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Community, School  and Teacher (EDU500)Community, School  and Teacher (EDU500)
Table of Contents: Lesson 01 School Teacher and Community (Topic # 001 - 006)    Lesson 02 Relationship between School and Community  (Topic # 007 - 012)    Lesson 03 Definition and Types of Social Institution (Topic # 013 - 020)    Lesson 04 School and Culture (Topic # 021 - 027)    Lesson 05 The Concept of Culture (Topic # 028 - 033)    Lesson 06 Cultural Pattern (Topic # 034 - 039)    Lesson 07 The Working Context of Pakistani Teachers (Topic # 040 - 044)    Lesson 08 Leadership Role (Topic # 045 - 051)    Lesson 09 Level of  Social Interaction (Topic # 052 - 057)    Lesson 10 Group Formation (Topic # 058 - 064)    Lesson 11 Community Education &  Parent Involvement (Topic # 065 - 069)    Lesson 12 Community Education (Topic # 070 - 074)    Lesson 13 Parents Involvement (Topic # 05 - 080)    Lesson 14 Collaboration in Learning (Topic # 081 - 087)    Lesson 15 Social Class Difference (Topic # 088 - 096)    Lesson 16 Support the Mother Tongue (Topic # 097 - 104)    Lesson 17 Parents Trust (Topic # 105 - 109)    Lesson 18 Feminine Approaches (Topic # 110 - 114)    Lesson 19 New Knowledge is Built on Old Knowledge (Topic # 115 - 120)    Lesson 20 Schools in Pakistan (Topic # 121 - 126)    Lesson 21 Literacy (Topic # 127 - 130)    Lesson 22 Culture Defined (Topic # 131 - 135)    Lesson 23 Students Learning (Topic # 136 - 142)    Lesson 24 Personal Social Characteristics (Topic # 143 - 147)    Lesson 25 Assumptions about Teaching Practices (Topic # 148 - 152)    Lesson 26 Number of Female Teachers (Topic # 153 - 159)    Lesson 27 Classroom Practices (Topic # 160 - 165)    Lesson 28 Family Background (Topic # 166 - 172)    Lesson 29 Head Teacher (Topic # 173 - 180)    Lesson 30 School Culture (Topic # 181 - 185)  



Topic: 001 – School, Community and TeacherTopic: 001 – School, Community and Teacher
Triangle components
These are three component of a triangleSchoolCommunityTeacherThese components have equal importance in a triangle. If any one of them is missing, the triangle will not be complete. For a proper triangle, all three components have to merge together.Relationship among school, teacher and community If school and teacher work but community does not exist the triangle does not stand, if school and community are in harmony with one another and teachers are not collaborating with both, again we do not have good educational results. So, for good educational standards and to meeting the targets and goals, we need the collaboration of all three components. Pillars of the societySchool, community and teacher are independent pillars of a society and a nation depends on how the schools are functioning with cooperation and understanding of the community and how the teachers are playing an important role by looking at the standard set by the school. School as part in in the communitySchool is an important part of the community, it is not a mere building, and schools have to a lot to do to serve the community. Similarly community contributes a lot to school. Communities combine their practices, resources, and perspectives to form a shared knowledge base that informs their practice. Members of a community of practice have a common sense of purpose and a real need to know what the others know. So, all these depend on each other. 
Topic: 002 – The Relations between school and home
School is the second home for a child. It has its own culture, its name and its identity.School is the second home for a child. It has its own culture, its name and its identity.Children come from a home, which is a part of a community, with deep rooted norms of culture and behaviors. It also has its own identity.
School is the second home for a child. It has its own culture, name and identity. A child comes from a home which is a part of a community. School has also its own identity. School brings vision for us. It is said that 99% people consider school as a second home. They feel that the days spent in school were the best one in their lives. School as identitySchool has not only the building but also a name, culture and identity. Parents hold an opinion about the school, whether government or private. School has its own culture, good or bad, it depends how the school authority conducts it, how the community visualize the school in a particular area and how the teachers contribute to the identity and culture of the school. A child comes from home holding a specific culture and adjusts him with the school environment. 
Topic: 003 – The Relations between school and homeA child needs a familiar set up to settle in the new environment of school which respects his identity and home culture and identity to which they belong.Different background The culture of a society has deep roots and the school and home are part of that society. The child has a certain culture at home, he goes to school and figures out that the school has also some norms and routines; at playground, he learns that different children come from different homes and each has his own home culture. Community & teacher help the childThus, it is a difficult task, for the child, to become familiar with all three different cultures. However, the community members, school staff and teachers can help the children to address three different cultures issues. They can generate a friendly environment and sense of attachment and may instigate   respect and harmony among the home, school  and the community culture. This will imply a positive impact on the child’s growth. So, educating a child is a partnership between home and school, and that connection must remain clear and strong to monitor progress and take action when there are problems.
Topic: 004 – The Teacher’s Role

