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EDU101 Past Final Temp Papers Solved

EDU101 Foundation of Education

Final Term paper fall 2015

My own paper:

Paper pattern:

MCQS 10                  Subjective Questions 16

Question 1:

What are the Piaget’s stages of cognitive development?

See another notes

Question 2:

What is the perspective of functional theories and conflict theories?

: 128 – Sociological Foundations of Education: Theoretical Perspectives

-          Functional Theories: stresses the interdependence of the social system, how well the parts are integrated with each other.

-          Emile Durkheim: education in all societies of critical importance in creating moral unity, social cohesion, and harmony . . . moral values are the foundations of society

Topic: 129 - Functionalists

-          Assume that consensus is the normal state in society and conflict represents a breakdown of shared values.

-          Educational reform is to create structures, programs and curricula that are technically advanced, rational, and encourage social unity.

Topic: 130 – Conflict Theories-1

-          Social order is based on the ability of dominant groups imposing their will on subordinate groups through force, cooptation, and manipulation.

-          The glue of society is economic, political, cultural, and military power.

-          Ideologies legitimate inequality and unequal distribution of goods as inevitable outcome of biology or history.

-          Whereas functionalists emphasize cohesion, conflict theorists, emphasize struggle in explaining social order.

-          Karl Marks is the intellectual founder of conflict theories.

Topic: 131 - Conflict Theories-2

-          The “Achievement Ideology” of schools disguises the real power struggle which correspond to the power struggles of the large society.

-          Educational expansion best explained by status group struggle . . . educational credentials such as college diplomas primarily status symbols rather than indicators of actual achievement to secure more advantageous places in employment and social structure.

“Cultural capital” passed on by families and schools . . . schools pass on social identities that either help or hinder life chances

Question 3:

What were the goals of education in Arabic society?

Educational Goals:

-          Cultivate religious commitment to Islamic beliefs,

Expertise in mathematics, medicine and science

Question 4:

Why the examination system of national education policy was highlighted as unsatisfactory?

-          The existing system of examination has been thought in the report as unsatisfactory because it does not measure the ability of students.

-          It therefore needs to be reformed and restructured.

Question 5:

What facilities were provided to the primary teachers in national education policy 1998?

-          Existing facilities to be availed fully and new facilities to be provided.

-          Media to be fully used for promotion of elementary education.

-          Uprooting all types of social injustice, work will be done for equal chances of education for all.

-          Promoting the elementary education, through formal and informal resources will be done.

-          Terms and conditions of service for teachers will be made better and employment of teacher will be on merit basis; it will be tried to appoint teachers near their residences as much as possible.

-          Poor students will be provided books and notebooks free of cost at the beginning of the educational year.

-          In the elementary classes, slates and wooden planks will be introduced again.

-           Subjects like cleanliness of atmosphere, use of computer, population planning, moral values and basic health will be included in the curriculum.

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Replies to This Discussion

Question 6:

On which fields the Ibn Rashid provided new ideas?

He put many good and new ideas not only in the field of Philosophy but also in Medicine and Islamic Legislation.

-          His great works:

  • Kulliyah fit-tibb: 16 volumes in general medicine
  • Foundations of Philosophy (Malbadil Falsafah)

Question 7:

What effects does schooling on the individuals?

Schooling should have three effects on individuals

-          Knowledge

-          Attitudes

-          Employment

Education and mobility, the “civil religion” . . . education amount vs. route . . . for the middle class, education may be linked to mobility but or the rich and the poor, it may have very little to do with it.

Inside the Schools:

-          Schools from an organization point of view . . . effects of school size.

-          Curriculum expresses culture.

-          Tracking in public schools, rarely in private schools.

Question 8:

What were the goals of the education who were the students and which teaching methods were used in the Egyptian period?

Educational Goals:

-          To prepare priest according to scribe for the empire

Students:

Males of upper class

Instructional Methods:

-          Memorization and copying texts

Curriculum:

-          Religious or Technical texts

Agents:

-          Priest and scribes

Influence on education:

-          Restriction on educational controls to priest elites

Question 9:

What facilities were highlighted in the national commission 1959 to be provided to the primary teachers?

  1. Teachers of Primary Education should be provided some professional training.
  2. Refresher courses be arranged now and then for the teachers.
  3. The service condition of teachers be made better.
  4. Rewards in cash or certificates be given to teachers showing better working.
  5. For the first three classes of primary education, female teachers be preferred to male teachers.

