Human Development and Learning
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1. What is meant by personality development? Describe the Erikson’s eight Psychosocial Stages of Personality Development in detail? (2+8)
2. What is meant by cognitive development? Describe four stages of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development in detail? (2+8)
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Personality is concerned with the psychological pattern of an individual— the thoughts, emotions and feelings—that are unique to a person. In fact, the totality of character, attributes and traits of a person are responsible for molding his personality.
These inherent personality traits and the different soft skills interact with each other and make a person what he or she is. It helps bring out a number of intrinsic qualities of a person, which are a must in any responsible position.In simple words, personality is a set of qualities that make a person distinct from another. The word ‘personality’ originates from the Latin word ‘persona’, which means a mask. In the theatre of the ancient Latin-speaking world, the mask was just a conventional device to represent or typify a particular character.
From birth to 12 months of age, infants must learn that adults can be trusted. This occurs when adults meet a child’s basic needs for survival. Infants are dependent upon their caregivers, so caregivers who are responsive and sensitive to their infant’s needs help their baby to develop a sense of trust; their baby will see the world as a safe, predictable place. Unresponsive caregivers who do not meet their baby’s needs can engender feelings of anxiety, fear, and mistrust; their baby may see the world as unpredictable. If infants are treated cruelly or their needs are not met appropriately, they will likely grow up with a sense of mistrust for people in the world.
As toddlers (ages 1–3 years) begin to explore their world, they learn that they can control their actions and act on their environment to get results. They begin to show clear preferences for certain elements of the environment, such as food, toys, and clothing. A toddler’s main task is to resolve the issue of autonomy vs. shame and doubt by working to establish independence. This is the “me do it” stage. For example, we might observe a budding sense of autonomy in a 2-year-old child who wants to choose her clothes and dress herself. Although her outfits might not be appropriate for the situation, her input in such basic decisions has an effect on her sense of independence. If denied the opportunity to act on her environment, she may begin to doubt her abilities, which could lead to low self-esteem and feelings of shame.
Once children reach the preschool stage (ages 3–6 years), they are capable of initiating activities and asserting control over their world through social interactions and play. According to Erikson, preschool children must resolve the task of initiative vs. guilt.By learning to plan and achieve goals while interacting with others, preschool children can master this task. Initiative, a sense of ambition and responsibility, occurs when parents allow a child to explore within limits and then support the child’s choice. These children will develop self-confidence and feel a sense of purpose. Those who are unsuccessful at this stage—with their initiative misfiring or stifled by over-controlling parents—may develop feelings of guilt.
During the elementary school stage (ages 6–12), children face the task of industry vs. inferiority. Children begin to compare themselves with their peers to see how they measure up. They either develop a sense of pride and accomplishment in their schoolwork, sports, social activities, and family life, or they feel inferior and inadequate because they feel that they don’t measure up. If children do not learn to get along with others or have negative experiences at home or with peers, an inferiority complex might develop into adolescence and adulthood.
In adolescence (ages 12–18), children face the task of identity vs. role confusion. According to Erikson, an adolescent’s main task is developing a sense of self. Adolescents struggle with questions such as “Who am I?” and “What do I want to do with my life?” Along the way, most adolescents try on many different selves to see which ones fit; they explore various roles and ideas, set goals, and attempt to discover their “adult” selves. Adolescents who are successful at this stage have a strong sense of identity and are able to remain true to their beliefs and values in the face of problemsand other people’s perspectives. When adolescents are apathetic, do not make a conscious search for identity, or are pressured to conform to their parents’ ideas for the future, they may develop a weak sense of self and experience role confusion. They will be unsure of their identity and confused about the future. Teenagers who struggle to adopt a positive role will likely struggle to “find” themselves as adults.
People in early adulthood (20s through early 40s) are concerned with intimacy vs. isolation. After we have developed a sense of self in adolescence, we are ready to share our life with others. However, if other stages have not been successfully resolved, young adults may have trouble developing and maintaining successful relationships with others. Erikson said that we must have a strong sense of self before we can develop successful intimate relationships. Adults who do not develop a positive self-concept in adolescence may experience feelings of loneliness and emotional isolation.
When people reach their 40s, they enter the time known as middle adulthood, which extends to the mid-60s. The social task of middle adulthood is generativity vs. stagnation. Generativity involves finding your life’s work and contributing to the development of others through activities such as volunteering, mentoring, and raising children. During this stage, middle-aged adults begin contributing to the next generation, often through childbirth and caring for others; they also engage in meaningful and productive work which contributes positively to society. Those who do not master this task may experience stagnation and feel as though they are not leaving a mark on the world in a meaningful way; they may have little connection with others and little interest in productivity and self-improvement.
From the mid-60s to the end of life, we are in the period of development known as late adulthood. Erikson’s task at this stage is called integrity vs. despair. He said that people in late adulthood reflect on their lives and feel either a sense of satisfaction or a sense of failure. People who feel proud of their accomplishments feel a sense of integrity, and they can look back on their lives with few regrets. However, people who are not successful at this stage may feel as if their life has been wasted. They focus on what “would have,” “should have,” and “could have” been. They face the end of their lives with feelings of bitterness, depression, and despair.
