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Learning Theories (EDU201)
Assignment 2 (Fall 2019)
Total Marks: 20
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• The file should be in Word document form, the font color should be preferably black and font size should be 12 Times New Roman.

Q No 1: Differentiate between “Collaborative Learning and Discovery Learning”. (10)

Q No 2: Write down any five challenges in using cooperative learning technique. (10)

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EDU201 Assignment No 02 Solution Fall 2019

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Learning Theories (EDU201)
Assignment 2 (Fall 2019)

Q No 1: Differentiate between “Collaborative Learning and Discovery Learning”. (10)
Collaborative Learning
Exposure to and an increase in understanding of diverse perspectives.
Preparation for real life social and employment situations.
Benefits of collaborative learning Benefits from small-group learning in a collaborative environment include:
Celebration of diversity.
Students learn to work with all types of people. During small-group interactions, they find many opportunities to reflect upon and reply to the diverse responses fellow learners bring to the questions raised. Small groups also allow students to add their perspectives to an issue based on their cultural differences. This exchange inevitably helps students to better understand other cultures and points of view. Acknowledgment of individual differences. When questions are raised, different students will have a variety of responses. Each of these can help the group create a product that reflects a wide range of perspectives and is thus more complete and comprehensive. Interpersonal development. Students learn to relate to their peers and other learners as they work together in group enterprises. This can be especially helpful for students who have difficulty with social skills. They can benefit from structured interactions with others actively involving students in learning. Each member has opportunities to contribute in small groups. Students are apt to take more ownership of their material and to think critically about related issues when they work as a team. More opportunities for personal feedback. Because there are more exchanges among students in small groups, students receive more personal feedback about their ideas and responses. This feedback is often not possible in large-group instruction, in which one or two students exchange ideas and the rest of the class listens. Advances in technology are making an increasing impact on educational curricula, learning materials and instructional practice Emphasis is placed on the interactions as common understandings are negotiated and developed across differences of knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Indeed, collaborative learning should thrive on these differences.
Motivation and confidence
to participate are clearly important if these benefits are to emerge, and interchanges that require question-answering and explanation, and are open to challenge and justification,

will require participants to assume a variety of functional roles. The conversational skills of a collaborative group committed to their teammates’ learning is compared to that of an unfocused, individual group. The results suggest that knowledge of student conversation and activity appears to be better to assess the quality of group interaction, furthering the possibility of a system that can support and enhance the group learning process. The broad objectives of this paper are as follows:
To study the influence of Collaborative learning & Individual learning on the achievement of English scores of undergraduate students.
To study the correlation between Learning Methodology and Achievement in English of undergraduate students.
Hypotheses of the Study
There is no significant difference between the achievement scores in English of undergraduate students using
Collaborative learning and individual learning.
There is no correlation between Learning Methodology and Achievement in English of undergraduate students.
Justification of the Study
The process of education is aimed at enhancing the academic performance of the students. Only a holistic approach can yield result to improve learning outcomes of the students. Although Academic performance is dependent on many variables like intelligence, socio economic status, personal characteristics, attitude, values, environment, teaching-learning techniques etc. The learning methodology adopted for teaching enhances and affects the achievement of the students. To optimize the educational opportunities, it is necessary to find out the relation between the teaching methodology and academic achievement and to what extend collaborative learning and individual learning influences the academic achievement in English so that the academic achievement of undergraduate students could be increased.
Discovery Learning
It is an active, hands-on style of learning where the student participates actively in the learning process rather than passively receiving knowledge as if he were an empty vessel to be filled by the instructor. It is an approach to instruction through which students interact with their environment by
exploring and manipulating objects, wrestling with questions and controversies, or performing experiments and is supported by the theories of learning and understanding from cognitive psychology and constructivist ideologies. Students are encouraged to think, ask questions, hypothesize, speculate, cooperate and collaborate with others and develop confidence in problem solving and in using what is in their own minds
. Some questions in my mind
Why would Discovery Learning come to the attention of educators in schools
and teacher preparation programs now, especially for consideration in the
science classroom?
? What are the main impediments to learning that teachers face in schools that Discovery Learning might address?
The most insipid problem facing schools today is the apathy or lack of
motivation in students. At some point in a student’s education the fire that is their
natural curiosity is doused by a curriculum or mode of teaching that is not
keeping their interest. A student certainly in the upper grades can often be heard
saying, ‘just tell me what you want me to know for the test and I will learn it’ with
no interest in the subject or what is really out there to learn. John Dewey wrote
extensively about the connection between interest and effort in education back in
the early 1900’s and what he said still rings true today. He said that things taught
at school should not be ‘made interesting’, but rather they should already be ‘of
interest’ to the students, thereby keeping apathy at bay and he noted that there is
a clear connection between interest, activity and satisfaction in learning. David
Suzuki reiterated Dewey’s concerns specifically about science instruction more
recently by saying, “That natural capacity to be excited when discovering things in the world around us is so precious and so easily extinguished that I think political posturing aboutgetting Canada into world-class science is a waste of time unless we devise ways to keep our most talented youngsters interested.”
This apathy can be attributed in part to a lack of connectedness to the real world of either today’s curriculum or in how that curriculum is addressed. If science in particular is presented as some long ago list of facts or something that does not affect the lives of students, then apathy is sure to bring a pall over the classroom. Concern for effective science instruction however is not new, as again, we read statements made by John Dewey in Science magazine in 1910 where he notes that, "Science teaching has suffered because science has been so frequently presented just as so much ready-made knowledge, so much subject-matter of fact and law, rather than as the effective method of inquiry into any subject-matter."
Fast forward one hundred years and a modern, ‘knowledge age’ society exists which is more in need of people who have a keen interest in science and the ability to inquire and problem solve as issues such as climate change, feeding an ever growing population and preventing pandemics, as disease after disease