Residence arrangement for female teachers be made

Question 10:

Why is necessary to eliminate the gender discrimination in education?

Write five characteristics and beliefs of humanistic approach?

-          Meaning: intellect distinguishes humans from animals

-          What is reality? Humans have potential and innate goodness

-          Nature of Humanness: Autonomy, dignity, and freedom are sacred.

-          Educational aim: Individual potentiality; self-actualization

-          Educational Methods: Facilitation, self-direction; team work

-          Educational content: Any curriculum is a vehicle for meeting needs

-          Main criticism: Important societal goals can be missed

-          Key proponents: Maslow, Knowles, Elias/Merriam, Tough

Question 13:

What were the views of Al-farabi about education?

  1. Al-Frabi (870-950 AD)

-          Major contribution was in philosophy, Logic and Sociology

His great works:

  • Kitab al-ihsa al ulum: explains the classification and principles of basic science.
  • Kitab al-Musiqa: a book on music

Information or Knowledge or Much More…..

-          Our condition: “we are drowning in information and starving for knowledge.”

Hikmah is an abundant and huge gift of Allah. It shows us how to use the knowledge

Question 14:

What was the role of the Sufis to spreading the Islamic education?

-          Muslim Sufis played an important role in spreading Islamic education in India.

-          Many Scholars wrote famous books.

-          They focused on religious and secular education.

-          Scholars and religious saints from other countries like Afghanistan, Iran, Turkistan, Arabia, Syria and Egypt kept visiting India. Many decided to stay back and established their own Madarasas.

Question 15:

Write any five recommendation of nation education policy 1978?

  1. To create a love and affinity among public and students of Pakistan for Pakistan.
  2. To create a sense among students that being Pakistani, they are members of Islamic world at the international level.
  3. To prepare such citizens well equipped with the Ideology of Pakistan.
  4. To build the character of people and individuals in the light of Quran and Hadith.
  5. To give equal chance of education to all without any discrimination of religion and to give minorities the facility for their culture and religion.
  6. To promote the abilities of individuals through proper education.

To provide basic education to all citizens without having a consideration of their cast and sect

Questions 16:

Write the strategies by which characters should be gendered by text?

-          A character’s sex is indicted by the grammatical gender of the pronoun, proper noun or common noun. These different designations also define a character’s social identity and immediately place the character in the public or private sphere; therefore, language (grammar and vocabulary) plays a vital role here.

-          Various types of designations can be combined:

v  A pronoun: he/she

v  A first name: male/female

v  A surname

v  A family relationship:

v  Another relationship: friend, neighbour, colleague

v  A profession/occupation

Q.What is existentialism ? 

Existentialism:

-          Reality is subjective, within the individual. Individual rather than external standards.

Key Proponents:

-          Sartre

-          Kierkegaard

Eclecticism:

-          There is a way of dealing with all the various models.

-          Eclecticism is not a philosophical system or model, but rather is the synthesizing and personal interpretation of various models to draw out the best components for you.

Thus, you pull the best from various models in an effort to build your own statement of personal philosophy
Q. what are the effect of schooling on individuals?

Schooling should have three effects on individuals

-          Knowledge

-          Attitudes

-          Employment

Education and mobility, the “civil religion” . . . education amount vs. route . . . for the middle class, education may be linked to mobility but or the rich and the poor, it may have very little to do with it.


Q.What are the goals, who are the students and what are the methods of Renaissances period?

Educational Goals:

-          Cultivate Humanist experts in Greek, and Latin classes; prepare people to serve dynastic leaders

Students:

-          Male children of aristocracy and upper classes, ages 7-20

Instructional Methods:

-          Memorization and translation, and analysis of Greek, and Roman classes, classical literature, poetry and art.

Curriculum:

-          Latin and Greek classical literature, poetry and art

Agents:

-          Classical Humanists educators and schools like Lycee, gymnasium and Latin school,

Influence on Education:

-          Emphasis on literary knowledge, excellence and style in classical literature,

-          two track system of schools


  1. How french revolution changed eductaion?

The French revolution brought about a major change in education. At the time of French revolution throughout Europe and England, there was a change. That change was clearly seen in technology. Technology focused on the development of new machines and items coming out of the mechanical world. Those changes also influence what is needed to be done in education. As technology produces new machinery, people need to know how to operate these.

