EDU301 General Methods of Teaching Assignment No 02 Spring 2020 Solution & Discussion
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EDU301 General Methods of Teaching Assignment 2 Solution & Discussion Spring 2020
EDU301 Assignment 2 Solution idea:
Question No. 1: (10 Marks)
Being a teacher of Grade 8th, select any two cooperative learning strategies and write how will you apply these in classroom? Follow the rubric given below to attempt the question.
A: Define cooperative learning (2 Marks)
Cooperative learning involves more than students working together on a lab or field project. It requires teachers to structure cooperative interdependence among the students. These structures involve five key elements which can be implemented in a variety of ways.
An example of a very popular cooperative learning activity that teachers use is:
Jigsaw: Where each student is required to research one section of the material and then teach it to the other members of the group.
Think-pair-share: As probably the best known cooperative learning exercise, the think-pair-share structure provides students with the opportunity to reflect on the question posed and then practice sharing and receiving potential solutions. Its simplicity provides instructors with an easy entry into cooperative learning and it is readily adaptable to a wide range of course constructs. (Example: Where Do I Begin? Using Think-Pair-Share to Initiate the Problem Solving Process).
Three-step interview: This structure can be used both as an ice-breaker which introduces students to one another and to provide students with a venue for soliciting opinions, positions, or ideas from their peers. Students are first paired and take turns interviewing each other using a series of questions provided by the instructor. Pairs then match up and students introduce their original partner. At the end of the exercise, all four students have had their position or viewpoints on an issue heard, digested, and described by their peers.
B: Two Cooperative learning strategies with complete procedure of implementation in classroom. (4*2= 8 marks)
"A good give-and-take discussion can produce unmatched learning experiences as students articulate their ideas, respond to their classmates' points, and develop skills in evaluating the evidence of their own and others' positions." (Davis, 1993, p. 63)
Implementing Cooperative Learning:
Cooperative learning is more than merely having students sit together, helping the others do their work. Directing students who finish their work early to assist others isn't a form of cooperative learning either. Neither is assigning a group of students to "work together" UNLESS you assure that all will contribute their fair share to the product.
A true cooperative learning experience requires that a number of criteria be met. They are:
-Division of labor among students in the group
-Face-to-face interaction between students
-Assignment of specific roles and duties to students
-Group processing of a task
-Positive interdependence in which students all need to do their assigned duties inorder for the task to be completed
-Individual accountability for completing one's own assigned duties
-The development of social skills as a result of cooperative interaction -Provision of group rewards by the teacher
The introduction of "learning teams" into the classroom is an effective method for increasing the number of students willing to make an effort to learn in school. The teams usually work together on long-term assignments, although sometimes students remain together in duos, triads or quadrants for the entire day. In these groups, each individual is responsible for assuring that the other team members learn the assigned material. Those who understand the lesson/material are responsible for teaching it to the others. Groups progress to a new unit of study when all members of the group have mastered the lesson.
Group members are also responsible for the behavior of all members. If a team member displays inappropriate behavior, it is the duty of fellow members to remind that student to `check' him/herself. The members attempt to refocus the misbehaving student by offering help and suggestions.
Initially, temporary grouping can help students to grasp the concept of long-term learning teams, and practice responsibilities while the teacher sharpens his/her skills and receives feedback from the students regarding how to improve assignments.
Steps for setting up group learning experiences:
If students are new to cooperative learning, assign two or three individuals to a group. Increase the size of teams as the students become familiar with the procedures and practices. Although homogeneous grouping or random assignment to groups is sometimes used, the students should usually be on a range of levels, mixed by intellectual ability or achievement level. One novel way to form groups is to have students pick a puzzle piece out of a hat/box. Inside that container are several 3 or 4 piece puzzles. Students match up their pieces to see who will be in the group with them. Too random? Hand out sheets of paper with directions/material on it, and a puzzle piece attached. While appearing to be a random selection to the students, you have determined which kids will come together into a particular group.
The teacher may also choose to consider interests or abilities in certain subject areas, personality, race, gender, or other factors when teaming students with each other. Perhaps the groups will choose names for themselves or decide to be referred to merely by number.
"understanding coach" (makes sure that everyone understands what has occurred to this point), and "checker" (assures that all have completed their task and looks for errors in data, writing, etc.) might be appropriate to the assignment. The teacher may have to explain and demonstrate/practice these roles previous to and during projects. Our junior scholars need to know what the roles actually look and feel like in order to play each role well, and re-direct their teammates when necessary in order to ensure productive performance.