Q No 2: Write down any five challenges in using cooperative learning technique. (10)
Theoretical framework: social interdependence
One of social psychology’s successes is the widespread acceptance of cooperative learning, with its underlying theory of social interdependence. The first article in this issue, The use of cooperative procedures in teacher education and professional development, has been contributed by eminent scholars in the application of social interdependence theory to educational settings, David and Roger Johnson. It provides a valuable explication of social interdependence theory and its relationship to competition and cooperation and to cooperative-learning pedagogy. In this volume, articles by Buchs et al., Jolliffe and Snaith, and Stevahn and McGuire each describe work that is anchored firmly in social interdependence theory. The Johnsons developed a five-element approach to cooperative learning, as an application of social interdependence theory, which has become a standard of implementation for many in education. Stevahn and McGuire’s article provides an extended example of the five-element approach in a post-baccalaureate, teacher-education programme. In their article, the Johnsons emphasise the importance of process over content in the education of teachers

Theoretical framework: status characteristics and expectation states
Inequalities in the structure of schools and classrooms have, over time, received much attention in discussions about tracking and ability grouping and in research that highlights achievement differences between males and females and amongst different ethnic groups and social classes. Sociologist; while agreeing that the general effectiveness of cooperative learning was well established, also observed that, when pupils are placed into groups and asked to work together, these groups can become a microcosm of the problems associated with the inequalities of the school and community. She brought a sociological lens to small-group interactions to understand the conditions that are necessary for small-group learning to be both productive and equitable. Cohen identified the problem as one of status. She observed that pupils implicitly rated themselves and others according to characteristics they perceived as valuable, and that these ratings contributed to their expectations for the competence of themselves and their peers. Cohen learned that these expectations determined both access to high-quality learning materials and equitable interactions amongst pupils. Two articles in this volume, one by which focuses on pre- and in-service teachers and another Baker and Clark which focuses on challenges of diversity in tertiary education, draw directly on Cohen’s work.

Challenge and innovation
Implementing cooperative learning in classrooms has always been a challenge. Any educator who has ever used small groups for learning knows that merely placing pupils in groups and telling them to work together does not ensure quality cooperation or learning. Even establishing positive social interdependence, structuring a shared goal and providing some instruction in ‘how’ to work together are unlikely to be enough. How does a teacher know when talk is productive or off task? How much off-task talk is reasonable? When should a teacher intervene? How might a teacher know when different levels of participation are reasonable and when they indicate an issue of equitable access? What should a teacher do when students become so enthusiastic and engaged that the lesson ‘takes too long’ or students generate interests that go beyond the curricular objectives? How might cooperation in a mathematics lesson look and sound different than cooperation in language arts? How might it look and sound different in a class with five-year-olds than in a university course? How about different cultural contexts? What should a teacher do when an evaluator or peer, unaccustomed to cooperative learning, interprets pupil interactions as noisy or unfocused and comments that the teacher does not appear to be teaching

: learning cooperative learning: challenges and innovations in pre- and in-service education
. The researchers also gathered self-report data from the teachers about their subsequent use of cooperative learning. Results indicate that cooperative learning was not widely used and that the beliefs of the teachers, coupled with the perceived pressures of time and curriculum, were important determinants of usage. The authors note structural challenges, including that (a) the two days of professional development the teachers received does not provide opportunities for teachers to plan and reflect, and (b) there were no consistent systems in place for teachers to work in school teams and be supported by administrators.

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EDU201 Learning Theories Assignment 2 Solution & Discussion Fall 2019


Q No 1: Differentiate between “Collaborative Learning and Discovery Learning”. (10)

Q No 2: Write down any five challenges in using cooperative learning technique. (10)


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