The teacher’s role is to:Develop an understanding of the student’s culture and communitiesValue their student’s cultureRespect their students familiesReferebce: McCaleb,PS (1994)Building Communities of learners, USA: Lawrence Erbaum associates
So, it is the responsibility of the teacher to understand the culture and community from which the students are coming from. It is not an easy task for a teacher to know the culture, community and the home culture of each and every student; however the teachers should do it. If the teacher does not know the culture and community of the students, she may misunderstand the situation. The teacher’s role is not only to know the culture but also to understand the traditions and value their culture. We need to learn that other people who have different culture, can also Have good values, norms and traditions. As sometimes we think that whatever we do, is best. Similarly, we think that our culture is best or superior to others. We should give space to others. Teacher as a role modelThe teacher is the role model for students and thus should respect, value and appreciate the culture of each and every student and must always give positive remark about the culture, whatever the culture is.ExampleFor example if the student say it is my culture that I need to shake hands with my elders, the teacher must appreciate that, this will be a very kind gesture, that the teacher may say, “O fine, that’s wonderful, I think this is very interesting”. These are all positive statements, statement which pride the students. Students must love that behavior and they would respect their teachers, along with that teacher must respect the family of the students irrespective of their status and educational background. 
Topic: 005 – The Teacher’s RoleA social group of any size whose members reside in a specific locality, share government and often have a common cultural and historical heritage.Community may be small, medium or large. It has same govt, same laws and same traditions, same culture and same historical heritage.Concept of community
A social, religious occupational or other group sharing common characteristics or interests and perceived or perceiving itself as distinct in some respect from the larger society within which it exists. ExampleFor example, in a village, city, people live together but people who share common religious thoughts could form a group with the same common religious ideas and practices and term them a community of that particular religious group. Similarly, in a society people who share the same occupation such as ironsmith, gold smith or people who are dealing with business, have common issues, common interests and perceive them different from the larger society in which they live, can form a sub- community. Another example can be of the people who do business of garments, they have common issues, they think the interest of their business. They have common goals, characteristics; they can form the group of business community.  This labeling is just because of same occupation. Topic: 006 – Community
A social, religious occupational or other group sharing common characteristics or interests and perceived or perceiving itself as district in some respect from the larger society within which it exist for example business community.Community formationThere are many people in a city or town or village living together but people who share the common religious thoughts could form a group with the same common religious ideas an practices and therefore be called community of that particular  religious group or it could be people having the same occupation where they are living amongst in a larger society but they are sharing a few people who are the sharing the same occupation such as goldsmith or iron smith.
Topic: 007 – Relationship between school and community
School as a cultural social and community institution.Schools have a culture.Schools represent a major section of the societySchools are representatives of their communitiesSchool is part of the community. Schools provide education to the community, community form common goals, characteristics, goals, issues and problems. The people who come in the school as students, teachers, and administrator are coming from the community around the school. They are bringing social, culture, tradition, information and knowledge from the community to the school. The school is a hub where community ideas get to gether.as a bank. Some will be accepted and some will be rejected. There could be a friction because of acceptance and rejection. The school’s role is important as it should not reject thing without reasons, not to accept things on favoritism or unreasonable circumstances.Role of school in the communitySo, the school is like a hub of culture and tradition and represents `as community. If you visit the school and don’t know the community around the school, you can guess the type of community living around the school and their interests, motives and directions by looking at the people within the school. One can give fair judgment by looking at the culture of the school.. The community represents the culture of the school. School as part of the communitySchool represents the major section of the community, In a community there are many segments of people, they have different occupations, behavior and home background. . The people contribute to the culture, values and behavior of the ideas to school.The school gets them all together and can filter them, put in to the sections and label as some priorities and this culture goes to community. Hence, school represents the culture of community. So, this process keeps on going as a cycle. So, one is actually recommending the other and other is complementing the one. Hence, the school is contributing to the community and the community contributes to the school.Topic: 008 – Effects of communities on Schools
Community leadersMajority of the community members have a say the policies of the school.Affluent members of the community play a major role in the formation of the school structure. Community leaders play an important role in the school. This can be debated whether this is good or bad,  if taken positively, it is very good that member s of the community have role in the policy of the school. These members can be represented by community leaders. Who select the community leaders, what is going to be the merit to select the community leaders, what is the qualification of community leaders? Unfortunately, taken this aspect with relevant to Pakistani society, it does not define the merit and qualification. In certain communities, these do have the framework and these do have criteria that who would be standing as a community leader. If the community leader is selected without the merit and qualification,  it will have a bad effect on school and community will be responsible. Role of affluent people in the communityIn Pakistani context, sometimes schools dependent on the affluent members of  the society for their expenses. They need some type of support from the community, it can be related to the economics, related to the raise to the funds, it can be related to the man power, it can be related to the other support in different areas such as making a library, boarding area. So sometime school depends on the community and the  affluent people can support the needs of the school. If the affluent people think that they are the community as a whole, they are giving the benefit to the school, learners, the result will be positive.Topic: 009 – Effects of school on communityGood performance and excellence has a positive influence on the communityNormally communities dominate the school, but gradually when the school gets a status, it is rated and if it performs good or excellent school, thus then the school becomes more dominated than the community around. So if the school staff, teachers, exercise dominance over the community, they work hard in order to gain good reputation  as a good performance, ,as an excellent school, showing good results, showing good conduct, showing good behavior, setting up role model, setting up excellent standard. But even than community try to dominate then school can guide the community and compete the community
Stable administration in schools can help establish rules for the students, their parents, and their communities But if the school does not fulfill the requirement of the merit, then communities pressurize the school to change the policies. There is possibility that the policies which are changed by the community are for the betterment of the school community. But there is risk, that those policies might be harmful for the school merit. But if the school is continuously showing poor results then community thinks it is better to intervene the school policy and the school also considers this valuable, then this will be a good from the school perspectives.Stable administration is very important to implement the policies, to experiment the policies i.e. whether the policies are working or not and then to find out the fruit of those polices. Strong administration can assess the polices and its implications. What changes should be addressed and how can we overcome the problems in the policies. All this needs time and with the passage of time a strong administration comes into being.  


Topic: 010 – School as a Hub for the community services
For religious services such as family occasions, (Nikah,Bismilah,) and other religious gatherings for peaceful purposes Festivals, such as Ramzan, Eid, birthdays, anniversaries, prize/award wining ceremonies.
School as the hub for the community services, is another important and major role done by the school for the community. It is the  practice all over the world and also Pakistan that community services are being handled and conducted in school, sometimes by the school authority and sometimes independently by the community members. For example the school serves religious services such as Bismillah, completion of Quran, Nikah ceremony, and other religious gathering for peaceful purposes. The community cannot force to the school for establishing.
 A system and where the school would bit go against any norm laid by the system. This is the good service by the school for the community members and also gives opportunities the members to get familiar with the school, not only with the building but also the with values, and facilities of the school.Muslims festivals in the community, Sometimes the schools help the community to conduce ceremonies and festival such as Eid, Ramzan, birth day, anniversary, prize awarding ceremonies etc. in the school, it is possible that the school may ask for certain amount of money from the community but it depends, if the school and community have a pact that such services will be provided free of cost then this would be free. If the school thinks that some abound should be provided in order to use the school facilities as the school bears the expenses as well then in that case the community members can dialogue with the school authorities and fix the rate. The important thing is that community respects the rules laid down by the school staff and school staff  respect the expectation of the community members that they have from the school to help them, to organize their functions and their festivals.

Topic: 011 – Organizational Supervision

In order to run all these events smoothly in schools the board of governors or the administrative staff must be given guide lines to make the event holders bound to certain rules and regulations.

