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EDU301 General Methods of Teaching Assignment No 02 Spring 2020 Solution & Discussion

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EDU301 General Methods of Teaching Assignment 2 Solution & Discussion Spring 2020


EDU301 Assignment 2 Solution idea:

 

 

Question No. 1:                                             (10 Marks)

Being a teacher of Grade 8th, select any two cooperative learning strategies and write how will you apply these in classroom? Follow the rubric given below to attempt the question.

 

A: Define cooperative learning (2 Marks)

Cooperative learning involves more than students working together on a lab or field project. It requires teachers to structure cooperative interdependence among the students. These structures involve five key elements which can be implemented in a variety of ways.

An example of a very popular cooperative learning activity that teachers use is:

Jigsaw: Where each student is required to research one section of the material and then teach it to the other members of the group.

Think-pair-share: As probably the best known cooperative learning exercise, the think-pair-share structure provides students with the opportunity to reflect on the question posed and then practice sharing and receiving potential solutions. Its simplicity provides instructors with an easy entry into cooperative learning and it is readily adaptable to a wide range of course constructs. (Example: Where Do I Begin? Using Think-Pair-Share to Initiate the Problem Solving Process).

Three-step interview: This structure can be used both as an ice-breaker which introduces students to one another and to provide students with a venue for soliciting opinions, positions, or ideas from their peers. Students are first paired and take turns interviewing each other using a series of questions provided by the instructor. Pairs then match up and students introduce their original partner. At the end of the exercise, all four students have had their position or viewpoints on an issue heard, digested, and described by their peers. 

 

B: Two Cooperative learning strategies with complete procedure of implementation in classroom. (4*2= 8 marks)

Discussion:                              communicating

"A good give-and-take discussion can produce unmatched learning experiences as students articulate their ideas, respond to their classmates' points, and develop skills in evaluating the evidence of their own and others' positions." (Davis, 1993, p. 63)

  • Think-pair-shareAs probably the best known cooperative learning exercise, the think-pair-share structure provides students with the opportunity to reflect on the question posed and then practice sharing and receiving potential solutions. Its simplicity provides instructors with an easy entry into cooperative learning and it is readily adaptable to a wide range of course constructs. (Example: Where Do I Begin? Using Think-Pair-Share to Initiate the Problem Solving Process)

 

  • Three-step interview: This structure can be used both as an ice-breaker which introduces students to one another and to provide students with a venue for soliciting opinions, positions, or ideas from their peers. Students are first paired and take turns interviewing each other using a series of questions provided by the instructor. Pairs then match up and students introduce their original partner. At the end of the exercise, all four students have had their position or viewpoints on an issue heard, digested, and described by their peers.

  

  • Reciprocal teaching: explaining, providing feedback, understanding alternative perspectives Slavin (1996), in a review of hundreds of studies, concluded that "students who give each other elaborated explanations (and less consistently, those who receive such explanations) are the students who learn most in coperative learning." (p53)

 

  • Note-taking pairs: Poor note-taking leads to poor performance. Designing an exercise which requires students to summarize their understanding of a concept based on notes taken (with directed questions such as what is the definition of a concept, how is it used, what are the three most important characteristics of a topic) and receiving reflective feedback from their partner provides students the opportunity to find critical gaps in their written records.

 

  • JigsawFor more complex problems, this structure provides students the opportunity to develop expertise in one of many components of a problem by first participating in a group solely focused on a single component. In the second stage of the exercise, groups are reformed with a representative from each expert group who together now have sufficient expertise to tackle the whole problem.

 

  • Graphic organizers: discovering patterns and relationships "Graphic organizers are powerful tools for converting complex information in to meaningful displays...They can provide a framework for gathering and sorting ideas for discussion, writing, and research." (Barkley, Cross and Major, 2005, p.205) See also, concept mapping.

 

  • Group grid: Students practice organizing and classifying information in a table. A more complex version of this structure requires students to first identify the classification scheme that will be used.

 

  • Sequence chains: The goal of this exercise is to provide a visual representation of a series of events, actions, roles, or decisions. Students can be provided with the items to be organized or asked to first generate these based on a predetermined end goal. This structure can be made more complex by having students also identify and describe the links between each of the sequenced components.

 

 

  • Dyadic essays: Students prepare for the in-class portion of this exercise by developing an essay question and model answer based on assigned reading. Students typically need to be guided to develop questions that integrate material across classes as opposed to ones that simply recite facts presented in the reading. In class, students exchange essay questions and write a spontaneous answer essay. Students then pair up, compare and contrast the model answer and the spontaneously generated answer. Subsequently, questions and answers can be shared with the larger class.

