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EDU406 Solved Final Term Papers

  EDU402 Curriculum Development Final Term Papers

Total Question 26

Mcqs 10

Subjective type Questions 16

1-What is new definition of curriculum?

The term curriculum refers to the lessons and academic content taught in a school or in a specific course or program. In dictionaries, curriculum is often defined as the courses offered by a school, but it is rarely used in such a general sense in schools2

2-What is including in instructional objectives?

  • behaviors -   

o   observable

o   measureable

  • condition under which behaviors will occur  - 

o   on an exam

o   in a classroom

  • a minimum / acceptable  level of performance

 (%age of correctness)

Expertise required among teachers to translate goals into instructional objectives

The knowledge about: 

  •  goals
  •  subject matter & students  2

3-What are aspects of concept of evaluation?

The last step of the Evaluation Process Model is refined into three steps, namely measurement, rating and assessment.'

  • Measurement: 'For measurement, the selected metrics are applied to the software product. The result is values on the scales of the metrics.'
  • Rating: 'In the rating step, the rating level is determined for a measured value [ ... ]'
  • Assessment: 'Assessment is the final step of the software evaluation process where a set of rated levels are summarized. The result is a statement of the quality of the software product. Then the summarized quality is compared with the other aspects such as time and cost. Finally managerial decisions will be made based on the managerial criteria. The result is a managerial decision on the acceptance or rejection, or on the release or no-release of the software product.


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Views: 770

Replies to This Discussion

 2

4-What is Low level of organizing the curriculum?

Topic 172: Step – 3 Low Level Units

The kind of low level unit to be used ibn the class, whether,

-          Daily lesson

-          Topics in sequence or

Teaching units

  1. The lesson – a single day is treated as a discrete unit. It is historically the most widely used structure.
  2. A topic – may last for several days or weeks.
  3. The unit – organized around problems or major student purposes. Usually spreads over several weeks.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Organizing Structures

Achieving continuity and integration through discrete subjects, courses for:

-          Semester

-          Year

Discrete lessons – all these create problems and vertical organization is impossible to attain.

Vertical organization demands courses to be organized over a period of years in larger units and a larger framework.

 2

5-What is philosophy of reconstraconism?

 Reconstructionism

Reconstructionism is about: 

  •  change & reform
  •  rebuilding of social & cultural infrastructures

It argues that:

  •  students must be taught  to study social problems & think of ways to improve society
  •  schools become the agent of social change  & social reform.

Topic 31: Characteristics of Reconstructivist Curriculum

Its emphasis is on: 

  •  social sciences; history, political science, economics, sociology, religion, ethics, poetry,  & philosophy, rather than pure sciences
  •  social & economic issues as well as social service
  •  making students to  analyze, interpret & evaluate social problems,  
  •  encouraging students to take action to bring  about constructive change
  •  engaging students in critical analysis of the local, national & international community   issues; e.g.,

-               poverty,

-               pollution,

-               unemployment,

-               crime,

-               war,

-               political oppression  &

-               hunger.

The curriculum keeps on changing to meet the needs of changing society.

 3

6-Importance of formulation in curriculum development? 3

7-Learner centered curriculum?

Student / Learner Centered

Focuses upon the:

  • developmental level
  • needs & interests of the students

Knowledge of child

  • growth &
  • development  

plays an important role in CD

According to Morrison (1993), “whatever happens to children in school is dependent on:

  • what they are taught 
  • how they are taught  &

Activities they participate in, should be…….…appropriate to their:

  • physical,
  • emotional,
  • social &
  • cognitive level of development.           

Broad Fields Design

Focuses upon related disciplines & treated as one field of study, “social studies”, e.g.,

  • history,
  • economics
  • sociology
  • geography &
  • anthropology    
  • It is an attempt to
  • Integrate content that
  • appears to fit together
  • logically

Example

  • Elementary level
  • Social studies is one of the examples

8-Steps of evolution procedures?

  1.             Defining objectives
  2.             Identifying situations

    iii.            Selecting and developing instruments

9-Planning the organizing the LE in curriculum?

