EDU402 Curriculum Development Assignment No 01 Fall 2019 Solution & Discussion
EDU402 CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT Assignment 1 Solution Fall 2019
CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT (EDU402)
Total Marks: 20
Read the article carefully “Role of Teachers’ in Curriculum Development for Teacher Education”
Do not copy and paste material. Write down the content in your own words.
Article is available in download section with the name “Article _Assignment 1_EDU402” fall 2019
Summarize the article in (500-800) words keeping in view the following context.
(5 marks + 5 marks)
Briefly describe the characteristics of these two educational philosophies.
(5 marks + 5 marks)
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Question: 1Question: 1Read the article carefully “Role of Teachers’ in Curriculum Development for Teacher Education”Do not copy and paste material. Write down the content in your own words. Article is available in download section with the name “Article _Assignment 1_EDU402”fall 2019
Summarize the article in (500-800) words keeping in view the following context.Curriculum development processAnswer: Curriculum development is dynamic process it changes according to the need of the society and the stakeholders of the education system. The curriculum development process includes several stages such as planning, preparing, designing, developing, implementing, evaluating, revising, and improving. Traditionally curriculum development has been seen as planning for a sustained process of teaching and learning in a formal institutional setting. Curriculum development is systematic and dynamic process sensitive to time and place in which preparation, development, implementation and evaluation steps are involved. The challenges in curriculum development There are varieties of challenges facing curriculum development, but in general they are classified into three types, global challenges (external), internal challenges of the education systems, and challenges specific to Region. With regard to the external challenges, curriculum planners should response to eight critical processes: the process of globalization, accelerated pace of scientific and technological progress, radical transformation in the work field, increasing social inequalities, progress of democracy and human rights, multi-culturalism, the feeling of insecurity, and moral decline. In addition, the third type of challenges may be summarized as: universal literacy, shortage of highly skilled human resources, reconciling traditional orientation of education with the aspiration for modernity, privatization of schools, diversification of the economy, the need to invest more in education research.Teacher as a curriculum developerAnswer: Teachers know the needs of all stakeholders of teacher education. Teachers can understand the psychology of the learner. Teachers are aware about the teaching methods and teaching strategies. Teachers also play the role as evaluator for the assessment of learning outcomes. So teachers must possess some qualities such as planner, designer, manager, evaluator, researcher, decision maker and administrator. Teachers play the respective role for the each step of curriculum development process. Curriculum planning involves analysis of philosophy, social forces, needs, goals and Objectives, treatment of knowledge, human development, learning process & instruction, and decision. Curriculum preparation involves systematic data, content, selection, collection, assessment, organization. Design factors includes school (levels, types, Structures), educational technology, systemic vocational, social reconstruction, Curriculum design, analysis of social needs, translating the needs into Course/general/learning/terminal objectives, splitting the objectives into specific objectives, grouping the specific objectives into subjects, deriving the subjects from the above classification, specifying enabling objectives, unitizing each subject matter, specification of required time, and syllabus formulation. Curriculum development phases consist of Instructional development, Materials & media development, Methods of teaching & testing Implementation of the Curriculum involves Instructional scheme of each subject to be completed in the semester, Planning the lessons as per the timetable, Using the transactional strategies, Using the appropriate media, Providing the learning resources, Promoting classroom learning experiences, Progressive testing Curriculum evaluation involves, Intra-curricular evaluation, Teacher evaluation of students, Student evaluation of teachers, Materials evaluation, Verification of methods, Evaluation of tests and examinations, Checking the learning outcomes while on the field, Curriculum review/ improvement/ change/ modification, System revision. After evaluating the prepared curriculum it is observed that the curriculum is not satisfactory then developer turns for revising and improving phase.