 

  • Peer editing: As opposed to the editing process that often appears only at the final stage of a paper, peer editing pairs up students at the idea generation stage and peers provide feedback throughout the process. For example, the relationship begins as each student in the pair describes their topic ideas and outlines the structure of their work while their partner asks questions, and develops an outline based on what is described. See also, peer review.

 

  • Problem solving: developing strategies and analysis Research by mathematics educators Vidakovic (1997) and Vidakovic and Martin (2004) shows that groups are able to solve problems more accurately than individuals working alone.

 

  • Send-a-problem: Students participate in a series of problem solving rounds, contributing their independently generated solution to those that have been developed by other groups. After a number of rounds, students are asked to review the solutions developed by their peers, evaluate the answers and develop a final solution. (Example: Understanding the Impact of (Fiscal and Monetary) Policy)

 

  • Three-stay, one-stray: Even students working in groups can benefit from the feedback of additional peers. In this structure, students periodically take a break from their work (often at key decision making points) and send one group member to another group to describe their progress. The role of the group is to gain information and alternative perspectives by listening and sharing. The number of times the group sends a representative to another group depends on the level of complexity of the problem. This method can also be used to report out final solutions.

 

 

Implementing Cooperative Learning:

Cooperative learning is more than merely having students sit together, helping the others do their work. Directing students who finish their work early to assist others isn't a form of cooperative learning either. Neither is assigning a group of students to "work together" UNLESS you assure that all will contribute their fair share to the product.

A true cooperative learning experience requires that a number of criteria be met. They are:

-Division of labor among students in the group

-Face-to-face interaction between students

-Assignment of specific roles and duties to students

-Group processing of a task

-Positive interdependence in which students all need to do their assigned duties inorder for the task to be completed

-Individual accountability for completing one's own assigned duties

-The development of social skills as a result of cooperative interaction -Provision of group rewards by the teacher

 

The introduction of "learning teams" into the classroom is an effective method for increasing the number of students willing to make an effort to learn in school. The teams usually work together on long-term assignments, although sometimes students remain together in duos, triads or quadrants for the entire day. In these groups, each individual is responsible for assuring that the other team members learn the assigned material. Those who understand the lesson/material are responsible for teaching it to the others. Groups progress to a new unit of study when all members of the group have mastered the lesson.

Group members are also responsible for the behavior of all members. If a team member displays inappropriate behavior, it is the duty of fellow members to remind that student to `check' him/herself. The members attempt to refocus the misbehaving student by offering help and suggestions.

Initially, temporary grouping can help students to grasp the concept of long-term learning teams, and practice responsibilities while the teacher sharpens his/her skills and receives feedback from the students regarding how to improve assignments.

 

 

Steps for setting up group learning experiences:

Before Implementation

 

  1. Develop a positive classroom environment. Devise ways for students to become acquainted early in the year. Have them work on a mural, newsletter, play or other project. Model and encourage polite, respectful behavior toward others. Reward students for such social skills as helping others, giving and accepting praise, compromise, etc.
  2. Previous to organizing collaborative groups and assigning academic tasks, develop a cooperative climate and esprit de corp in the classroom. This can be accomplished by engaging students in fun team-building activities in which they support each other in a team effort to achieve non-academic or easily achieved academic goals. These activities might take the form of non-competitive, active games such as those described in the books like the one titled Play Fair.
  3. Consider upcoming academic tasks and determine the number of students who will be assigned to each group. The size of the group will depend on the students' ability to interact well with others. Two to six students usually comprise a group.

If students are new to cooperative learning, assign two or three individuals to a group. Increase the size of teams as the students become familiar with the procedures and practices. Although homogeneous grouping or random assignment to groups is sometimes used, the students should usually be on a range of levels, mixed by intellectual ability or achievement level. One novel way to form groups is to have students pick a puzzle piece out of a hat/box. Inside that container are several 3 or 4 piece puzzles. Students match up their pieces to see who will be in the group with them. Too random? Hand out sheets of paper with directions/material on it, and a puzzle piece attached. While appearing to be a random selection to the students, you have determined which kids will come together into a particular group.

The teacher may also choose to consider interests or abilities in certain subject areas, personality, race, gender, or other factors when teaming students with each other. Perhaps the groups will choose names for themselves or decide to be referred to merely by number.