Planning the organization of learning experiences in curriculum

It involves:

-          A great deal of pre planning

-          Planning as work goes on

It is through preplanning and planning that the greatest cumulative effect from various learning experiences is achieved.

We have explored:

  1. The meaning of organization
  2. The criteria for organization
  3. Organization of elements
  4. Organizing principles
  5. The process of planning  unit of organization

3

10-Kind of information through the process of interview of the students about social culture? 3

11-Operationalzed the curriculum development?

Topic 220: Operationalizing the Curriculum Development Process

Operationalizing CD Process – focusing upon classroom teaching/instruction

Successful completion of steps:

  •  development of instructional objectives
  •  selection of a  curriculum design

STEP- I Planning for teaching & learning

  1. Determining prior
  •   knowledge &
  •   skills
  1. Establishing
  •   learning outcomes
  1. Reviewing appropriate
  •   resources &
  •   materials

Planning the curriculum

Planning means:

  •  Reviewing sources of curriculum as  suggested by Tyler
  •  rehearsal for what will take place in Step- 2, that is, “teaching”

Planning as a process means:

  •  organizing content
  •  identifying & sequencing learning tasks
  •  selecting assignments
  •  defining classroom management
  •  assessment procedures

Topic 221: Operationalizing the Curriculum Development Process II

Step- 2 Implementing the Plan

Curriculum plans are implemented either as parts of a unit or as daily lessons.

Implementing the plan

  1.  Teaching lessons
  2.  Using teaching strategies & activities 
  3. Modeling & providing input
  4. Monitoring student progress

Important facts

-          Often time curriculum & teaching are used interchangeably,

-          For many educationists, “curriculum”  is all about , “outcomes”, and “teaching” is the means to attain these “outcomes”

-          There is a relationship between curriculum & teaching.  “curriculum”  is not just ‘ends’, isolated form “teaching” or ‘means’; together they create a whole that is greater than the sum of their parts.   

-          Curriculum” & “teaching” are interdependent, not mutually exclusive. 

Topic 222: Operationalizing the Curriculum Development Process III

 Step- 3 assessing teaching & learning

  1.  Conducting    
    •   formative &
    •   summative assessment
  2.  Analyzing student performance data
  3. Determining the level of achievement 

Assessment is done to know:

  •  what students know about
  •  content &
  •  level of their skills in various tasks
  •  If students show low performance, the CD process requires:
  •   modification of the plan & re-teaching of concepts with different strategies.

Process of CD

Particular:

  •  school
  •  grade level
  •  class

involves all basic principles we have explored in the course.

 5

12-Note on subject centered curriculum development?

Curriculum Designs

Organization of learning objectives for teaching & learning = curriculum designs

  • Subject centered /discipline based
  • Student /learner centered

Curriculum Designs

  • Broad  fields
  • Problem solving
  • Integrated / thematic

Subject Centered/ Discipline Based Curriculum Design

Focuses upon:

  • a separate subject orientation,
  • No integration of information or shared skills with other curriculum areas

 

This design reflects Bruner’s (1960) view,

“Subjects form the basis for what is taught in school & are made up of:

  • concepts
  • generalizations &

facts 5

13-What a type of assessment through paper pencil test?

  1. Evaluation & paper-pencil test

Evaluation as synonymous with paper pencil test. It provides:

-          A practicable procedure to gather evidence about several kinds of student behaviours.

Examples:

Paper pencil test assess students’ prior knowledge.

-          Writing

-          Reading

-          Multiple response etc.

Students’ ability to deal with:

-          Verbal problems

-          Vocabulary

-          Reading

Other ways of getting evidence

  1. Observations of children under conditions in which:

-          Personal-social adjustments

-          Habits and

-          Operations skills are included.

  1. Interviews

Changes in:

-          Attitudes

-          Interests

-          Appreciations

iii.                Questionnaires

Evidence about

-          Interests

-          Attitudes and

-          Other types of behaviours

  1. Student work

-          Themes written by students’

-          Painting – skill and area of interest

-          Models – Creativity

  1. Other evidences

-          Library books – with drawn

-          Health records

Conclusion

Any way of getting to evidence about the kind of behaviours desired by objectives of any educational program – is an appropriate evaluation procedure5

14-Steps of organization curriculum?