-          In England and all over Europe after the French Revolution, there is an expansion of technology such as machinery that works with petrol and steam.

-          Education was influenced by these changes.

-          Factory workers came about.

-          In this period, systems such as, Socialism, Communism, Liberalism, and Capitalism started gaining popularity.

-          The free thinking brought by the French Revolution combined with industrial Revolution caused education to take shape in this direction.

-          Education was needed by large masses.

New Philosophies came about: Materialism, Socialism, Positivism etc
Q. defines Ontological in ur own words?

-          The only ontological reality is God himself.

-          God is external and the universe and man’s existence is a reality but it is an apparent reality.

-          The creation of the universe and man is not a futile thing but it has an aim.


  1. Curriculum of primary education in 1959's policy?
  2. The curriculum should be according to the need and ability of the child.
  3. Practical and Planning methods be used for teaching children.
  4. National Language be taught to all children.
  5. A sense for the dignity of manual work be created.
  6. A passion for patriotism be created in children.
  7. National Anthem be sung in the morning assembly and Pakistan flag be hoisted.


2 cognitive principals

-          Focuses information processing in relation to the total environment

Studies developmental stages, understanding, multiple forms of intelligence, problem solving, critical thinking, and creativity

4 Aristotle plato

Plato

-          Philosophy: Philosophical idealist, social conservation, added intuition

-          View of Human Nature: Humans can be classified on intellectual capabilities

Aristotle

-          Philosophy: Realists, views society based on realism and observation

-          View of Human Nature: Humans have the power of rationality to guide their conduct

5 Chinese

-          Prepare elites to govern the empire according to Confucian principles. (Here are three key terms in this goal: Elite means everybody was not meant to be educated. A common man did not receive any education, Secondly; they had to govern the empire. They had to be leaders and strong people up at the top and front. This was the sole purpose of giving education only to the elite. Another limitation was that the education these people got was limited to Confucian principles; only Confucius thought was transmitted to the next generation. Nothing new was added from the outside.)

Students:

-          Males of upper class

Instructional Methods:

-          Memorization and recitation

Curriculum:

-          Confucian Classics

Agents:

-          Government officials

Influence on Education:

-          Written examination for civil service

6 reformation period

Educational Goals:

-          Cultivate a commitment to a particular religious denomination, and general literacy

Students:

-          Boys and Girls ages 7-12 in vernacular schools,

-          Young men of upper class in humanist schools.

Instructional Methods:

-          Memorization drill, indoctrination, catechetical instruction in vernacular schools, translation and analysis of classical literature in humanistic schools

Curriculum:

-          Reading, writing, arithmetic, catechism, and rituals.

-          Latin and Greek theology

Agents:

-          Vernacular elementary school for general public,

-          Classical schools for upper class.

Influence on Education:

Commitment to universal education to provide literacy for everyone; origins of schools systems, dual track school system based on socio economic class and career goals

7 pragmatism teaher role

Role of Teacher (Topic: 34)

v  Applies democratic methods

v  Classroom is a community of learners

v  Teacher encourages, offer suggestions, questions and helps plan and implement the courses of study

v  Teacher is facilitator no authoritarian

v  Teacher writes curriculum and must have a command of several disciplines to create and implement curriculum
National Education policy 1978?

v  To create a love and affinity among public and students of Pakistan for Pakistan.

v  To create a sense among students that being Pakistani, they are members of Islamic world at the international level.

v  To prepare such citizens well equipped with the Ideology of Pakistan.

v  To build the character of people and individuals in the light of Quran and Hadith.

v  To give equal chance of education to all without any discrimination of religion and to give minorities the facility for their culture and religion.

v  To promote the abilities of individuals through proper education.

v  To provide basic education to all citizens without having a consideration of their cast and sect.

v  To create a passion and discipline in the new generation

v  To promote scientific, professional and technical education in the country


Difference btwn volunterism n determinism?

Individuals can take one of the two types of actions. In society, the reasons you behave in a particular way is because an external force makes you do it. For example, you could not pass the red signal; you have to stop because following the rules of presence of police makes you do it. This is known as “determinism” (Determined by external forces)

The other way is shaped by the individuals “Voluntarism”.  You behave in a particular way because that’s the way you know the right way to behave and this is known as voluntarism. You voluntarily behave in a particular manner not because an external force is demanding to behave in a particular way. Mostly if observed in a society, determinism takes the upper hand, most individuals behave in society because they know if they don’t the consequences will not be good.