Cooperative interaction can be more fully assured by giving only one copy of materials to each group, or by assigning each student one part of the materials with each part being needed for completion. Consider allowing groups that finish early to assist slower groups. This helpful support of other teams can be promoted through the understanding that if all groups reach a preset level, more bonus points will be given. The evaluation standard should be criterion referenced (judged against a certain standard reflecting degree of learning).
Cooperative learning is gaining popularity for a number of reasons. Evidence indicates that it raises achievement, promotes positive self concept, and raises regard for others. It appears to be especially useful for students from racial minority and low socio-economic groups who have not excelled to the same degree as middle income majority-culture pupils in the traditional competitive classroom. The performance of these previously less successful groups tends to rise in cooperative groups, majority culture students seem to achieve just as well as with the individually-oriented style of instruction and learning, often better. Cooperative learning may also help to lessen the fatalistic attitude toward schooling that is often found among students from minority groups and those who have experienced repeated failure in the schools. When these students notice the value of their input and effort, a more internal locus of control and belief in one's ability is fostered. Social and work skills are imbedded.
Implementing full-scale cooperative learning is not a simple task. Teachers may wish to start with periodic lessons or units and build from there. The effort expended is probably well spent as "...what we know about effective instruction indicates that cooperative learning should be used when we want students to learn more, like school better, like each other better, and learn more effective social skills."
Question No. 2: (10 Marks)
Write a note on “Problem based Learning”. Your answer must be according to the given points.
Problem-based learning originated in the 1960s and is a teaching pedagogy that is student-centred. Students learn about a topic through the solving of problems and generally work in groups to solve the problem where, often, there is no one correct answer. In short, it empowers learners to conduct research, integrate theory and practice, and apply knowledge and skills to develop a viable solution to a defined problem,’ (Savery, 2006).
Problem based learning starts from problem engagement. Inquiry and investigation, Problem resolution, Problem debriefing
Basically teachers give certain problem to the students. Students engage themselves in the problems. They carry out inquiry and investigation. They define the problem. When we talk about the problem, there is some relevant and irrelevant information. If we focus on irrelevant problem we will not be able to identify the exact problem and solve the problem. To define the problem is very important. In problem based learning students try to clarify the problem.
The difference between problem-based learning and project-based learning is that students who complete problem-based learning often share the outcomes and jointly set the learning goals and outcomes with the teacher. On the other hand, project-based learning is an approach where the goals are set. It is also quite structured in the way that the teaching occurs.
Project-based learning is often multidisciplinary and longer, whereas problem based learning is more likely to be a single subject and shorter. Generally, project-based learning follows general steps while problem-based learning provides specific steps. Importantly, project-based learning often involves authentic tasks that solve real-world problems while problem-based learning uses scenarios and cases that are perhaps less related to real life (Larmer, 2014).
In problem base learning the focus is on process. In project learning the focus is on ultimate outcome and product. Inquiry base learning and project learning are the learning approaches. When we talk about learning approaches it has a lot of importance of process rather than product. If we talk about factories, at one time we assess them on the basis of product. Later on it is assessed on the basis of process. Now both process and product are important.
In conclusion, it is probably the importance of conducting active learning with students that is worthy and not the actual name of the task. Both problem-based and project-based learning have their place in today’s classroom and can promote 21st Century learning.
Any 4 major points related to classroom application Steps to a Problem-Based Learning Approach
Step 1: Explore the issue.
Gather necessary information; learn new concepts, principles, and skills about the proposed topic.
Step 2: State what is known.
Individual students and groups list what they already know about the scenario and list what areas they are lacking information.
Step 3: Define the issues.
Frame the problem in a context of what is already known and information the students expect to learn.
Step 4: Research the knowledge.
Find resources and information that will help create a compelling argument.
Step 5: Investigate solutions.
List possible actions and solutions to the problem, formulate and test potential hypotheses Step 6: Present and support the chosen solution.
Clearly state and support your conclusion with relevant information and evidence.
Step 7: Review your performance.
Often forgotten, this is a crucial step in improving your problem-solving skills. Students must evaluate their performance and plan improvements for the next problem.
Planning for PBL
- As its most fundamental level, problem-based learning is characterized by students working in pairs or small group to investigate puzzling, real-life problems.
-Because of Interactive nature, PBL requires as much, if not more, planning as compared to more teacher-centered models.
It is difficult to manage problem based learning. There might be problem in resource management. There might be problems to handle the students.
Managing for PBL
Strategies to Assess Problem based learning (2 Marks)
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EDU301 Assignment 2 Solution Spring 2020 || EDU301 Assignment Solution
EDU301 Assignment 2 Solution Spring 2020 || EDU301 Assignment Solution