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EDU402 Assignment No 01 Solution & Discussion Fall 2016

Curriculum Development (EDU 402)
Assignment 1 (Fall 2016)
Total Marks: 20
(Topic 1 to 59)
Objective:
After doing this assignment, students will able to:
 Analyse the basic elements of curriculum in the context of philosophies of education.
 Identify importance of foundations of curriculum in the process of curriculum development.
Late assignment will not be accepted.
 If the file is corrupt or problematic, it will be awarded zero.
 Plagiarism will never be tolerated. Plagiarism occurs when a student uses work done by someone else as if it was his or her own; however, taking the ideas from different sources and expressing them in your own words will be encouraged.
 No assignment will be accepted via e-mail.
 The file should be in Word document form, the font color should be preferably black and font size should be 12 Times New Roman.
Q1: Compare and contrast basic elements of curriculum (objectives, content, learning interactions and assessment) for the following philosophies of curriculum.
(10 Marks)
Perennialism
Essentialism
Progressivism
Reconstructivism
Q2: How following foundations of curriculum are helpful in the process of curriculum development? If these foundations are not considered in the process of curriculum development, what will it effect on curriculum? (5 + 5 Marks)
Psychological foundation
Sociological foundation

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Assignment no 1 of EDU402

Q1: Compare and contrast basic elements of curriculum (objectives, content, learning interactions and assessment) for the following philosophies of curriculum. (10 Marks)

 A1. Comparison of curriculum’s elements with different curriculum philosophies:

 

Elements

Philosophies

objectives

 

content

 

learning

interactions

assessment

Perennialism

To educate the rational person ;

To cultivate the intellect.

Heavy on humanities and general education.

Teachers help students think with reason.

Students can get help of teachers in humanities and general education and students have definite rules that they must follow.

Essentialism

To promote the intellectual growth of the individual and educate a competent person.

According to this we have to teach essential subjects area. (basic facts and ideas)

Taught just scientific areas rather nonscientific areas.

The teacher is the sole authority in his or her subject area of field of specialization.

Students should be taught hard work, respect for authority, and discipline.

Progressivism

To promote democratic and social living.

It emphasizes not on one subject area but can teach many subjects areas & also emphasizes the study of the natural & social sciences.

Effective teachers provide experiences so that students can learn by doing.

Students can study matter and events systematically and first hand.

Reconstructivism

To improve and reconstruct society change for education.

It focuses on social reform. It less emphasis on management and control and more focus on community building.

 

Willing to engage and form alliances with the community and parents to make the school better.

 

Students have the ability to think in critical terms and expose their assumptions and practices.

 

 

 

 

Q2: How following foundations of curriculum are helpful in the process of curriculum development? If these foundations are not considered in the process of curriculum development, what will it effect on curriculum?  (5 + 5 Marks)

A2. (1) Psychological foundation

Psychology play a vital role in the teaching learning process it is the foundation for all type of educational related programmed. The methods of teaching, the selection of content of subject and the methods and theories of learning, the overall development of the students and to inculcate the norms of the society in the students. Psychology helps in all the processes above in the development process of the curriculum.

 (2) Sociological foundation

The social and cultural inspirations that affect curriculum designers consciously and unconsciously are apparent from the curriculum and their influence is deep. For example in Pakistan the curriculum is more reflective of the society and curriculum is design in a way that leads society to change. The society manifest through the curriculum and education, and the outcomes of the curriculum developers display the role of both of the above in curriculum development.