  1. General scheme of organization
  2. General organizing principles to be followed within each of the fields decided on.
  3. The kind of low level unit.
  4. Developing flexible plans or source plans.
  5. Student – teacher planning.

15-How LE helpful developing interest?

Interests – as

  • end (objectives)
  • means (motivational force with regard to experiences to attain the objectives)

Let’s consider Interests – as objectives, because

  • What one is interested in largely determines, what one
  • attends to
  •  &  is interested in
  1. LEs to helpful in acquiring information

Information

Principles

 Laws

Theories

Experiments

Evidences

Supporting:

Ø  Generalizations of acts

Ideas 5

Q1. What is the level for analyzing CL? 2marks

Q2. What is an attitude?

A tendency to react even though the reaction does not actually takes place

A predisposition or a tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain idea, object, person, or situation. Attitude influences an individual's choice of action, and responses to challenges, incentives, and rewards (together called stimuli).
Four major components of attitude are (1) Affective: emotions or feelings. (2) Cognitive: belief or opinions held consciously. (3) Conative: inclination for action. (4) Evaluative: positive or negative response to stimuli. 2

Q3. What types of evidence can be collected through the interview? 2marks

Q4. What is community record?

- Child mortality,

- frequency of  occurrence of any  disease with reference to health condition,

- various types of  social data by community etc

 2 marks

Q5.Define Gestalt theory?

Gestalt / Cognitive Theory

  •  How students learn

 It takes into account  students’:

  •  attitudes
  •  prior experiences
  •  values &
  •  interests

It proceeds from whole to parts.

In the theory,

 “learning consists of the formation of new perceptions when the learner is confronted with problem situation”

Learning is a process of developing new insights & is influenced by what everyone brings to a learning situation. 

Classroom applications of Cognitive theory

  •  problem solving situations are emphasized
  •  mistakes are seen as opportunities to learn
  •  integrated thematic planning is encouraged 
  • Self-concept activities  
  •  teacher questions focus - higher order cognitive skills (application, analysis, synthesis & evaluation)

Conceptual models & mind maps help students build mental constructs of concepts

After studying:

  •  goals of education
  •  sources of curriculum and
  •  two screens

teachers identify specific instructional objectives. 

 2 marks

Q6. Write down steps of Evaluation process?

Evaluation Procedure Steps:

  1.             Defining objectives
  2.             Identifying situations

    iii.            Selecting and developing instruments

 3 marks

Q7. What is the demand of school program of curriculum reconstruction?

It demands:

-          extensive faculty participation.

-          Each teacher to clearly understand objectives of the instructional program.

-          Teachers to clearly understand LEs to attain these objectives.

-          Teachers to be able to guide the activities of students to enable them to get these experiences.

Fulfilling these demands will ensure that educational program will become an effective instrument for promoting the aims of the school.

Q8. How does learning take place?

- Learning takes place through the active behavior of the learner LEARNING EXPERIENCES

It is, ‘what he does that he learns, not what the teacher does.’

Example:

Two students to be in the same class to have two different types of experiences;

  • interested & attentive student
  • un-interested & un- attentive

LE- involves interaction of:

 Student & his environment – implies that student is an active participant; some features of environment attract his attention, & it is to these (features) he reacts.

Q9. What are criteria against we check our LEs?

-          criteria derived from educational psychology, practical experiences.

-          objectives that are set up.

-          against important psychological principles.

It seems that some kind of preliminary evaluation of LEs has already been done. It can be referred to as preliminary stage of evaluation.

Q12. Write brief note on “psychomotor" domain?

It stresses muscular or motor skills which requires neuro-muscular coordination

Levels of Psychomotor Domain

  1. Reflex movements
  2. Fundamental movements
  3. Perceptual abilities
  4. Physical abilities
  5. Skilled movements
  6. Non-discursive communication 

A Framework for Examining the Instructional Objectives

The domains & levels within each domain provides a framework for assessing the instructional objectives. A suggestion for teaches is that every lesson should have objectives in each of:

  •   three domains &
  •   different levels within each domain

 5 marks

Q13. Why do we seek suggestion from subject specialist?