Question no 2 ka answer:
Cognitive development is the study of childhood neurological and psychological development. Specifically, cognitive development is assessed based on the level of conception, perception, information processing, and language as an indicator of brain development. It is generally recognized that cognitive development progresses with age, as human awareness and understanding of the world increases from infancy to childhood, and then again into adolescence. The process of cognitive development was first described by Jean Piaget, in his Theory of Cognitive Development.
Piaget’s stages are age-specific and marked by important characteristics of thought processes. They also include goals children should achieve as they move through a given stage.
|Sensorimotor||Birth to 18–24 months old||Motor activity without use of symbols. All things learned are based on experiences, or trial and error.||Object permanence|
|Preoperational||2 to 7 years old||Development of language, memory, and imagination. Intelligence is both egocentric and intuitive.||Symbolic thought|
|Concrete operational||7 to 11 years old||More logical and methodical manipulation of symbols. Less egocentric, and more aware of the outside world and events.||Operational thought|
|Formal operational||Adolescence to adulthood||Use of symbols to relate to abstract concepts. Able to make hypotheses and grasp abstract concepts and relationships.||Abstract concepts|
The sensorimotor stage covers children ages birth to 18–24 months old. Characteristics include motor activity without use of symbols. All things learned are based on experiences, or trial and error.
The main goal at this stage is establishing an understanding of object permanence — in other words, knowing that an object still exists even if you can’t see it or it’s hidden.
The preoperational stage can be seen in children ages 2 through 7. Memory and imagination are developing. Children at this age are egocentric, which means they have difficulty thinking outside of their own viewpoints.
The main achievement of this stage is being able to attach meaning to objects with language. It’s thinking about things symbolically. Symbolic thought is a type of thinking where a word or object is used to represent something other than itself.
Children are much less egocentric in the concrete operational stage. It falls between the ages of 7 to 11 years old and is marked by more logical and methodical manipulation of symbols.
The main goal at this stage is for a child to start working things out inside their head. This is called operational thought, and it allows kids to solve problems without physically encountering things in the real world.
Children 11 years old and older fall into Piaget’s formal operational stage. A milestone of this period is using symbols to understand abstract concepts. Not only that, but older kids and adults can also think about multiple variables and come up with hypotheses based on previous knowledge.
Piaget believed that people of all ages developed intellectually. But he also believed that once a person reaches the formal operational stage, it’s more about building upon knowledge, not changing how it’s acquired or understood.
Question No: 1
What is meant by personality development? Describe the Erikson’s eight Psychosocial Stages of Personality Development in detail?
Meaning of Personality Development at an individual level can be understood to include:
Self-Knowledge, Identifying potential, Ambition or Aspiration fulfillment, Enhancing the Quality of Life, Improving social abilities, Improving physical and mental health, Acceptance of responsibilities for self and Awareness of self etc.
Personality development is the collective pattern of our actions and reactions that differs from situation to situation. Personality development means to enhance your inner and outer self that will helps us to boost our confidence and hike up our scope of Knowledge. Personality Development can be achieved through social and professional interaction and by contributing to the expression and realization of hopes, wishes and ambitions.
Each stage in Erikson's theory builds on the preceding stages and paves the way for following periods of development.
1. Trust vs. Mistrust:
I shared a picture about this topic. This is very logical topic.
The first stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development occurs between birth and one year of age and is the most fundamental stage in life. It is very important stage. An infant is absolutely reliant on a caregiver for food, love, warmth, safety and nature. He infant depends on the parents, especially the mother, for sustenance and comfort.
If a child successfully develops trust, he or she will feel safe and secure in the world. Caregivers who are inconsistent, emotionally unavailable, or rejecting contribute to feelings of mistrust in the children under their care. Failure to develop trust will result in fear and a belief that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable. This is very dangerous stage for the child when he/she mistrust anybody.
2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt:
First of all I want to share a picture about this topic. This picture shows the main purpose of this topic. This is very beautiful picture. This is very intrusting topic. We loved child. This topic is totally about the child.
At this stage of life (ages 1–3 years) they learn that they can control their actions and act on their environment to get results. Kids at this age are starting to perform basic actions and make simple decisions relevant to what they do/favor. This development assists children in being more independent and trusting their own judgments. This is very grateful stage. At this stage children feel free. They are independent. This is very intrusting stage for the child.
3. Initiative vs. Guilt:
At this stage I shared a picture that tells us about the topic:
This stage is considered the preschool years. This is very supper stage. This is helpful stage for the child. This period focuses on children having a sense of purpose. At this stage children learn new things. They love the new things. They learn the new activities. They like to try out new things and learn to cooperate with others to achieve common goals.
Children who are successful at this stage feel capable and able to lead others. Those who fail to acquire these skills are left with a sense of guilt, self-doubt, and lack of initiative. This is very impressive stage. This stage is helpful to understanding the student skills. I think this is strong stage for the children.
4. Industry vs. Inferiority:
This is very beautiful picture. I think this is very helpful for me to describe my answer about this stage.