In this case we have two supervision, one is school other is community. Supervision has to be done at both the levels. It should not be considered that only the school is responsible because the services are being rendered by the school, Likewise if the school staff thinks that it is the responsibility of the community only to supervise the events. That would be unfair. So, it is important to have an organizational chart in the organization indicating who will be responsible to supervise the events So in order to run all events smoothly in the school, the board of governors and administrative must give to guidelines to the event holders to make them bound to certain rules and regulations. So the first job of the supervision committee of the school and community would be lay down some rules. Both committees should be agreed to those rules which are the set by the organizational committee which is going to supervise. If both parties agree to the ruled then there will be no controversy. The event holders should be aware of the rules and these rules should be displayed.
Topic: 012 – Organizational Supervision

To enhance good organizational skills amongst the staff at the school, and provide a social platform for community members to interact with the school.

The skill of the organization in order to conduct the event needs to be enhanced. One of the important skills is communication, better communication, 90% misunderstanding in this world is done because of bad communication. The school staff needs to develop this skill and different ways and methods to communicate should be promoted with the community members. The staff can send the written notices, the staff can inform the learners they should be able to go to the homes and talk the parent about the rules laid by the school organization committee to supervise the events otherwise be there can be video clips made and displayed in the school premises in order to create the awareness among the teacher, parents, school staff, community members and the students because visual things help a lot. People can make a good understanding of visual material provided by the school. Similarly the community members can communicate in the same way, they can send their news letter to the school. Another way is to provide the online social platform which could be shared by the school, and parents are online. This is like a forum and people just post their comments, opinions and suggestions, Out of these suggestions, some are taken and some are rejected. So all these help the community members to interact with others and the school would enhance the possibility of having the triangle of school, community and teachers.

Topic: 013 – Definition & types of social institutions

Educational
Academic
Informative
Creative
Collaborative
These are the social institution for social interaction and provide the social platform for people to get engage in some communication in order to get better dialogue for the betterment of the community and the learners. The first and foremost institution for such a platform is education. In a n educational institute all the culture, tradition, information, and whatever is happening in the community is brought into, it affects the community, it affects the learners an it also affects the norm of the school. For example, tuition center where the students get together after the school timing in order to get the extra help. Sometimes these centers are free of cost and run by the community in order to help the students who need help in different subjects. Another example can be of informative centers where such exchange of ideas can take place. The example of informative centers are libraries, IT cafes, All these places carry the culture because these are run by the communities who have certain cultures, tradition and these have impact on the younger people. After collecting all the information from the centers, individual move around in the community. The purpose of these is to exchange culture, knowledge and information of the people. Then creative centers, example are, sports complex where the young and old indoor and outdoor games, show their behavior and exchange their ideas, by the display of the discipline they carry their culture. It is also the social forum because the ideas are exchanges, opinion are gathered. The last one is, collaborative activity such as marriage hall, where people din together, the people sit together and love to talk.
Topic: 014 – Definition & types of social institutions
Religious
Basic principles of Islam
Islamic teaching with special reference to society and social norms
The basic purpose of the religious institution is to teach the fundamental principle to the learners. The adults also can learn from such institutions. This is an ongoing process which continues throughout the life. The Islamic teaching with special reference to society and social norm are the message of these institution and they convey this message to the people. Islam focuses on the society, brotherhood and tolerances. Such a institution has a great impact on people to learn how to live in the society. So in that way, religious institution is the biggest platform where people can come and talk about how community can make an impact on the school and life of the learners. Sometime people can go the religious institution to reading the Holy Quran. When people go to the mosque for the prayers, they interact with other people and also discuss the social issues. Mosque is the central place in the community and people share their problems with the imam who leads the prayers.
Topic: 015 – Definitions & Types of social institutions
Family is the first and most important social institution.
Parents are role models for their children
If the parents respect the school and the society, their children follow them
Family is the first and foremost institution for the child. Child is affected if anything goes wrong in this institution. Parents are the role model for their children. Family means mother, father, brother, sister aunt, uncle, grand-parents or great grandparents. All these people have the responsibility to look after the child, the child has ample opportunity to learn from all the members of the family. So child looks at all these as his role model and copies them. If the child falls in some wrong activity, this is the responsibility of the whole family to initiate the right step, parents and other family members should come forward and guide the child. So family is the small scale social institution however the parents have the biggest responsibility to care about the child. For example, if the parents respect the school administration the child would also respect it naturally, but if the parents do not respect the family, they think the people are low where they live, in first stage the child become confused, sometime this confusion leads to failure. The psychologies think there is feeling of guilt in human being if what they belong to in t being accepted by their dear ones. So in that case parents talk against the school to which the child belongs to and considered that to be second home, it develops sense of guilt in the child when the school is being criticized or when the teacher are labeled because inside the heart he owns the school, he own the teachers and relates himself to the community. If any of these is criticized by the parents or labeled by the family and look down upon, the first feeling occurs of guilt and shame and that result is in confusion because the mind does not settle down with the idea which is given to him from the parents or family. The second reaction is that child follows the steps of his family and does not respect the institution such as school or the community.
Topic: 016 – Teacher’s Role in the School & Community

Teacher is the integral part of the society, community and the nation.
Teacher has great influence on the growth of the student and the community.
Teacher is the integral part of the society, community and the nation. So from school, teacher has impact on the community, from the community it has impact on the nation. A child interacts with the school institution the most after the family members, he tries to follow the teacher and the expectation to be built up by the school for the child. All these are monitored by the teacher. A teacher has great influence on the growth of the students and community. She reflects the community values through her behavior . Teacher should know the cultural , economic, religious and even ethnic background of the students. Moreover teacher displays the behavior in which students know that their families, culture and religion is being respected by the teacher. This makes the student confident and develops the trust with the teacher they Then communicates their culture, values and any sort of issue with the teacher because their teacher respects all these
Topic: 017 – Agent of Change

Teacher works as an agent to bring changes in the lives of the students
This results in a positive change in the norms of the society, community and culture.
Institution and communities can only exist if they keep on changing. Change is important for existence. Teacher works as agent of change which brings changes in the life of students. A change agent helps an organization transform itself by focusing on such matters as organizational effectiveness, improvement, and development. A change agent usually focuses his efforts on the effect of changing technologies, structures and tasks on interpersonal and group relationships in the organization. The focus is on the people in the organization and their interactions. Positive changes can improve the community and help the society to remove the negativity.