Who is a subject specialist

 (SS)?

Why seek suggestions from SS?

How to get hold of suggestions from SS?

Important Facts about SS

  •  Most commonly  used source of  objectives
  •  text books writers
  •  share their reflections actively & openly 
  • plan course of studies for schools
  •  propose objectives that schools should attain.

SS – a source of objectives-Criticism

Objectives propose are:

  •  too technical
  •  too specialized
  •  inappropriate for large number of students 

Q15 how do attitude develop?

  1. Assimilation from environment
  2. Emotional effects of certain kinds of experiences
  3. Traumatic experiences
  4. Direct intellectual process5 marks

Q16. Write a brief note on identifying the situation for LEs evaluation? 5marks

  1. What is def of integrated curriculum?

An integrated curriculum is one, in which, “the lines separating subject matter areas from one another are erased …and utilizes a conceptual or life-problem-oriented approach to organization”   

  1. Write the names of basic notions?

Basic notions about evaluation are:

-          Change in behaviour

-          Frequency

-          Modes

-          Sampling

  1. 3 domains of taxonomy of objective

Taxonomy of objectives

Step - I

Instructional objectives

Step – II

Classification of objectives

  •  specific level
  •  domains of  learning   

Taxonomy of objectives – functions

  • Categorization of objectives or
  • Evaluation of  objectives – learning outcomes

Learning outcomes – classification

Three domains:

(objectives are written)

  1. Cognitive
  2. Affective
  3. Psychomotor

Cognitive Domain

It involves intellectual skills, ranging from remembering &   reproducing materials to higher order thinking skills;

  •  reasoning
  •  problem solving
  •  evaluating ideas & materials

Cognitive domain objectives can be assessed from simple to complex behaviors using six levels.

Levels of Cognitive Domain

  1. Knowledge
  2. Comprehension
  3. Application
  4. Analysis
  5. Synthesis
  6. Evaluation

Topic 215: Taxonomy of Objectives …. cont

Affective Domain

It stresses upon:

  • Values
  • Feelings
  • Attitudes

Relevant behaviors range from paying attention to personal actions. 

Hierarchies of Affective Domain

  1. Receiving
  2. Responding
  3. Valuing
  4. Organizing
  5. Being characterized by a value

Psychomotor Domain

It stresses muscular or motor skills which requires neuro-muscular coordination

Levels of Psychomotor Domain

    1. Reflex movements
    2. Fundamental movements
    3. Perceptual abilities
    4. Physical abilities
    5. Skilled movements
    6. Non-discursive communication 

A Framework for Examining the Instructional Objectives

The domains & levels within each domain provides a framework for assessing the instructional objectives. A suggestion for teaches is that every lesson should have objectives in each of:

  •   three domains &
  •   different levels within each domain

  1. Taylers model

Most Suitable Model for Curriculum Development

Tyler’s is the most do-able model.

Qualities of Tyler’s model

-          Global in nature

-          Helpful to conceptualize

-          It helps to view the big picture of curriculum at school level and grade level.

What is the goal of education?

Tyler’s model as a planning tool helps teachers to identify the content of curriculum.

What does the process of curriculum development do?

It enables teachers to formulate student behaviours and to develop appropriate and reflective experiences for students.

  1. How teachers learning are important in planning curriculum?

Teacher/s teaching:

-          A subject area

-          Same subject at different grade levels and

Related subjects can work together for planning the LEs

7 related to vocational

Vocational education and training (VET) DEFINITION:Education and training which aims to equip people with knowledge, know-how, skills and/or competences required in particular occupations or more broadly on the labour market.

  1. Core curriculum and integration?

Core curriculum poses less difficulty in achieving integration with regard to the interposition of boundaries between subjects.

Integration with daily life experiences of students

Issues faced in daily life like situations, where students are to apply what they have learnt in the school, tend to cut across narrow subject lines.

Suggestions

Broad groupings for organization like broad fields or core programs should be used instead of narrow units like subjects and course.