Sociological perspective recognizes free will within the context of the power of external circumstances.

Role of teacher in islamic perspective?

v  Dealing with abstract notions through dialectic method and connecting analysis with action.

v  Active, posing questions, selecting materials and establishing an environment to ensure the desired outcomes.

v  A role model to be imitated by students.

National educational conference 1947?

Under the dynamic leadership foreside and vision of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, soon after the creation of Pakistan the first educational conference was held in Karachi in December 1947

  1. The preservation of Nazaria Pakistan
  2. Training for good citizenship
  3. Training for Democracy
  4. Urdu as Medium of Instruction
  5. Abolition of Literacy in the Country
  6. Primary Education compulsory for all
  7. Compulsory religious education
  8. Gradual abolition of English as Medium of Instruction
  9. Reorganization of Technical Education
  10. Promotion of National Unity

*scaffolding

Scaffolding: “role of teachers and others in supporting the learner’s development and providing support structures to get to the next stage or level.”

In an educational context, however, scaffolding is an instructional structure whereby the teacher models the desired learning strategy or task then gradually shifts responsibility to the students.

Scaffolding:

-          Provides support

-          Extends the range of what a learner can do

-          Allows the learner to accomplish tasks otherwise impossible

-          Used only when needed.


*Mughals era 

-          In their reign, art and literature flourished and made great progress.

-          Numerous books of foreign languages were translated into Persian.

-          Many biographies and historical events were written.

-          During this time, some famous scholars
*Egyptian period

Educational Goals:

-          To prepare priest according to scribe for the empire

Students:

Males of upper class

Instructional Methods:

-          Memorization and copying texts

Curriculum:

-          Religious or Technical texts

Agents:

-          Priest and scribes

Influence on education:

-          Restriction on educational controls to priest elites

-         
*classical condition

-          Eliciting an unconditioned response by using previously neutral stimuli.

-          Unconditioned stimuli create reflexes that are not “learned,” but are instinctual.

-          Neutral and unconditioned stimuli are introduced at the same time. Unconditioned stimuli are gradually removed, and the neutral stimuli elicit the same reflex
*zone of proximal development 

-          Vygotsky developed the theory of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)

-          The distance between where a learner is at developmentally on their own and where a learner could be with the help of a more knowledgeable other.

-          A more knowledgeable other can be an adult or a peer, helping a learner in this way is to scaffold their learning. Scaffolding occurs through the process of internalization… mediated by language

5 strong recommendation in 1978

-          Reduction in the amount allotted for education

-          Opening of new primary schools: It was planned in the policy to open 13,000 new primary schools and 5,000 new masjid schools but because of financial difficulties this target could not be achieved.

-          Less increase in number of students: It was necessary to increase the number of students at the primary stage to increase the literacy rate; the desired increase in the number of students could not be achieved and thus literacy rate could not be increased.

-          Less facilities for Teachers: It has been a sorrowful condition since Pakistan came into being that the teachers have not been given a status economically and socially to enable them to do their teaching work whole heartedly after being free from financial worries.

Example of positive and negative punishment.

Pre literate society.

relating to a society that has not developed a written language

.

Subject added in national education commission 1978.

Compulsory Teaching of Islamiat, Pakistan Studies and Arabic

-          In every sector of education, national and Islamic identity must be stressed.

-          At the intermediate level, teaching of Islamiat and Pakistan Studies was made compulsory.

-          Arabic language was also considered necessary being language of Quran and Hadith.

-          The cultural heritage of Muslims is also in Arabic language. So, it was decided to make it compulsory at middle stage and programs of Teaching Arabic started through Radio and TV.

What you know about the term inclusive education.

When every child is welcomed and valued regardless of ability or disability.

It means the doors to school, classroom and school activities are open to every child.

The focus is on giving every child the  help  he/she need to learn

Differences between cognitivist and behavioursm.what critics said about behaviorism. Behaviorism vs Cognitivism

Attribute

Behaviorism

Cognitivism

Behaviors

The end in themselves ---the only observable truth

Evidence pointing to brain activity --- learning

Activation of prior knowledge

Irrelevant

Essential

Teachers role

Provide stimulus

Prepare environment

How school serve as agent.