Topic: 018 – Teacher’s participation in Community Activities

ffect of school on individual’s behavior in the community
Effects of teacher on group’s behavior in the community

Teacher participation in community’s activities would result in two manners, firstly, it would affect the individual behavior and secondly it would affect the group behavior. For example teacher who participates in the community activities but does not show respect to one particular individual cultural background or economic status or any kind of behavior related to that particular individual. So, school and teacher both are responsible for bringing that change of individual behavior because of participating in community activities. We take the example of festival like Eid , where everyone celebrate, however there are some students who cannot afford the new clothes. So, it is the responsibility of the teacher motivate the students and spread the message that real spirit of the Eid is to spread brotherhood and emphasize on sharing happiness, The teacher should not emphasize on wearing new cloths or spending more money. It has been noticed that teacher give some instruction and students follow it. Students, who do not have money, get embarrassment and do not participate in the community’s activities. But if the teacher encourage the every student, it develops confidence among the students, and they participate in the event in a normal way. The teacher should not exaggerate the expectation of the school and teachers and does not put any student in some form of complex or embarrassment. This shows, that a teacher brings positive change in the individual behavior.

Topic: 019 – School Culture, Surrounding and Community

In order to find about the culture of a particular school,
It would be essential to know about the culture of the families living around in the neighborhood.
School culture, surrounding and community are interlinked to each other and nothing is independent by itself. No man is island, similarly no person has his own culture. The culture is linked with the family, route, community, society and ultimately with the society. The surrounding means where the child lives, if the child lives far away from the school, he then needs to know the culture of that community. In northern areas, children come from long distance, the school and the teachers have no idea about the children location and parents do not know the school environment. For example some students might be coming from the areas where there are no facilities such as water, electricity or there is a lot of power shortage. Come for the little time. So, the students cannot study after sunset if the electricity is not available. The teacher needs to know about that, such little things would make a lot of difference in the life of students and students learn how to facilitate others.
Topic: 020 – School Culture, Surroundings & Community

The community surrounding the school has a direct or indirect influence on the culture of the school, For example offering prayer in a school, if the community has principled, a policy where they want people to be saying prayers together in the company of each other and led by some Imam. If the community asks the school administration to allot time for the prayer, the students love to offer prayers, it has been noticed that if in the institution such arrangements have been made in the institution, students enjoy by saying prayers in the company of their friends They take pride that school is providing this facility and this promotes the habits of offering prayers among the students. This is a small example as to how the community can influence the school authority to bring up something good in the students and inculcate the habits of saying prayers. Similarly community can influence in the school so many other good things. Similarly if the community is collecting the garbage in the streets, roads and surrounding then that’s mean they are not taking care of the environment, that can aggravate the students attitude, community can organize the is task and advice the students about the importance of the cleanliness. Community can inform the need of the clean surrounding and good environment. Community can initiate the project and appreciate the community members who involve in the project. The community can design the project and influence the school authority and inform them they have kept the garbage bins in the street and tell the students to make use of those dust bins.

Topic: 021 – School and Culture

Main characteristics of culture
Elementary concepts of culture
Culture is everything which is socially shared and learned by the members of a society .Every society has its own culture and ways of behaving. It is not uniform everywhere but occurs differently in various societies. Every culture is unique in itself is a specific society. For example, values, customs, traditions, ideologies, religion, belief, practices are not similar but different in every society. However the ways of eating, drinking, speaking, greeting, dressing etc are differs from one social situation to another at the same time.
Features of the culture
Culture is learned
Culture is social
Culture is shared
Culture is transmitted
Culture is continuous
Culture is continuous
Culture is accumulative
Culture is integrated
Culture is changing
Culture varies from society to society
Culture is responsive
Culture is gratifying
Linked with society

Topic: 022 – School and Culture
Main Characteristics
Culture has five basic characteristics
Culture is learned, shared, based on symbols, integrated and dynamic.
Culture has five basic characteristics, those basic characteristics would give reason you, how does the culture influence the community, school and the teachers. Culture is learnt, teacher knows the culture and then he will be able to address the needs of the students. So, culture is basically to be learnt. You have to find out the culture of people living around. Culture is shared by the people. It is not a one man culture, that one man one culture and other man has other culture. It is always shared and that is why it has capacity to influence others because it has to be shared. If I am doing something, the person is sitting next to me would have an influence on his personality and he will automatically try to do something what I am doing.
Topic: 023 – Learning Culture

The process of learning culture is called enculturation
It is not inherited. Most of the time it is unconscious learning
Ways to fulfill our basic needs vary from one culture to another

Culture is not inherited biologically but it is learnt socially by man in society. It is not an inborn tendency but acquired by man from the association of other, drinking, eating, dressing, walking, behaving, reading are all learnt by man.

Topic: 024 – Sharing Culture

We share our culture with other members of our group
Therefore we know how to behave appropriately in our social groups
We are able to predict how others will behave in our group.
Culture is something shared. It is nothing that an individual can pass but shared by common people of territory. For example, customs, tradition, values, beliefs are all shard by man in social situation. These beliefs and practices are adopted by all equally.
Topic: 025 – Symbols

A symbol is something that stands for something else.
Language, memory and art are all symbols of culture.
Language is the most important component of all these symbols of culture.
Culture is based on symbols, including
Language
Objects with meaning
Events with significant
What do these items have in common
Object or event that is intrinsically unrelated to another object or event to which it refers. For example ask yourself some questions about Pakistani flag. What does the moon represent? What does star represent?
To the human mind, symbols are cultural representation of reality. Every culture has its own set of symbols associated with different experiences and perceptions. Thus, as a representation, a symbol meaning is neither instinctive nor automatic.
Symbols occur in different forms: verbal or nonverbal, written or unwritten. They can be anything that conveys a meaning, such as words on the page, drawings, pictures, and gestures. Clothing, homes, cars, and other consumer items are symbols that imply a certain level of social status.
Topic: 026 – Culture is integrated

All aspects of culture are interrelated
It is important to understand various parts of culture, to know a culture fully.
The term cultural integration means the process of one culture gaining ideas, technologies and products of another and so this means that this culture will seem to be integrating into the other. 
An example of cultural integration is the remaking of foreign films for American audiences. For example, the 2007 film "The Departed" is a remake of the Chinese film "Infernal Affairs." Other examples of cultural integration include American restaurants such as McDonald's opening branches in foreign countries such as Japan and foreign films playing in American theaters.
Topic: 027 –Culture is Dynamic
Cultures interact with other cultures.
Share and exchange ideas with each other
Need to change due to changing environment.
Dynamic refers to the variability. Culture is formed by the peoples whose values, beliefs and religions combine them to live together. With the inclusion of more people in the society, new era of developments and the forces of evolution the culture changes its shape. The culture is the product which varies with its producer. As the producer is dynamic and the only living being in the world who likes change (Human), the culture would also be consequential upon the variability.