  1. Criteria for effective organization

Criteria for organization

  1. Continuity
  2. Sequence

iii. Integration

  1. Continuity

Vertical reiteration of curricular elements

Example

Objective 1:

To develop reading skills in social studies material

 How would it appear in Curriculum?

It will:

  • reflect recurring opportunity for the skills to be:
  • Developed &
  • Practiced

Example:

Objective 2:

To develop meaningful concept of ‘energy’

Curriculum

Concept dealt with again & again in various parts of the course.

Continuity – A major factor in effective vertical organization.

Topic 155: ii. SEQUENCE LEs – ORGANIZATION

Continuity & Sequence

  • What if there is repetition but at the same level – useless as there is no new development of:
  • concept
  • skills
  • attitude
  1. Sequence

Demands every new experience:

  • build upon the previous one
  • To go more deeply & broadly into the concepts involved

Sequence – goes one step ahead of continuity

Example

Objective 1:

To develop reading skill in social studies (SS) material.

What would sequence require?

Sequence – would require:

  • More complex SS material
  • Increasing:
  • Breadth in the operation of skill involved in reading
  • Depth of analysis so that it is not repetition of what was read in the previous grade.

Example

Objective 2:

To develop meaningful concept of ‘energy’

What would sequence require?

Sequential development of the concept would require:

  • Greater depth & breadth
  • Broader & deeper implications.

Sequence - requires

  • Higher level of treatment with each successive LE &
  • rejects repetition

Topic 156: iii. INTEGRATION

Integration –

Horizontal relationship of curricular or LEs.

It requires LEs enable students to:

  • gain increasingly a unified view &
  • unify behavior in relation to the elements dealt with

Example:

Objective:

To develop skill in handling quantitative problems in arithmetic Ways to develop these skills can be utilized effectively in:

  • social studies
  • science
  • shop/everyday life

It ensures skill is not developed as:

  • isolated behavior that can be used in one course only BUT
  • part of total capabilities of students to be used in various situations in daily life.

Example

Concept

Development in Social Studies, it is important to see:

  • how it is linked to learning in other subject areas

It is easy to ensure that there is:

  • Continuity
  • Sequence
  • Integration in curriculum, for effective curriculum organization?

  1. 2 advantages of two dimensional charts.

Objectives- Two dimensional chart is useful:

  •  to select the learning experience
  •  achieve intended behaviors
  •  learn content/concepts
  1. Principles of selecting LE

Principles for selection of LE

  1. Opportunity to practice
  2. Satisfying
  3. Desired reactions & range of possibility
  4. Multiplicity of LEs
  5. LE & multiplicity of outcomes

  1. Types of organization

There are two types of organizations:

-          Logical and

-          Psychological

The distinction between the organizations:

Logical is viewed by the experts in education.

Psychological organization – relationship as it may appear to learners. In many instances logical and psychological organizations are the same.

Example:

A relationship which has a meaning and significance to an expert, is also an appropriate psychological organization, that is, it can be a scheme of development in relations meaningful to learners themselves.

In other instances, sharp differentiation can be made between the connections seen by the experts and developments which are meaningful to learners.

Chronological organizations

-          History

-          Geography

-          Science

-          Literature

-          Art

Neither it  broadens nor deepens learners command on the elements involved.

  1. Steps for organizing curriculum.

What is the process of planning a unit of organization?

We know the issues faced in organizing LEs and principles to address these problems effectively. Now we will look into the planning methods used in developing organized curriculum programs. Several ways are used to develop organization in curriculum.

Topic 170: Steps for Organizing Curriculum

Agreeing upon:

  1. General scheme of organization
  2. General organizing principles to be followed within each of the fields decided on.
  3. The kind of low level unit.
  4. Developing flexible plans or source plans.
  5. Student – teacher planning.

This general operational procedure is used by various curriculum developers.

Step 1- General Scheme of Organization

Agreeing upon the general scheme of organization, whether specific subjects, broad fields and core curriculum will be used

how do alternative enter into a culture?

  • by invention in the society
  •  diffusion from other cultures

Cultures may be:

  •  static/ un-changing
  •  dynamic/ changing

New ways of doing things emerge, come to be accepted & absorbed by either the universals or the alternatives.