This stage plays an essential role in developing a sense of personal identity which will continue to influence behavior and development for the rest of a person's life. Children begin to compare themselves with their peers to see how they measure up. At this stage they saw others how they measure him/her. They need appreciation at this moment. They are hungry of caring. They loved each other and wants love in answer.
They begin to doubt their abilities when they don’t receive encouragement. Kids find a balance that leads them to an asset known as competence. So we sport them at this stage. We encourage them because this is very important for their mental growth. We cannot underestimate them on any stage. Teachers play a significant role in these children’s life according to my think.
5. Identity vs. Confusion:
This is a interesting picture about this topic that I choice.
This time plays an essential role in developing personal identity and will influence behavior for the rest of a person’s life. During this period, children explore independence and develop a sense of self. When properly encouraged through this stage, kids will emerge with a strong sense of self, independence, and self control. Those who do not properly experience this stage may develop insecurity and confusion about themselves.
Young people who succeed at this stage develop a strong sense of identity. When they come across challenges and problems, they can commit to their principles, ideals and beliefs. Those who fail to establish their own identity at this stage tend to be confused about themselves and about their future. They may end up following other people’s ideas. I think every stage have much important. We cannot deny this importance.
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation :
I am speechless about this picture how I describe this picture. So, I discuss this stage in detail now here.
At this stage, People in early adulthood (20s through early 40s) are concerned with intimacy vs. isolation. After we have developed a sense of self in adolescence, we are ready to share our life with others. This is very tough decision for any person according to my think. But we cannot ignore this stage this very simple role of nature. We share our life with other person. We cannot deny this role of nature.
Adults who do not develop a positive self concept in adolescence may experience feelings of loneliness and emotional isolation. So, every stage is having importance. We cannot forget its importance.
7. Generatively vs. Stagnation:
This is very helpful picture to describe this stage that I shared with you.
At this stage, when people reach their 40s, they enter the time known as middle adulthood, which extends to the mid-60s. The focus of this period is on family and career. They want to leave a legacy and make this world a better place for future generations. They spend their most time with their family. They loved their work and family at this stage.
8. Integrity vs. Despair:
This is very cute and sweet picture that I choice this stage according to my thinking. I think this is best tool to describe this topic. I loved this picture that so nice.
At the last stage, people are in late adulthood (65 years old and older). They are typically retirees. This is very caring stage. At this stage those people are successful they feel proud. Those people achieve unsuccessful they feel despair. They feel that they have wasted their lives and experience many regrets. This is very loving and caring stage. At this stage everybody saw in back how he/she performs in the past.
Question No: 2
What is meant by cognitive development? Describe four stages of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development in detail?
Mean of cognitive development:
Cognitive development refers to how a child’s thinking changes with age or experience. Cognitive development is the construction of thought processes, including remembering, problem solving and decision-making from childhood. In simple words cognitive development means how children think, explore and figure things out. I think it is development of knowledge, skills, problem solving and disposition. I want to share a picture of brain here. This is best way to describe the cognitive development means. I think this picture describe the whole purpose of this question.
Four stages of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development:
This picture tells us about the Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. In this picture describe the 4th stages of the Piaget’s theory. All stages are very important. All stages play an important role in the life of the child. Now I want to describe these whole stages in detail according to the demand.
1. The Sensor motor Stage:
During this earliest stage of cognitive development, children used all five senses, seeing, hearing, touching, tasting and smelling. They understand the whole world through these senses. At this stage children learn that they are separate from the environment. They can think about aspects of the environment.
They are very active at this stage. They want to learn more from the healthy environment. They loved the nature. I want to share with you about this stage because this is very important to describe this stage.
2. The Preoperational Stage:
At stage this stage, children learn from the play. Children learn best by doing. All children want to play and learn more. They loved the games. During the play they learn more things. So, we want allow them to actively interact with a variety of things in their environments, including books, people, games, and objects.
At this stage we want to share more new things with the children and tell them to describe this knowledge in their own words. This is very interesting activity. We point out new things and encourage children to question you about those things. We asked them new question at daily base because this is very important for the children at this stage. Now I share a picture about this stage.
3. The Concrete Operational Stage:
At this stage, children begin to understanding the concepts and ideas. They understand the whole things. Children in the concrete operational stage also begin to understand that their thoughts are unique to them and that not everyone else necessarily shares their thoughts, feelings, and opinions.
At this stage, their thinking becomes logical and organized. Children focus on open-ended questioning. They loved the questioning. They enjoy this activity. So, according to their taste we teach them. I think this is best way to understand the children mind.
4. The Formal Operational Stage:
The final stage of Piaget's theory is very important stage of the children life. We cannot forget this stage. At this stage, children learn more sophisticated rules of logic. They can use logical roles to understand abstract concepts and solve problems. The child is now able to analyze their environment and make deductions.
This is very interesting stage. We cannot ignore this stage. At the end I want to say that all stages have more importance in the life of the children. We used this stage to get good result. We should provide them healthy environment. It is very necessary for them. It is demand of time at this stage. Now I want to share a picture about this stage.