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Question No. 1: Create a Lesson plan for a subject of6thgrade. Select topic and subject of your own choice.

Answer:
Follow the lesson plan format given below:
1. Subject
Lesson plan:
• Subject: Science
• Topic: Life and Living things
• Grade level: 6th
• Instructional objectives:
• By the end of the lecture students will be able to know more about life and living Things.
• By the end of the lecture students will know about the organs and their functions in their bodies.
• Rationale: Students should know about life process of living things including humans and animals. How their organ system work.
• Resources: Pictures of cells of animals, plants and human organs and microscope.
• Procedure: Firstly the teacher and students will greet each other and then she will ask some questions to her students about plants and animals.
• Do you like animals?
• Which is your favorite animal?
• Can you tell me something about your pet?
• Do you about the life process of your pet?
• Then teacher will start her lecture via dialectic method along with formative assessment. So, today we are going to learn about life and living things.
• What is life?
• How living things survive?

Life: Process of act, react, evaluate and evolves through growth.
Living things: they can survive by feed, oxygen, move, respond and sense.
• What is cell?
All living things are made up of one or more cells. Some are unicellular some are multi cellular

• They are microscopic means they are very tiny so they can only be seen microscope.
Then the teacher will show some pictures of cells after giving them some info about microscope.
• Plant and animal cells have so many similarities.
• They take in the food, release energy, get rid of waste, grow and reproduce.
• Plants have chloroplasts (chemical which enables green plants to use sun’s energy to make food during photosynthesis.
• What make plants and animals similar?
• Nucleus (The control center of the cell).

• Cytoplasm ( Jelly-like substance which is fluid)

• Cell membrane (Thin skin outside the cell)

• Cell wall (firm coating outside cell membrane)

• Vacuole (Large space in middle of the cell).
Formative Assessment will be carried along with.
Questions:
• Do animal and plant cells have similarities?
• Which is called control center of the cell?
• What the chloroplasts contain?
Then the teacher will move to next topic which is Human organs, tissues and cells.

• What is tissue?

A group of similar cells doing same job is called tissue. Different tissues are combining to make an organ.
• We have so many organs in our body.
For example: lungs, liver, heart, stomach, brain, eyes, ears and tongue.

• How they work?
• What is their use?

• Eyes (sense of sight)
• Ears (sense of hearing)
• Brain (sense to think)
• Tongue (sense to taste)

• What is organ system?
• Organs work together to form organ system.

Types of organ system
• Breathing system – exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide.
• Digestive system – breaks down food in molecules and absorb in blood.
• Circulatory system – transport substance to whole body.
• Excretory system – get rid of poisonous substance.
• Nervous system – carries message around the body.

Keeping the students engaged to the topic teacher will keep asking questions to her students.

• Assignment or Homework:
Homework: Write five points on how the body organ work and their uses.

• Assessment: A summative assessment of the topic includes:
• Multiple choice questions (5)
• True/false (5)
• Label the diagram (5)
• Two Short questions (2) and Three of (1)

• Time allotted:
-30 minutes

Question No. 2:
Being a teacher, how will you apply Zone of Proximal Development presented by Vygotsky’s in your classroom? Explain with at least two classroom examples.

Answer:
The gap between actual and potential level of a child is Zone of Proximal Development..
Vygotsky’s is very famous for this concept of his theory. The zone of proximal is useful concepts for me .To applies the concept of the zone of proximal development, I instruct in small steps according to the tasks a child is already able to do independently. This strategy is referred to as scaffolding. Being a teacher, I should also support and assist the child until he or she can complete all of the steps independently.
Before I can begin guiding students through the steps necessary to learn a concept, they should get a grasp of how these tasks, referred to a scaffolds, are applicable to everyday life. Then I build on these scaffolds to develop the child's zone of proximal development. To most effectively teach by using the zone of proximal development I should stress the connections between the learner's prior knowledge of a task in everyday contexts with the new task or concept being learned. (1) For example, let's say a teacher is instructing students about the water cycle. If a teacher has already taught a lesson on the concept of evaporation, the teacher should use this prior knowledge of evaporation when introducing information about condensation. The child will then be able to make connections between the different phases of the water cycle.
Whenever I will teach the students according to Vygotsky’s theory, I will first try to judge their prior knowledge. Unless I don’t know that where the students stand I can’t help them in development.

.Vygotsky’s theory also says that a child construct his own knowledge. But according to him, social context is very important. I code here example no(2); I will talk to my students about the bad and good manners .For example, greeting an elder while sitting versus greeting him cordially while standing up. Now some students will act and show they will greet an elder according to good manners. This is a social activity, who I perform my students in the classroom to check them.

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