Topic: 028 – The Concept of Culture

Culture provides a framework to fulfill our physical emotional and social needs
It’s way of doing things to balance the individual needs with the needs of the society as a whole.
Culture is the characteristics and knowledge of a particular group of people, defined by everything from language, religion, cuisine, social habits, music and arts. The word "culture" derives from a French term, which in turn derives from the Latin "colere," which means to tend to the earth and grow, or cultivation and nurture. 
Culture affects every aspect of daily life - how we think and feel, how we learn and teach, or what we consider to be beautiful or ugly. However, most people are unaware of their own culture until they experience another! In fact, we don't usually think about our culture until somebody violates a culturally-based expectation or we find ourselves in a situation where we have the feeling that WE violated somebody else's cultural expectations, but are uncertain how.
Topic: 029 – Sub Culture

Cultures are then divided into sub cultures on the basis of ethnicity, race, and gender.
Sub cultures still share
Commonalities with the larger society.
A group within a society that has its own shared set of customs, attitudes,and values, often accompanied by jargon or slang. A subculture can beorganized around a common activity, occupation, age, status, ethnicbackground, race, religion, or any other unifying social condition, but theterm is often used to describe deviant groups, such as thieves and drugusers.
Topic: 030 – Adaptation
Since culture is dynamic, many elements in the culture can be adapted.
Some features are sometimes adapted by a culture which prove harmful, e.g fast food, pollution etc.
The change in living and studying environments means an adaptation to the new and different. The more different and unknown the new living environment is, the greater the change. A youth leaving home goes through a considerable change when the living environment, friends, the daily rhythm and many other things turn out to be different. The language and modes of communication are often strange in a new culture, the culture of studying differs from what one is used to, and not even the basics of living and existence work as they did at home.
The adaptation to a strange culture and place is not only a physical transition from one place to another; it is also a mental process. Modes of action to which one is used to no longer apply, and it takes time to learn new customs. One has to know how to correctly understand and how to make one understood. 

Topic: 031 – Cultural Diversity

Cultural diversity needs to be accepted by all people.
Anthropologists help to main this diversity by their study to describe culture and its diversity.
Cultural diversity must be documented.
Cultural diversity is the quality of diverse or different cultures, as opposed to monoculture, as in the global monoculture, or a homogenization of cultures, akin to cultural decay. The phrase cultural diversity can also refer to having different cultures respect each other's differences. The phrase "cultural diversity" is also sometimes used to mean the variety of human societies or cultures in a specific region, or in the world as a whole. The culturally destructive action of globalization is often said to have a negative effect on the world's cultural diversity.
Topic: 032 – Culture complex

When a group of culture traits which are interrelated and dominated by one essential culture trait.
Nationalism is cultural complex
A group of culture traits all interrelated and dominated by one essential trait:
These culture complexes are formed according to the various needs of life. In this way culture complex concerning food habits, the different occupations, etc., can be seen in different cultures. Examples of culture complexes found in Indian culture are in the form of the caste system, join family system.
Topic: 033 – Culture Complex

Some groups communities or individual may think themselves superiors than others, thinking that their culture trait is better and widely dominating others.
When some groups, they consider that their culture is superior from the culture of other group. Many factors in a culture are interrelated that one goal the basic main goal become the culture complex. For example if there is group who having culture complex o nationalism, they think they are better citizen of the nation because they are doing these things and they dominate the other culture by telling them that they are the best citizen of that nation because they are doing so much for their nation. Irrespective of that may be other group is also as good as they are or may be there are possibility other groups is better than what they are doing but they are not making big issue of it. They are not exacerbating that are doing a lot for the nation, they are not showing that are doing many campaigns in order to get national goal achieve. OS, irrespective of that they develop complex they are doing a best things for the nation. Therefore, this type of complex is called culture complex.

Topic: 034 – Cultural Pattern

A cultural pattern develops through a society’s perception interpretation response and expression to its surrounding environment.
A cultural pattern is formed when traits and complexes become related to each other in functional roles. Each cultural complex has a role to play in society. It has got definite place within it. The cultural pattern of a society consists of a number of cultural complex.
Thus the Indian cultural pattern consists of Gandhism spiritualism, joint family caste, system and ruralism. So there is a cultural complex consisting of a numerous cultural traits. According to Clark Wissler there are nine basic cultural traits which give rise to cultural pattern.
These are;
1. Speech and Language
2. Material trails.
(a) Food habits, (b) Shelter, (c) Transportation, (d) Dress
(e) Utensils, tools etc. (f) Weapons, (g) Occupations and industries.
3. Art
4. Mythology and scientific knowledge.
5. Religious practices.
6. Family and social systems.
7. Property.
8. Government.
9. War.
Topic: 035 – Cultural Pattern

Rudyard kipling, the poet, says in his ‘Ballad of East and West.
East is East and West is West; and never the twain shall meet.’
He said this because both have different cultural patterns.

Eastern culture or Western culture as a whole, we can only focus on the major views, values, cultural patterns or orientations shared by the most influential group of people in the most influential countries or cultures in that part of the world. And likewise, when we speak of a culture, we are actually speaking of the dominant and mainstream culture, not its subcultures or co-cultures. Third, even within one cultural pattern or orientation, there are varieties of individual behavior. So what we can do is only to choose those which are most manifest during intercultural communication. Finally, since the author of this paper is from China, there might be manifestations of native cultural influences, stereotypes, bias and even ethnocentrism in the paper, although that’s also what the author strives to avoid.
Topic: 036 – Communication Breakdown

Human beings encounter misunderstandings communication gaps, conflicts and confrontations, due to failure in understanding in their intercultural communication.
Intercultural communication is a form of communication that aims to share information across different cultures and social groups. It is used to describe the wide range of communication processes and problems that naturally appear within an organization or social context made up of individuals from different religious, social, ethnic and ethnic background.
Topic: 037 –Cultural Values
Cultural values are transmitted through family, school, and media and so on.
Our values get translated in our actions.
A culture's values are its ideas about what is good, right, fair, and just.
While the terms 'culture,' 'values,' and 'customs' are often used interchangeably, each is actually a distinct piece of the bigger picture. A custom is a ritual or other tradition that is an outward sign of the group's cultural values. The group's values aren't always obvious right away - they run deep! Cultural values can be pieced together by observing the various customs that the people have passed down for generations. Cultures defined as all of a group's guiding values and outward signs and symbols taken together as one big whole.
In our example, the cultural value that the Hindu man believes is to respect your ancestors and your gods. One of the customs that acts as an outward sign of this value is to allow cows to have a natural death, rather than slaughtering them. This custom, taken with all of the other customs that his community practices, represents a larger picture of Hindu culture.
Topic: 038 – Understanding Values


This helps us to appreciate other people’s values for better communication with them.
We can be guided to understand their behaviors.

