form).- Modernism is looking on the basis of design, project and purpose, whereas postmodernism is a kind of play in social life, which is not reliant on base specific purpose. It is based more on chance and accident.-Modernism acts on the basis of hierarchy principles, but postmodernism includes process, performance and events.- Modernism focuses on structuralism principles like objectivity, certainty, totality, fixedness and centralization in concepts, but postmodernism has focused on structuralism principles such as diffuseness, pluralism, partiality, disintegration, relativism and individualism.- Modernism gives attention to the root and depth of concepts and subjects, whereas postmodernism has its attention on surface appearances and on superficial aspects of concepts and phenomenon
Modernism vs. Postmodernism
The term "Postmodern" begins to make sense if you understand what "Modernism" refers to. In this case, "Modernism" usually refers to Neo-Classical, Enlightenment assumptions concerning the role reason, or rationality, or scientific reasoning, play in guiding our understanding of the human condition and, in extreme cases of Postmodern theory, nature itself.  Postmodernism basically challenges those basic assumptions.

Modernism (or Enlightenment Humanism) Postmodernism
Reason and science provide accurate, objective, reliable foundation of “knowledge” Reason and science are Ideologies in the Nietzschean or Marxist sense: simply myths created by man.
Reason transcends and exists independently of our existential, historical, cultural contexts; it is universal and “true”. There is no universal, objective means of judging any given concept as “true”; ALL judgments of truth exist within a cultural context (cultural relativism).
Reason and human independence/freedom are inherently linked; just laws conform to the dictates of Reason. We hold these truths to be self evident… The application of pure Reason (predicated Cartesian Radical Skepticism) disproves the universal nature of a priori  human freedom. Independence/Freedom are Western Ideologies (just like reason and science) used to colonize foreign cultures (ie Belgian Congo, Viet Nam, Iraq, Afghanistan) or subjugate women.
Because it is universal, Reason can help us overcome all conflicts. Nope. Science is no more universal than is any other culture’s definition of “truth”.
Science is the paradigm of all true knowledge. Nope.
Language is transparent; a one to one relationship between signifier (word) and signified (thing or concept). Language is fluid and arbitrary and/or rooted in Power/Knowledge relations. Meaning is fluid and arbitrary. Meaning is “messy”.
Reason will lead to universal truths all cultures will embrace. “…no eternal truths, no universal human experience, no universal human rights, overriding narrative of human progress” (Faigley, 8).
In sum: Truth exists independent of human consciousness and can be known thru the application of Reason.
 
All Enlightenment conclusions lead from this assumption. In sum: Truth may exist independent of human consciousness but there is no objective means of nailing it down.
 
All Postmodern conclusions lead from this assumption.
Connotations: The application of Reason leads to a progressive movement toward civilization, democracy, freedom, scientific advancement.
 
The Enlightenment is prescriptive: a means of building a better society. Connotations:  There is no objective means upon which to predicate morality and right/just governance.
 
Postmodern theory is descriptive of the human condition; it describes an impasse in philosophy and social relations.
Modernist Feminism:  Women are oppressed by patriarchy and can use Reason to achieve both independence and regain their “authentic selves”. Postmodern Feminism: The categories male/female, masculine/feminine are themselves culturally constructed and/or Ideology. Gender roles are culturally relative in all cultures and contexts.
Existence of stable, coherent “self”, independent of culture and society. The “self” is a myth and largely a composite of one’s social experiences and cultural contexts. The "self" is an Ideology.

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