Sometimes ago, when we talked of literacy, we talked of the 3Rs only which was reading, writing and arithmetic. Those 3Rs have gone; focusing today on only those 3Rs will not help our students. Literacy today is more than simply being able to read, write and being able to do simple quantitative skills.  Today we talk off:

-          Cultural literacy

-          Scientific literacy

-          Computer literacy

-          Technological literacy

-          Electronic/media literacy

-          Information literacy

If all this literacy has to be taught, it has to come down to the school level. And therefore, schools have to be agents of change.

-          Dealing with diversity

-          Diversity of culture

-          Impact of globalization

-          Race, class, gender

Syed dynasty drawback:

Syed Dynasty (1414 - 1451)

-          This reign was categorized by lawlessness and disorder.

-          Most time was spent on repressing the revolts and thus art and literature suffered.

-          During the time of Mubarik Ali, some literary work was done. “Mubarik Shahi” was written during this time.

How do u use accommodation in your class.

-          Vary teaching methods

-          Projects for extra credit or in place of timed tests

-          Giving instructions one step at a time instead of all at once

-          Ask questions to get repeat of information to get repeat of information

-          Divide the class

-          Set up lessons

-          Change the learning goals

-          Create alternative activities

Urdu English divide in Pakistan. How Urdu suffers.

Maximum notification is from English and consider English is better for students that’s why suffer Urdu language in Arab and Chinese they prefer their local English and maximum communication made on their local language

French revolution:

 Industrialization

The French revolution brought about a major change in education. At the time of French revolution throughout Europe and England, there was a change. That change was clearly seen in technology. Technology focused on the development of new machines and items coming out of the mechanical world. Those changes also influence what is needed to be done in education. As technology produces new machinery, people need to know how to operate these.

-          In England and all over Europe after the French Revolution, there is an expansion of technology such as machinery that works with petrol and steam.

-          Education was influenced by these changes.

-          Factory workers came about.

-          In this period, systems such as, Socialism, Communism, Liberalism, and Capitalism started gaining popularity.

-          The free thinking brought by the French Revolution combined with industrial Revolution caused education to take shape in this direction.

-          Education was needed by large masses.

New Philosophies came about: Materialism, Socialism, Positivism etc

Describe law of readiness

  1. Law of Readiness:

-          Often misinterpreted as educational readiness

-          Deals with attitudes and focuses on “Why Should I do this?”

-          If nervous system is ready, conduction is satisfying and lack of conduction is annoying.

  1. Law of exercise:

-          Strength of connections is proportional to the frequency, duration and intensity of its occurrence.

-           Justifies drill, repetition and review.

-          Seen today in behavior modification and basic skill instruction.

  1. Law of Effect:

-          Responses that cause satisfaction strengthen connections and discomfort weakens connections.

Justifies use of rewards and punishments, especially Skinner’s Operant Model

How education transmitted in pre literature time..

writings in which expression and form, in connection with ideas of permanent and universal interest, are characteristic or essential features, as poetry, novels, history, biography, and essays.

According to environmental education, what are the basic rights of human?

-          . Right to health services (investment in environmental health will significantly reduce curative health cost)

-          Right to fresh air

-          Right to safe drinking water and sanitation

-          Right to food, education, shelter and security.

-          Enforcement of environmental law and institutional development

-          Decision makers sensitized to plan and implement friendly policies

-          Responsible media to raise right issues at the right time in a right manner and a right weightage

Research and development leading to environmental excellence and quality education

what was the educational philosophy of maria montessory.

What she did:

v  Psychiatrist Clinic at the University of Rome --- taught “difficult” children to read at a normal level.

v  1906 asked to start a progressive school for slum children of Italy --- Casa dei Bambini (Children’s House)

Why she was important?

v  Pioneer of child advocacy --- for exceptional children, low SES children.

v  Discuss Tyler and Taba’s Traditionsl vs. Progressive study (1920 ---- 30% HS)

 how are the characteristics are gendered through illustration.

-          The question of how to gender characters in illustrations is complex and calls for careful thought.

-          It is a matter of knowing which symbol to use to indicate male and female.

-          This must be resolved with reference to the cultural contexts while bearing in mind the gulf between tradition and modernity.

-          Choices may consistently convey bias, for example, if female characters are shown wearing traditional Pakistani garments while male characters wear western clothes, and so on.

what was the recommendation of commission for primary education(period not remembered....

may be 1959)

-          Many educational needs were identified.