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PSYCHOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS
By providing a basis for understanding the teaching/learning process, educational psychology deals with how people learn. By implication, it emphasizes the need to recognize diversity among learners. However, it is also true that people share certain common characteristics. Among these are basic psychological needs which are necessary for individuals to lead a full and happy life. In this section, we shall be talking about the major learning theories and their contribution to curriculum development. Besides, we shall touch upon the basic psychological needs of individuals and reflect on their translation into curriculum.
We shall at this juncture remind ourselves that our main thrust will be on the contributions made by the theories of learning for curriculum development. Let us therefore make it clear that we are not, right now, interested in studying the theories of learning in detail, which has already been done to some extent in earlier courses on distance education.
Learning theories and curriculum
For the sake of convenience we have classified the major theories of learning into the following groups:
i) Behaviorist theories which deal with various aspects of stimulus- response and reinforcement scheme;
ii) Cognitive theories which view the learner in relationship with the total environment; and
iii) Phenomenology which emphasizes the affective domain of learning.
Let us take up each of them in the given order and examine its contribution to curriculum development.
i) Behaviorism and curriculum
The behaviorist school, which represents traditional psychology, is rooted in a corresponding philosophical speculation about the nature of learning. It has particularly dominated psychology in the first half of the twentieth century. After a few decades of being in the wilderness lt has recently gained currency once again with the advent of individualized education.
Without going into the details we shall touch upon the main, characteristic features of the behaviorist school of thought.
Essentially, learning is considered a habit-formation and teaching is regarded as arranging learning experiences in such a way as to promote desirable behavior. Further, behaviorism maintains that what is learnt in one situation can be transferred to other situations as well.
Broadly, behaviorists advocate that: behavior is likely to be influenced by the conditions under which learning takes place; attitudes to and abilities of learning can change or improve over time through the application of proper stimuli; learning experiences can be designed and controlled to create desired learning; selective reinforcement is essential; and rote learning and memorization of knowledge are unnecessary.
Having thus touched upon the crux of behaviorism, we shall now turn our attention to its contribution to curriculum development. It provides the following significant guidelines.
A curriculum, according to behaviorists, should be based on the following concerns:
i) Remedial measures, acquisition of skills, considerations of basic or advanced learning;
ii) Well-defined, short-term and long-term objectives;
iii) Appropriate instructional materials and media to suit the learner's abilities;
iv) Shaping behavior through prescribed tasks, phase by phase activities, close supervision of activities and positive reinforcement; and The Field of Curriculum
V) Diagnosing, assessing and reassessing the learners’ needs, objectives, activities, tasks and instruction with a view to improving the curriculum.
We can observe manifestations of these guidelines in the theories, principles or trends related to: individualized education (and to some extent, open system of education); instructional design and systems; teacher-training techniques such as simulation teaching, microteaching, competency-performance based teacher education; educational technology including programmed instruction (which provides, with modifications, a base for self- instructional materials in use in the distance mode of teaching/learning).
ii) Cognitivism and curriculum
Today most psychologists explain the phenomenon of human growth and development in cognitive, social, psychological and physical terms. They also note that learning is primarily cognitive in nature. Growth and development refer to changes in the structure and function of human characteristics. Most cognitivists believe that growth and development occur in progressive stages. One example is Piaget's (Piaget, 1950) description of cognitive development in terms of stages from birth to maturity. Most curriculumspecialists tend to show greater adherence to cognitivism than to behaviorism. This might be because the cognitive approach leads to logical methods for organizing and interpreting learning; and the cognitive approach is rooted in the tradition of teaching based on subject matter.
Even contemporary behaviorists incorporate cognitive processes in their theories of learning. Because learning in schools/colleges emphasizes the cognitive domain, it follows that most educationists feel that learning is synonymous with cognitive development. As a corollary, a problem solving approach in teachingllearning gains currency.
But, if we take an actual teaching/learning situation into consideration we tend to realize that this learning model is incomplete and that something is lost in its processes of actual transfer in the classroom. In reality, the teaching/learning process boils down to the teacher talking predominantly and students mostly responding to what is said by the teacher.
What should be of concern to the curriculum specialists?
They should be aware of the fact that a school/college should be a place where students are not afraid of asking questions, making mistakes, taking cognitive risks and playing with ideas. Further colleges/schools should be more humane places where students can explore and fulfill their human potentials. Obviously, curriculum has to play a vital role to actually realize this objective.
iii) Phenomenology and curriculum
Phenomenologist point out that the way we look at ourselves is crucial for understanding our behavior and that we respond to an organization or pattern of stimuli and not to an isolated stimulus.
It emphasizes that learning must be explained in terms of the "wholeness" of the problem. Here you can draw a parallel with cognitivism. But what differentiates phenomenology from cognitivism is that the former stresses the affective and the latter the cognitive aspects of learning.
Because each individual has specific needs and interests related to his or her self-fulfillment and self-realisations, there can't be a generally prescribed humanistic curriculum. Humanistic learning may enhance the mental health of the learners, harmonize personal feelings among students and teachers, and improve various aspects of human awareness among students, teachers, and curriculum specialists, yet its processes rely mainly on personal experiences and subjective interpretations that leave them open to criticism. Therefore, there is a great need to examine and understand what is relevant in humanistic curricula.
Please note that most textbook writers tend to be cognition-oriented. However, one should propose that behaviourist components are needed for planning and developing a sound curriculum. Further, humanistic components of teaching and learning must also be incorporated into the curriculum. Let us say, therefore, that each theory of learning has something significant to contribute towards explaining various aspects of human behavior and learning.
Basic human needs and curriculum
Physical well-being and health are generally recognized and frequently dealt with through various programmes such as those on fitness, nutrition and health problems. Mental health needs such as those pertaining to acceptance, belonging, security and status have been widely studied but little emphasized in the area of curriculum.

Sociology and Curriculum

There is a mutual and encompassing relationship between society and curriculum because the school exists within the societal context. Though schools are formal institutions that educate the people, there are other units of society that educate or influence the way people think, such as families and friends as well as communities.

Since the society is dynamic, there are many developments which are difficult to cope with and to adjust to. But the schools are made to address and understand the changes not only in one’s country but in the world as well.

Therefore, schools must be relevant by making its curriculum more innovative and interdisciplinary. A curriculum that can address the diversities of global learners, the explosion of knowledge through the internet, and the educational reforms and policies recommended or mandated by the United Nations.

However, it is also imperative that a country must have maintained a curriculum that reflects and preserves its culture and aspirations for national identity. No matter how far people go, it is the country’s responsibility to ensure that the school serves its purpose of educating the citizenry.

How following foundations of curriculum are helpful in the process of curriculum development? If these foundations are not considered in the process of curriculum development, what will it effect on curriculum?

Psychological foundation
Philosophical foundation

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