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EDU201 Learning Theories Assignment No 01 Fall 2019 Solution & Discussion

Q1: Define behaviorism approach of learning. How can a teacher use the operant conditioning in classroom instructions? Discuss each aspect with concrete examples. (2+8)


Q2: Discuss cognitivist approach of learning. As a secondary school teacher, how can you use Piaget’s stages of cognitive development for classroom teaching? (5+5) marks

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Q1: Define behaviorism approach of learning. How can a teacher use the operant conditioning in classroom instructions? Discuss each aspect with concrete examples. (2+8)

Q2: Discuss cognitivist approach of learning. As a secondary school teacher, how can you use Piaget’s stages of cognitive development for classroom teaching? (5+5) marks

Question No: 1

Define behaviorism approach of learning. How can a teacher use the operant conditioning in classroom instructions? Discuss each aspect with concrete examples.

Answer:

Behaviorism approach of learning:
Behaviorism is a learning theory that only focuses on objectively observable behaviors and discounts any independent activities of the mind. Behavior theorists define learning as nothing more than the acquisition of new behavior based on environment conditions.
This approach to learning is based on the idea that learners respond to stimuli in their environment. It focuses on different activities. It is very impressive activity for the students. It is very helpful for teacher.
The role of the learning facilitator, therefore, is to provide relevant and useful stimuli so that the learner responds to and gains the required knowledge or experience. Behavior learned from the experience. It is based on idea. Learning occurs by Repetition.
The Behaviorist approach to learning studied changes in behavior that are caused by a person’s direct experience of their environment, using the principles of classical and operant conditioning to explain them.
Behaviorism is the view that behavior should be explained by an observable experience not by mental process. For the behaviorist, behavior is everything that we do, both verbal and non verbal, a teacher explaining something, and soon.
The behavioral approach emphasizes the importance of children making connections between experience and behavior. It includes two views: Classical conditioning, Operant conditioning. It is very important for the children’s learning. It is very useful for students learning.

Operant Conditioning:

Operant Conditioning is a type of learning in which an individual’s behavior is modified by its consequences. In operant conditioning, the learner operates on the environment and receives a reward for certain behavior (operations). Eventually the bond between the operation (pressing the lever) and the reward stimulus (food) is established.
Operant is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. The operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequence for that behavior.
For example, when a lab rat presses a blue button, he receives a food pellet as a reward, but when he presses the red button he receives a mild electric shock. As a result he learns to press the blue button but avoid the red button.
But operant conditioning is not just something that place in experimental setting while training lab animals; it also plays a powerful role in everyday learning. Reinforcement and punishment take place almost every day in natural setting as well as more structured setting such as the classroom.

All teachers try to use it in the classroom because it is very helpful for the students.
Components of operant conditioning:
1. Punishment in operant conditioning:

Punishment is the presentation of an adverse event or outcome that a decrease in the behavior it follow. There are two kinds of punishment:
Positive punishment:
Sometimes referred to as punishment by application, presents an unfavorable event or outcome in order to weaken the response it follows.
Negative punishment:

It also knows as punishment by removal, occurs when a favorable event or outcome is removed after a behavior occurs.
2. Reinforcement Schedules:
3.
Reinforcement is not necessarily a straightforward process and is a number of factors that can influence how quickly and how well new things are learned. It is very effective for the students. They learn more through it. It is an important part of the life of the students.

Examples of the operant conditioning:

All teachers used it in the class room in different way. They get good results to use it in the classroom. These things proved helpful for the teachers in the classroom. Being a teacher I used it in the classroom to get excellent result.

For example most of the students are in the line appropriately and one or two students are misbehaving, the teacher will punish the two students who are misbehaving rather than praising the rest of the class for their appropriate behavior.

For example If a student does not do her/his homework, So, then a teacher give him/her a punishment. This is an example of a negative punishment in which a positive stimulus is taken away.

A teacher tells students that if they have perfect attendance all semester, then they do not have to take the final comprehensive exam. By removing an unpleasant stimulus (the final test) students are negatively reinforced to attend class regularly.

In the classroom the teacher gives a assignment. After do complete this assignment the student receive applause from the friends and all school teachers. These acts as a positive reinforce inspiring you to try out for best performance.
In some of these examples, the promise or possibility of rewards causes in behavior, but operant conditioning can also be used to decrease behavior. The removal of a desirable outcome or negative outcome application can be used to decrease or prevent undesirable behaviors.

Question No: 2

Discuss cognitive approach of learning. As a secondary school teacher, how can you use Piaget’s stages of cognitive development for classroom teaching?
Answer:

First of all I want to share a picture here related this questions. I think this is a best picture to describe the Piaget’s cognitive stages of development.

Cognitive approaches to learning:

Cognitive approaches to learning are concerned with how information is by learners. As its name implies the cognitive approach deals with mental processes like memory and problem solving. By emphasizing mental processes, it places itself in opposition to behaviorism, which largely ignores mental processes.

In cognitive approach of learning, all four skills are emphasized reading, writing, speaking and listening. Vocabulary is concerned important in the cognitive approach. It provides past-learned experiences based practice for new teaching practice.

Cognitive learning is a way of learning that helps students use their brains more effectively. This method of learning is active, constructive, and long-lasting. It encourages students to fully engage in the learning process so learning, thinking and remembering get easier.

Cognitive learning is not about memorization or repetition. It’s about developing true understanding; it’s about learning how to learn. I want to share a picture here about the Jean Piaget.

Piaget's theory of cognitive development:

Piaget's theory of cognitive development is a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligence. It was first created by the Swiss developmental psychologist Jean Piaget. The theory deals with the nature of knowledge itself and how humans gradually come to acquire, construct, and use it.

His theory focuses not only on understanding how children acquire knowledge, but also on understanding the nature of intelligence.1 Piaget’s stages are: Sensor motor stage: birth to 2 years. Preoperational stage: ages 2 to 7. Concrete operational stage: ages 7 to 11. Formal Operational stage 12 and up.

Piaget’s theory cognitive development has already been used to enhance classroom and the learning that takes place. For example, the notion of “discovery learning” stemmed from Piaget’s theory wherein children learn best through learning that allows active exploration. As a teacher I used it to get good results. This is very helpful for the students. Through this use we understand the student’s ability.

As a secondary school teacher, I used the Piaget’s stages of cognitive development in the classroom for best teaching because it is proved very helpful for students. For example, if the students are in the formal operational stage, they need manipulative to help them understand more abstract ideas. Thus the lesson plan should involve hands on activates that has concrete objects to aid understanding and enhance learning.

The curriculum is designed to teach students at the first stage and progressively teach new learning to change the schemas in order to move students through each stage. The teacher starts at the basics introducing a new subject and once the knowledge of that subject is mastered, they would create a schema.

Adult guidance rather than adult led, allowing children to take control of activities and learning. Through this working together to understand, problem solves and develops strategies. These stages are very useful for the students. As a teacher, I use this in the classroom to get good result. As a teacher, use concrete props and visual aids whenever possible. Make instructions relatively short, using actions as well as words. Give children a great deal of hands-on practice with the skills that serve as building blocks for more complex skills like reading comprehension.

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