  1. Decide how long the groups will work together. It may range from one task, to one curriculum unit, to one semester, to a whole year. Most often the teacher will vary the composition of groups every month or two so that each student has a chance to work with a large number of classmates during the term or year.
  2. Determine the academic and behavioral/interpersonal objectives for the task.
  1. Plan the arrangement of the room for the upcoming group-oriented tasks. Arrange group seating so that students will be close enough to each other to share materials and ideas. Be sure to leave yourself a clear access lane to each group.
  2. Prepare materials for distribution to the group. Indicate on the materials that students are to work together. Avoid work activities that don't really encourage (or require) students to actively collaborate in a group. When student are working on independent tasks, simply clustered at tables, a revision is necessary.
  3. Determine roles for group members. In addition to cooperating and "brainstorming" with others, each group member should be assigned a duty to perform during the project. For example, the positions of "starter" (first person to use the materials; supervises any assembly of materials), "encourager/taskmaster" (motivates others to work their hardest and contribute to the discussion), "reader" ( responsible for seeing that all members begin with the same information and understand the nature of the task; reads print instructions and reviews record sheets aloud to the group), "praiser" (reinforces the responses of others), "researcher/getter" (locates and obtains needed materials and information; returns materials after use; in charge of inventory), "summarizer/reporter" (periodically explains what has occurred and later presents group findings to the entire class), "recorder" (writes down all important data, decisions, contributions, accomplishments, etc.; writes results on the board when sharing with the entire class),

 

 

"understanding coach" (makes sure that everyone understands what has occurred to this point), and "checker" (assures that all have completed their task and looks for errors in data, writing, etc.) might be appropriate to the assignment. The teacher may have to explain and demonstrate/practice these roles previous to and during projects. Our junior scholars need to know what the roles actually look and feel like in order to play each role well, and re-direct their teammates when necessary in order to ensure productive performance.

Implementation

 

  1. Explain what will occur. Explain the rules which include; contributing to the team effort; listening to teammates; helping other team members; and asking the teacher for help only if it is a question of everyone in the group. Previous to this, you should have devised a way to eliminate groans and complaints from high achievers and socially popular students who may not approve of the composition of their group. Arrange students into teams at tables or where desks have been pushed together.

 

  1. Present and clearly explain the assignment that will probably take several class periods to complete. (e.g.. Make a collage of items that start with the letter "M"; Plan and act out a play demonstrating how Thomas Jefferson might react if he were to be brought through time to see the United States as it exists today; Using an unabridged dictionary, make a list of words which can't be rhymed with other words etc.) Emphasize that positive interaction and cooperation will result in a group reward, and that meeting a set standard of performance beyond expectations will result in bonus points. Perhaps those points can be awarded frequently during the activity to motivate further cooperation.

 

Cooperative interaction can be more fully assured by giving only one copy of materials to each group, or by assigning each student one part of the materials with each part being needed for completion. Consider allowing groups that finish early to assist slower groups. This helpful support of other teams can be promoted through the understanding that if all groups reach a preset level, more bonus points will be given. The evaluation standard should be criterion referenced (judged against a certain standard reflecting degree of learning).

 

 

  1. Avoid the temptation to "lead" the groups. Your role has changed from transmitter of knowledge to mediator of thinking. Praising and encouraging the less academically skilled team members is still indicated however.
  2. Monitor and assist as needed. Move among the groups to assure that they are actively engaged in their roles and following designated procedures (unless free-form creativity is desired). Do not answer student questions unless the group members are unable to resolve the issue by themselves. Intervene as necessary to promote positive interdependence among group members. Frequently reinforce positive group interaction
  3. Evaluate each group's performance/product. Grades might be assigned based upon the average performance of the group (thus promoting positive interdependence) or the effort/quality of performance of individual members in the execution of their duties. In many cases, each group decides how it will demonstrate what has been learned. Each group's work is judged on its own merit rather than in comparison with the outcomes of other groups. If inter-group competition is involved, perhaps the winning and most improved teams will receive a prize. Recognition might also be given to groups that were the quietest, quickest, neatest, most creative, etc.

 

After Implementation

  1. Have the learning groups assess how well they worked together and discuss how they can improve their functioning and performance.

 

Summary

Cooperative learning is gaining popularity for a number of reasons. Evidence indicates that it raises achievement, promotes positive self concept, and raises regard for others. It appears to be especially useful for students from racial minority and low socio-economic groups who have not excelled to the same degree as middle income majority-culture pupils in the traditional competitive classroom. The performance of these previously less successful groups tends to rise in cooperative groups, majority culture students seem to achieve just as well as with the individually-oriented style of instruction and learning, often better. Cooperative learning may also help to lessen the fatalistic attitude toward schooling that is often found among students from minority groups and those who have experienced repeated failure in the schools. When these students notice the value of their input and effort, a more internal locus of control and belief in one's ability is fostered. Social and work skills are imbedded.