What is the definition of integrative need?

Need to relate one’s self to something larger and beyond one’s self.

Need for a philosophy of life

What is definition of implicit curriculum?

Implicit curriculum includes “values”& “norms” that are set by society & its culture lessons that arise from culture of school and behaviors, attitudes, & expectations that characterize that culture. It has more to do with the "where" of education than the "what“. 

It includes:

  •  informal &
  • unintentional teaching of:

Ø    behaviors 

Ø    attitudes &

Ø    perspectives students pick up while they are at school.

They learn to:

Ø   form opinions and ideas about their environment & classmates

Ø  act in 'appropriate' ways at school

Ø   behave as is expected of them in the class or play ground

It also addresses student ideas about:   

Ø    gender,

Ø    morals,

Ø    social class,

Ø    stereotypes,

Ø    cultural expectations,

Ø  politics &

Ø   language.

The attitudes & ideas are not taught formally, but students absorb & internalize them by observing & participating in activities in- & outside the classroom

What is the focus of humanism theory?

According to humanism learning is a personal act to fulfill one’s potential. It focuses on human dignity, freedom and potential. And fulfills cognitive affective needs (key to development).

Humanism - 

  •  develops self-actualized people in a cooperative supportive environment.

 

Humanistic curriculum:

Ø    learner centered

  needs teacher  to be a facilitator

What are the characteristics of common education curriculum?

In every culture it will be/ is based on the:

  •  universal elements of the culture
  •  aspects of the specialties that are of general concern. 

How can we infer objectives from investigation?

How to infer objectives from investigations?

What is data?

-           Information collected  in an investigation

- Information collected by using different  types of sources or instruments/ tools

What can be the form of Data?

-           Short/Tabulated/  List

-           Statements 

How to infer Objectives from investigations?

- Studying the data for implication

o          comparing data  with standards

o          obtaining  suggestions  about possible needs, a  school can meet.

The important of implication of data

  

-cannot be over emphasized as data can be interpreted in different ways

   Example:

   “60% boys in 6th grade of an elementary school read nothing outside of school other than lesson given from the textbook” can be interpreted in two ways.   

  1. One group of teachers might suggest that the school needs to teach the boys how to read more rapidly or with greater satisfaction.  
  2. Another group of teachers, would suggest the problems of the  reading interests of these boys & need for setting up the objectives to broaden reading interests.

What is cultural core?

Cultural Core consists of central body of elements, i.e., Universals & Specialties.

It refers to:

  •  Fundamental rules
  •  Knowledge &
  •  Skills, by which people:

o    live  

o    carry on their conduct

o   rationalize their conduct  & upon which they build their hopes & expectations.

From these elements society draws it:

  •  stability &
  •  vitality

They underlie all social institutions & constitute the bases of moral & social judgment.

Cultural core & people shapes general pattern  & spirit of a culture that determines people’ s

political & economical habits.

The economical habits include:

  •  kind of institutions
  •  extent of competition or collaboration with each other
  •  way of controlling those who deviate from accepted patterns of conduct.

Briefly described the methods of observation as social investigation?

-          Methods of social investigations

  1. Observation by the teacher
  2. Student interview
  3. Parent interview
  4. Questionnaire
  5. Interest questionnaire

What methods can be used in studying the learners?

-           Methods of social investigations

  1. Test
  2. Examination of community records
  3. Participation of  teachers 
  4. Participation of  students
  1. Write note on operational development curriculum?

Already explain

  1. Define source plan?

What is a source plan?

-          Preliminary flexible plans for teaching

What is the purpose of source plan?

Provides a collection of possible materials for teachers

Characteristics of Source Plan

  1. Flexible – can be modified.
  2. Inclusive – wide range of experiences.
  3. Source plans are flexible and can be modified easily according to the needs, interests and abilities of any particular group.
  4. Source plans are inclusive enough, that they provide a wide range of experiences out of which, the most appropriate for any group may be selected.

A teacher can select material of her choice from the source unit as per the requirements of a particular group and use for teaching in her class.