Social values permeate every aspect of a society and can vary tremendously between cultures.  Even America has its own social norms of how to act appropriately and interact in the context of American culture.
An example of how social values can vary between cultures can be seen in the difference between Mexican and Nepali culture.  To someone who does not understand the difference between someone from Nepal and someone from Mexico, members from these two cultures could look very similar and could seem very similar as well.
Topic: 039 – Formation of Cultural Pattern

Society forms its own cultural pattern.
Cultural patterns are based on beliefs values, norms attitudes and customs.
Cultural pattern is the way of behavior of the people. A large number of people following certain behavior make it a custom. This custom when growing popular among the people becomes a precedent and a rule of social life. This rule of social life is pattern of culture. It is that ideal which is presented as an example to the people. These people are expected to behave according to cultural pattern. A culture develops pattern of behavior in all social situations. These patterns are also the normative orders of society. Violation of these patterns is disliked in society by condemnation.
Topic: 040 – The Working context of Pakistani Teachers
Social activist leader
The working contexts of teachers are different as compare to teachers of the world. It is also different in Pakistan, may be one city or one province context of Pakistani teachers would be different than Pakistani teacher living in other city or village. It will be also different in respect of the institution. The context of Pakistani teachers working in the public school would be different from one who is working in the private school. The context of Pakistani teaching who is owning the school would be totally different from the one just the employ in the school. So there are many diversity and angles to look at the context of Pakistani teachers. We, as a whole need to understand what are the barriers for Pakistani teacher in the context of working in the Pakistani school whether owned by the teacher whether hired by the school authority, whether working in the private school or the public school, whether working in the big city or town/village. So everywhere there will be reference of the context of that particular institution and the location of the school. Usually a teacher is expected to be social activist leader, why social because he/she is the part of society and has to expand the social relation in the society, activist, because needs to be active in all roles. Teacher has many roles in display like leader, friend, guider, mother or father, so there are many roles, in order to be a perfect person. We come to conclusion that teacher has a lot of work on his shoulder. He has to developed social relationship with the students, their parents, their family, the community, the community members and community leaders, those who are around the school and then be very active leader in order to lead the people to direction which he thinks is right for them and is for their betterment.

Topic: 041 – Social Activist

Teachers need to be actively engaged in the social activities of the community around them
This is the definition of social activist of above mention, the person who is active in the community in order to deliver to social issues of the community, if we apply this definition to the teacher in the context of Pakistani society, how much this is appreciated. Especially if the teacher is female, how many cultures in Pakistan and how many communities in Pakistan encourage the involvement of female teachers in the activities of community. For example the community is arranging a fun festival, how much it is expected that female teachers would be participating in order to organize this fun festival, It is difficult for the female to participate and convince the male member of the community to participate in it. It will be also difficult to the female teacher to arrange for commodities to business and other such groups which would share the fun festival. Family of the female teachers also may hesitate to participate such fun festival. So this is all very difficult for the female. In big cities this would be encourage to some extent with the mix ratio 50/50 or 40 for the women and 60 for the men. But this barrier is not for the women. Some male teachers also think that we should not participate in the social activities; our job just is to teach the student not to involve the social activities like fun fare.
Topic: 042 – Leadership

Teachers are leaders
Teachers are born leaders. They have tendency to lead people because in most of the cultures teachers are respected and they are considered to be Guroos. It is considered that teacher can do everything. It is considered that whatever teacher says is i right. So it develops the tendency to follow the teachers. In Pakistan context, many places, teachers would be considered leaders, they would be respected and they have marked influences on the students and their families when they are growing up. In secondary school it is noticed that teachers are hero for their students and they convey the same way to their families. Students talk most of the time when they are at home. It is notices that student’s get upset if the teachers say some negative to them. Students get upset because in their heart they believe that teachers know everything. However some teachers may feel that they lack the ability with other leaders. They need some guidance from their colleagues and their seniors. There is nothing wrong in that, it is very good idea to share the ability to other people. Every teacher differs in characteristics of leadership and different type of teacher leads his/her students in different way. Parents also think that teacher is the person who can do every think and students also obey the teacher instruction.
Topic: 043 – Leadership

They are the agents of change and they do not see the failure of one child as an individual failure, rather they see it as a disadvantage for that social setting where the failed child is coming from.
The teacher leadership of the present is facing new changes and new challenges in education sector of Pakistan. Teachers are working at different functional, middle and top management levels in different education settings like schools, colleges and universities. In these different settings teacher leadership is challenged or affected by many political, cultural, and economical, professional and other factors. The role of authority and power of teacher leadership has now been shifted to the influence of the teacher on his/her student. The new dimensions of leadership define the guideline for teacher leadership in the education sector of Pakistan to create a new paradigm for effective leader. Leadership remains the challenging area of research in the history.
Topic: 044 – Quality of Teachers

The quality of teachers and their qualifications vary in different schools.
Private and public schools have different criteria for the selection of their staff.
NGOs have volunteers as well as qualified teachers
In private schools teachers may have higher degrees but they have less training degrees, in the Govt school teachers have also training degrees, some should do not have teacher who are well trained but some schools do prefer the teacher training courses. NGOs always seek sponsored, they sometimes have qualified teachers and sometimes they depend upon the fresh graduate of the university or part-time teachers who are not well qualified as teachers.. It is not the question whether they are capable or not but as a matter of principle, qualification of the teacher should be uniform in the whole country. The issue is not that qualified teacher is much better or not because it is much difficult to find out which are the better teachers. The quality of the teacher depends upon the courses, workshops and seminal, these all enhance the efficiency the teachers performance. Then what sort of syllabi of the training course is covering the teacher domain. New concepts, new dimension, new aspects and angles should be address. Adopting new thoughts, teacher may adopt the effectiveness of methodology.
Topic: 045 – Leadership Roles

Roles of teachers also vary likewise according to their qualifications and experience.
The structure and framework that exist in a school has the roles fixed for the staff.
Refresher courses are not in place.
Teacher leadership is primarily concerned with developing high quality learning and teaching in schools. It has at its core a focus upon improving learning and is a mode of leadership premised upon the principles of professional collaboration, development and growth. Teacher leadership is not a formal role, responsibility or set of tasks, it is more a form of agency where teachers are empowered to lead development work that impacts directly upon the quality of teaching and learning. Teacher leaders lead within and beyond the classroom, they identify with and contribute to a community of teachers and influence others towards improved educational practice.