-          To fulfil these needs various recommendations were presented.

-          When these recommendations were implemented by the government, a great help was found to harmonize the education system with the national objectives and modern trends of the time.

However, there were certain recommendations which were against the national temperament

11 what was the philosophy of IBN e SINA and how he participated in historical work.

IBN SINA (980–1037)
Ibn Sina (Avicenna), was a poet, music theorist, astronomer, and politician, but he was best known as a philosopher and as a medical doctor. From his autobiography we learn that he was born in an Ismailia family in Afghani, in the Persian region of Bukhara.
By the age of ten, he had completed the study of language and literature and memorized the Quran. He studied Greek logic and mathematics under his father’s friend al-Natili, a teacher and a prominent advocate of Isma_ili Shi_ism. However, he soon felt that his education and skills exceeded his teacher’s and he no longer needed him. By the age of sixteen, he had covered the various sciences and became a teacher and practitionerof medicine. Because of his fame as a doctor, he was called upon to treat the prince Nuh Ibn Mansur, who then gave him access to the princely library, which was rich in rare books. By eighteen, he was confident that he had mastered the sciences except for metaphysics. He read Aristotle’s metaphysics many times without understanding it until he came across al-Farabi’s interpretation of it. He spent his last years writing and practicing medicine in Isfahan, but owing to constant travel, insufficient sleep, and hard work, he fell sick and died. He was buried in Hamadha

13 what was the purpose of NTS.

14 what were the duties of university grant commission

University Grant Commission

A University Grants Commission be established with the following duties:

-          To hold communications with all universities

-          To determine the financial needs of the universities and to distribute the amount of grant.

-          To review the development plans of the universities

-          To plan to promote university education

what accommodation should be used while teach in special children.

-          They argue that special needs children require a type of “clinical care” that will never be possible in a free and least restricted environment of public school.

-          The students of public schools will not accept them and they may bully, hate and show aggressive behavior against children with special needs.

-          Deep in their minds they feel inclusive education is a threat to their jobs and future career.

-          They fear that in case the inclusive education is successfully implemented in Pakistan, they will be out of jobs.

what should be the attitude of teacher towards special children....

Firstly, they feel that they are not fully competent and supported for this major shift and it will be difficult to create a welcoming environment for children with special needs even if they are really willing to do it.

Secondly, the public school is already under furious criticism for its extremely low educational standards. The inclusion of special children will further deteriorate the quality of instruction and the school may collapse.

-          The students and parents will resist this shift

-          They fail to see the strength of inclusive education as a school improvement plan.

What is post modernism?

-          Postmodernism means literally ‘after the modern era’. The modern era was the time of certainty and stretched from the 18th century to the late 20th century.

-          Post modernists believe that this era was far more predictable than the times we live in today, e.g. jobs were for life and class was major source of identity.

-          Since around the 1970’s we have been living in times characterized by risk and diversity.

-          Consequently, this has had huge implications for education.

-          Continuation of modernist view

-          Does not mourn loss of history, self, religion, center

-          A term applied to all human sciences ---anthropology, psychology, architecture, history etc.

-          Reaction to modernism; systematic skepticism

-          Anti-foundational

Write the role of teacher and student under Realism and Essentialism?

Realism/essentialism

Role of Teacher

  • Having a social grounding in science, math and the humanities
  • Relying on test scores to place students (competency testing of students with various methods)
  • Readily adopting new technology
  • Enabling students to learn objective methods of evaluating the works above
  • Teacher’s responsibility is to teach skills and disciplined knowledge
  • Teacher should be competent in a specific subject matter

Teacher presenting ideas in a clear and consistent manner and demonstrating that there are definite ways to judge works of art, music, poetry and literature

The students:

-          Is there to listen and learn

Different between the curriculum of Idealist and Realist?

What is meant by the theory of Behaviorism?

-          Focuses on stimulus response and reinforcers

-          Studies conditioning, modifying or shaping behavior through reinforcement and rewards

What is meant by philosophical inquiry?

“Whenever people choose to embrace, if their choices are made in a logical, rational manner, they are engaged in the process of doing philosophy

Identify the type of conditioning i.e. classical conditioning or operant conditioning from example

below:

Your father gives you a credit card at the end of your first year in college because you did so well. As a result, your grades continue to get better in your second year.

Write an example of positive punishment and negative punishment from your daily life?
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