Question: 2Briefly describe the characteristics of these two educational philosophies. Idealism Characteristics of IdealismIdealism Believes in the Universal Mind:Besides the physical or material universe, there is also a spiritual universe which is permeated by the Universal Mind of God. He is the Creator and others are the created. Human mind is a part of the Universal Mind and is dependent of Him. God or the Universal Mind is the source of all human values and the goal of all human activities is the realization of this Universal Mind is one’s own self.Idealism Regards Man as a Spiritual Being:Idealism believes that man is a mere animal. He is essentially a spiritual being whose chief aim is to develop his spiritual nature. It is this spirituality that distinguishes man from other lower creatures. The underlying principle of the idealistic philosophy is “Mind or spirit is the essential world stuff and that mind is not merely brain and its activity, but is in itself a real thing.” Reality is found in the mind of man and not in the external world.The World of Ideas and Values is more important than the world of Matter:Idealism has full faith in eternal values which never change. They can neither be created nor destroyed. According to Plato, the outstanding eternal values are Truth, Goodness and Beauty. They are exactly similar to the attributes of God as expressed by the sages and seers of ancient Indian in the words. Man cannot create these values.He can only discover them if he tries. According to idealism, “Everything which we truly judged to be good or beautiful is so because it partakes of the nature of Absolute Goodness or Beauty. It is Absolute Beauty which makes all beautiful things, beautiful. ”Real knowledge is perceived in mind:The knowledge which is gained through the activity of mind is more important than the knowledge, acquired through senses.Importance of Personality Development:Idealists give very’ importance to the ‘Self of the individual. Hence they insist upon the fullest development of the personality of an individual. The development of personality means achievement of perfection. According to J. S. Ross, “Thus the grandeur and worth of human life at its best are emphasized by Idealism. Human personality is of supreme value and constitutes the noblest work of God.”
Realism1. Based on ScienceThe supporters of Realism emphasized the importance of useful and purposive education. They advocated the inclusion of scientific subjects in the curriculum and in place of academic and artificial education; they laid stress on the natural education which gave birth to Naturalism. Thus, the emphasis on scientific education is the first characteristics of realistic education.2. Emphasis on Present Life of ChildThe second characteristic of realistic education is to make the present life of child as the focal point of educational system.As we know the fact that Realism was born as a reaction to excessively Idealism, it opposed the academic education of mere ideals and values and emphasized the immediate real and practical problems of day to day living which only can promote individual goods and welfare.3. Emphasis on Experiment and Applied LifeThe third characteristic of racialist education is emphasis on experiments, experiences and application of knowledge learnt.
It lays great stress on learning by doing, by developing creativity and urge of political work in children so that they are able to solve their immediate practical problems and lead a real successful life.4. Opposition of Bookish KnowledgeRealists decry mere academic, theoretical and bookish knowledge which develops only rote memory and encourages cramming.It does not enable the child to understand the realities of external things and natural phenomena.According to Realists, education should inculcate in the child an understanding of both the thing and the environment. Thus, the slogan of realistic education is ‘Not words but things’. Such type of education promotes intelligence and a sense of judgment which the bookish education does not do.5. Emphasis on Training of SensesThe sixth characteristic of realistic education is to train and develop the senses of child.Unlike Idealists who impose knowledge from above, Realists advocate self-learning through senses which ought to be trained. These senses are the gateways of knowledge and develop by use and experience.6. Limited Freedom of ChildRealistic education realizes the prime importance of child. Hence, according to Realists the child should be given full freedom to develop his self according to his innate tendencies. But this freedom should promote self-discipline and self-control. In other words, the child should proceed from ignorance to knowledge slowly but surely through his own efforts and self-discipline.7. Equal Importance of Individuality and SociabilityThe seventh characteristic of realistic education is to emphasize equally the individuality and sociability of the child. Thus, the aim of realistic education is to develop both the individual self and the society of which he is an integral part.Bacon clearly asserts that realistic education develops the individual on the one hand and on the other hand tries to develop society through the development of social consciousness and sense of service of the individual.
EDU402 Assignment#01 Solution fall 2019
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