Topic: 046 – School Related variables

Class size
School attendance
Student teacher ratio
Availability of books
Homework
School related variable are the issues or problem which the school faces. First and foremost thing is class size, parents, teacher and students always talk about the class size. Especially if the numbers of students increases over 30 then teacher, parents and students show their concern. It is quite right, there is justification for that because with having 30 students in the class, its means every student will get one mint from the teacher. But this is joint learning program, everybody get learning together. So. most of the time teacher time is all of the students. But if the teacher is facing problem he should divide the student in the group and nominate the group leader, he can manage the students more effectively, Then school attendee, a student should attend the school a fixed number of days. Mostly the students are punctual and regular. But some students due to some parent’s negligence or some other reasons do not punctual, but this situation exists everywhere. This is the school task to deal this. Teachers have to motivate to realize to realize the importance of being regular and punctual. Teacher play a great role in this because if the teacher show concern then student also see this, attendance make vital role in the learning of a child. If the student absent then he is disconnected the affair of the school, he does not know what is happening in the school. Parent’s responsibility is also that they should provide the proper conveyance arrangement. Then student-teacher ratio, every child seek individual attention, if he teacher are less and students are more then to deal all the student become very difficult. Hence availability of the books, to provide the books to the students, this is very important. Home work is another aspect, Parents should supervise the homework of their children and teachers should check the homework on regular basis.
Topic: 047 – Shared Beliefs

Teachers try to cope with these values and beliefs in order to be accepted in their social circles.

When we talk about the socialization, we know there are some restrictions led on the teachers. Some restrictions come from the community and some come from the parents and their families. Teachers try to cope with these values and beliefs in order to be accepted in their social circles. It becomes the bit of the problem of the teacher to be accepted as a leader, as asocial agent of change. In order to be a perfect teacher and in order to influence the life of the learners, teacher have to cope with them, they have to understand the values and beliefs that the community around the school carries. He also understands the values, and belief of the people who are attached with their learners and their families.
In the case of the teaching-learning continuum, the beliefs, perceptions and attitudes of the interactants, especially the two major interactants therein – i.e. teachers and learners (students) _ can be argued to affect the situations in and out of the classrooms. As thinking beings, teachers and students play their respective roles within the classrooms and the communities they belong to.
Topic: 048 – Establishing Links

It is important for teachers to establish links among stakeholders, to develop a sense of responsibility amongst all agents providing a platform for education but again this practices is not encouraged in the Pakistani context.

Al thought it is not encouraged in the Pakistani context but we have some example that teacher are role model for exhibiting in the social event and also participate in the community event and sharing the links which are establish between the school , parents and the community in order to more active in the teaching programs and establishing links in order to better community. We have some example in the big cities and boarding school where teachers are responsible for their making participate in the activities and which the students coming to other cities who do not know about. So teacher needs to be establishing between themselves and the stakeholders. Who are the stakeholders, in case of the Govt School, govt is the stakeholders; they are running the school and other departments like directorate of school, controller of examination, board office. Teacher should establish the link of all these. Unfortunately in Pakistani context, these roles are taking by the non-professional. Sometimes it is notices that teacher is totally unaware of the laws, rules of the board of intermediate an secondary education. Sometime student s suffer but teacher do not know the rules. There are so many written documents of education each and every department but unfortunately they are not access by the teachers or teachers are not aware of it that so many document and rules which need to be read by the teacher. So a teacher need to be complete understand and should prepare for the needs of the students. The platform of the education is actually the school. All the departments related to education are connected by the school. This platform is provided by the teachers and students likewise. So, this should be done by the way that all the information taken by this department is put on the notice board for the student to read as well. It should be habit for the students to read the notice board which have information.

Topic: 049 – Social interaction & socialization

Diversity, harmony, tolerance
Diversity is the first thing of acceptance. Students also like the diversity of earlier level. A teacher is the leader who generates the unity and harmony in the class. Teacher produces the passion of peer work and team work among the students.  Tolerance is respect, acceptance and appreciation of the rich diversity of our world's cultures, our forms of expression and ways of being human. It is fostered by knowledge, openness, communication, and freedom of thought, conscience and belief.

Topic: 050 – Tolerance

Build up you tolerance level
It means to accept and embrace other races, religions, and ideas without prejudice or judgment. Tolerance also means respecting others for their differences whether they are race differences, religious differences or even socioeconomic differences. 

Children are brought into the world without biases or prejudices. Yet along the path to adulthood many children adopt values and beliefs from their peers and the adults in their life. Teaching tolerance, diversity, and multiculturalism helps children broaden their awareness and acceptance. It helps create a more harmonious world for everyone. 
Teaching tolerance can take many directions. Tolerance can be part of lesson plans on various cultures or holidays. It can also be part of a unit on friendship, diversity, local history, and racism. For example, a discussion of the civil rights movement might easily lead into a conversation about multiculturalism. 

Topic: 051 – Harmony

Keep harmony amongst the groups
As a teacher, you know there are certain teaching styles that are essential to a harmonious classroom. Whether you teach elementary school or high school, you will have to adapt your teaching style to your individual students, based on their abilities and strengths. Every class has its own personalities and dynamics. However, there are certain elements that are proven to help students learn better and to improve harmony in the classroom.  The following six steps are: Collaboration 2. Open Communication. 3.  Interaction 4. Encouragement 5. Review, 6.  Feedback.

Topic: 052 – Levels of Social interaction

Keep the required distance to interact with the community in general
Keep in mind, the specific goals to interact with the leaders of the community
Teachers need to keep the required distance to interact with community in general, Everything has to be limited to profession, teacher need to be certain distance with the community even if they are participating in the events and even if they are establish links with the community in order to make the better society around the school and provide the better facility to the school. Still they need to have limitation to level of interaction and all this interaction has to be level which is known as professional. The teachers also need to keep in mind the specific goal to interact with the leaders of the community. It is very important to know your goal, it is good way to rewrite your goal in your diary and probably make a checklist out of it that how are we are going to work on school.