Implementing full-scale cooperative learning is not a simple task. Teachers may wish to start with periodic lessons or units and build from there. The effort expended is probably well spent as "...what we know about effective instruction indicates that cooperative learning should be used when we want students to learn more, like school better, like each other better, and learn more effective social skills."

 

 

 

Question No. 2:       (10 Marks)

Write a note on “Problem based Learning”. Your answer must be according to the given points.

 

  • Problem based learning (Definition) (2 marks)

Problem-based learning originated in the 1960s and is a teaching pedagogy that is student-centred. Students learn about a topic through the solving of problems and generally work in groups to solve the problem where, often, there is no one correct answer. In short, it empowers learners to conduct research, integrate theory and practice, and apply knowledge and skills to develop a viable solution to a defined problem,’ (Savery, 2006).

Problem based learning starts from problem engagement. Inquiry and investigation, Problem resolution, Problem debriefing

Basically teachers give certain problem to the students. Students engage themselves in the problems. They carry out inquiry and investigation. They define the problem. When we talk about the problem, there is some relevant and irrelevant information. If we focus on irrelevant problem we will not be able to identify the exact problem and solve the problem. To define the problem is very important. In problem based learning students try to clarify the problem.

 

  • Difference between project learning and problem based learning (2 marks) The differences between project learning and problem based learning

The difference between problem-based learning and project-based learning is that students who complete problem-based learning often share the outcomes and jointly set the learning goals and outcomes with the teacher. On the other hand, project-based learning is an approach where the goals are set. It is also quite structured in the way that the teaching occurs.

Project-based learning is often multidisciplinary and longer, whereas problem based learning is more likely to be a single subject and shorter. Generally, project-based learning follows general steps while problem-based learning provides specific steps. Importantly, project-based learning often involves authentic tasks that solve real-world problems while problem-based learning uses scenarios and cases that are perhaps less related to real life (Larmer, 2014).

In problem base learning the focus is on process. In project learning the focus is on ultimate outcome and product. Inquiry base learning and project learning are the learning approaches. When we talk about learning approaches it has a lot of importance of process rather than product. If we talk about factories, at one time we assess them on the basis of product. Later on it is assessed on the basis of process. Now both process and product are important.

In conclusion, it is probably the importance of conducting active learning with students that is worthy and not the actual name of the task. Both problem-based and project-based learning have their place in today’s classroom and can promote 21st Century learning.

 

 

  • How to plan/manage problem based learning in classroom (4 Marks)

Any 4 major points related to classroom application  Steps to a Problem-Based Learning Approach

Step 1: Explore the issue.

Gather necessary information; learn new concepts, principles, and skills about the proposed topic.

 

Step 2: State what is known.

Individual students and groups list what they already know about the scenario and list what areas they are lacking information.

 

Step 3: Define the issues.

Frame the problem in a context of what is already known and information the students expect to learn.

 

Step 4: Research the knowledge.

Find resources and information that will help create a compelling argument.

 

Step 5: Investigate solutions.

List possible actions and solutions to the problem, formulate and test potential hypotheses Step 6: Present and support the chosen solution.

Clearly state and support your conclusion with relevant information and evidence.

 

Step 7: Review your performance.

Often forgotten, this is a crucial step in improving your problem-solving skills. Students must evaluate their performance and plan improvements for the next problem.

 

Planning for PBL

 

- As its most fundamental level, problem-based learning is characterized by students working in pairs or small group to investigate puzzling, real-life problems.

-Because of Interactive nature, PBL requires as much, if not more, planning as compared to more teacher-centered models.

It is difficult to manage problem based learning. There might be problem in resource management. There might be problems to handle the students.

 

Managing for PBL

  • Dealing with Multitask Situation
  • Adjusting to differing Finishing Rates
  • Monitoring and Managing Student work
  • Managing Material and Equipment
  • Regulating Movement and Behavior outside the classroom

 

Strategies to Assess Problem based learning (2 Marks)

  1. Assessment tasks for problem-based lessons cannot consist solely of paper-and-pencil
  2. tests.
  3. Rather the work products created by students lend themselves nicely to performance
  4. Assessment using scoring rubrics or checklist and rating scales.
  5. Performance assessment can be used to measure students’ problem solving potential asw ell as group work.
  6. We must assess the students in all three (cognitive, affective and psychomotor) domains.
  7. Knowledge can be assessed through written tests. But skills can be assessed through direct
  8. Any presentation or display of some product are its simple examples. It needs to be
  9. Assessed with diverse techniques.

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EDU301 Assignment 2 Solution Spring 2020 || EDU301 Assignment Solution

EDU301 Assignment 2 Solution Spring 2020 || EDU301 Assignment Solution
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#edu301assignment2spring2020
#edu301Assignment2Solutionspring2020

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