  1. Importance of sources in curriculum?

-          Society’s values

-          Students’ needs

-          Input from subject specialists

These sources provide data and help to determine the educational purposes school should pursue. Additionally, sources suggest looking at broader context that impacts curriculum and offers answer to questions like;

  1. What educational goals the schools should hope to achieve through curriculum?
  2. What knowledge and skills are needed to prepare students for jobs today and in future?
  3. How can a school provide a curriculum for students, having different learning styles, abilities, skills and interests?
  4. Is the subject hierarchical, sequential or spiral in nature?
  5. How can knowledge and skills across subject areas be integrated?
  6. How can a thematic approach help students to see the inter-relatedness of knowledge?

First step towards curriculum development is answering these questions, which help to:

-          Define the scope of curriculum

-          Determine general goals of education

These general goals are stated in all curricula (national and school). These goals help to determine:

-          What should be taught in school?

-          How it should be taught?

-          How it should be assessed?

  1. What is industrial revolution?

Prior to Industrial   

Revolution –

  • limited body of  knowledge
  • easy to make a  selection from cultural heritage

Industrial evolution 

  • increased body of knowledge
  • schools were expected to teach all the knowledge
  • school faced to difficulties to fulfill this demand

Since, it was impossible to include all scholarly knowledge in educational program, therefore, the question about the contemporary significance of particular knowledge, skills & abilities, was raised

  1. Steps for setting objectives for evaluate data?
  2. Hypothesis?

a supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation.

  1. Theory of behaviorism?

Behaviorism (S-R) Theory

People learn through conditioning process, correct responses are reinforced. Reinforcement strengthens the bond between stimulus and response.

Classroom Situation

It is followed, however it is confined to the lower levels of cognitive domain of Bloom’s Taxonomy; that is recall and comprehension.

Classroom Applications of the S-R theory

It includes the use of:

  •  Assertive Discipline (rewarding appropriate behavior with treats) 
  •  Behavior Modification 

  Techniques

(reinforcing appropriate behaviors with praise)

  •   Questioning Technique

 (recall questions - actual or informational with a high degree of success)

  •   Computer Assisted Instruction

 (computers to provide questions,

  1. Define thinking?

the process of considering or reasoning about something

using thought or rational judgement; intelligent

  1. What is the importance of teacher student planning?
  2. Teacher student planning for particular things enables students to:

-          Develop greater understanding

-          Give meaning to learning

-          Be motivated for learning

-          In teacher student planning activities must be selected from the ones given in the units. Additions may be made as per students see possibilities.

-          A particular plan followed by each group of students will show some variations from the original source unit.

-          A particular plan will never include all materials given in the source unit itself.

  1. How learning experience is important for integrated thinking development.
  2. Steps of change in curriculum?

  1. What are two dimensional analyses of objectives?

Two dimensional analysis-importances

 Serves as a basis for planning of:

-          Learning experiences

-          Evaluation procedures

So, two dimensional analyses of objectives serve-as a set of specification for evaluation

Analysis of objectives and evaluation

To develop:

-          Behaviours

-          Knowledge skills

Two dimensional analysis-importances

 Serves as a basis for planning of:

-          Learning experiences

-          Evaluation procedures

So, two dimensional analyses of objectives serve-as a set of specification for evaluation

Analysis of objectives and evaluation

To develop:

-          Behaviours

-          Knowledge skills

  1. Steps for designing curriculum for large organization?

Structural Elements exist at three levels of organization:

  1. Largest
  2. Intermediate
  3. Lowest

Largest level of organizing structure’

  1. Subject specific
  2. Broad field
  3. Core curriculum combined with broad fields or specific subjects
  4. Undifferentiated structure

Subject specific

For example:

-          Arithmetic

-          Geography

-          History

-          Spellings

Broad fields

-          Social studies

-          Language arts

-          Mathematics

-          Natural sciences

Core curriculum for general education is combined with broad fields and specific subjects.

Completely undifferentiated structure – program is treated as unit.

For example: curricula of less formal educational institutions, like boy scouts and girl guides

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Correction will be Acceptable.

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