Topic: 053 – Level of social interaction

Maintain your professional dignity while interacting with the members of your community
Maintain your dignity that means, be professional, maintain your professional dignity while interacting your members of the community. Professional dignity is only maintained if one has done homework. Everything you need to do when you are attending the meeting the community or if you organize the event which the community is invited to you then it has to be organized in the way in which you have the full knowledge of the event also you should know the goal, you understand what is the goal and what is the idea behind this meeting or the event which is taking place. What is the idea behind having the dialogue with the community leaders. So if you have done your homework that means you are going to talk everything in a very professional manner\ and you have the understanding what are you going to do. It is just like running a project if you want to run a project, you cannot run it without having a understanding of the project. So you have done the homework of your project, you would know what is your ultimate goal, what you want to achieve after that, what is the material to be needed in order to achieve it.
Topic: 054 – Elements of Social interaction

Social contacts
Communication
Social attitudes and values
The basic elements of social interaction are: social contacts, communication & social attitudes and values. When we come down to communication and values in a Pakistani context, there are some limitations. Some of the people they have to face these limitations. While in other cases, these limitations are not there, if in any case, these limitations are there and there are problems in establishing contacts socially or having communication with the social context then the teacher needs to be talked about these issues with the school authorities. The school authorities need to be address that because that is cultural prevailing in that particular community and teachers are facing problem because they are not having access to the social context or to establish links or to have communication with these social context. Therefore school needs to have an helping hand in that. The school can always do some writing communication with the parents & the community. They can as a whole ask for a teachers to give suggestions and put them down sort of newsletter, magazine or small booklet, prepared for the parents and the community. It is a good practice when this newsletter, magazine or booklet is sent to the parents; they are requested to fill in the answers which are being asked. It is also good practice if the school thinks, teachers do not have a communication level with the community, to invite the community members to a board meeting an talked about those issues at the school level. If the teacher do not have access the community members as asocial context, the school can always devise a way in which community members come to the school, express their what are their concerns, how do they think that school is working for the betterment of the community and how do they think school can contribute the more and also that instance the community leader can offer the support and help to school and students.
Topic: 055 – Types of Social interaction

Accommodation
A convenient arrangement or settlement
Assimilation
The social process of absorbing one cultural group into harmony with another
Accommodation mean convenient arrangement or settlement that mean that we have to accommodate a social interaction, we have to settle and accommodation where we have to have a settlement to have dialogue or discussion, we have to find out a way to have a convenient way in order to have a dialogue or discussion. So that would be that we have accommodated to settlement in which are we able to interact conveniently.

Assimilation is a social process of absorbing one cultural group into harmony with another. So to assimilate mean that there is one group which have own cultural values, attitudes and it has ability to absurd another group with harmony which is having some different rates in a cultural pattern but still they both have capacity to absorb each other to make differences solved or look at factual aspects of that particular culture and not to make any issue out of that. They can be kept separate, it is not necessary that two groups which have different values or different attitudes at some point must take those values, it is not taking those, it is absorbing, it is just understanding that they exist.

Topic: 056 – Types of Social Interaction

Cooperation
To work in groups or as a team
Competition
To compete, such as in sports, knowledge and profession
Cooperation mean working together, working together as individual or working together in groups or as a team. Usually the teacher like to student who work in group or team but before to do that, make it clear to the students that what are the rules working in a group or team. The team spirit or group spirit must be inculcated in the students. The students must be aware of the rules of working in a group,. Cooperation has to be exerted not for the sake of the honor but sake of the need in a group. So before start working in a group, they need to understand what are the rights of other member of the team or the group? This is how there are going to learn in their life when they are together, they need to work as a group and also respect the rights of the other people in a group or a team. They cannot dominate the group. Sometimes it is noticed that students are doing group work that they are trying to dominate the other members in a group, The teacher must monitor this sort of action because this would be leading some sort of bullying in a group. In order to avoid that the teacher needs to be very sharp in monitoring that no body in the group is trying to takeover the right the other member of the group to do something, to speak or express their opinion.
Competition, there is nothing wrong there is healthy competition in a class, in a group or in a team.\, to compete such as sports, knowledge, profession or any other field of life, there is lot to do of the responsibility of a teacher. They must introduce before the start such type of activity.

Topic: 057 – Types of Social Interaction
Conflict is also a type of interaction. Conflict has to be there as it is not a bad thing because:
People would have different point of views to work as an opposition. But is should not be displayed as a negative action.
There is no harm with it as it is something natural.
Even with conflicts people can learn a lot. E.g. if we are misunderstanding something, and the other group is telling us what actually is the truth. So, that is a learning process through social interaction.
Opposition is actually a helping tool to improve ourselves. The same goes with the students in a class.
Conflict in class:
If there is a conflict in an opinion that teacher wants the students to express about, there is no harm to have a conflict in the class. Even if there is one person having a conflict in the class, the teacher needs to look at it very carefully, address it and to find out what are the expressions of the conflict.
It will be useful not only for the person who is having a conflict but also for the rest of the class who are listening to the teacher who is addressing the conflict. They will be learning in two ways:
They will be learning whatever the teacher is informing them about. E.g. the teacher is asking the students about the annual examination system of the school. So, everybody in the class says yes, the schools must have annual examination system. Whereas there are few students in the class who thinks that annual examination system is no good for them. But this does not mean that if they are standing in opposition, the teacher should neglect them, or should not have an atmosphere in the class where the minority is being neglected. Because in this way, they would never learn in their life. They have to accept somebody’s opinion. In order to learn, they need to have training on conflict management.
Learn from conflicts. If this habit is inculcated and children are trained from the very beginning in their lives that somebody can have a different opinion, it will help them all their lives and we can have a better society of listeners.

Conflict does not have to be in a violent manner.
The conflict should not carry a package of violence with it. Rather, the conflict can be there and it can be discussed, everybody can gain information and knowledge, and express their feelings on the opinion. They would learn how to bear somebody who is in the opposition. At least they would be able to look at the other side of the picture. Even if they don’t believe in it, there is no harm because they have a certain point of view. This sort of interaction must go on. If we don’t want to accept conflicts it means that there is no further interaction. There is just a stop to communication.


Topic: 058 – Group Formation

There are some common features of the people who make groups. These are:
Same language: language is the first and foremost thing which has to be similar in order to form a group.
Similar economic and social status: that means there is a possibility that the language is not the same in this group but their social and economic status is the same. In this way, they can interact with one another. However, there would be a difficulty of language in that group but may be they can overcome it by using a language which is common for all.
Common goals and interests: groups are also formed on the basis on common goals and interests of the people, e.g. you have a cricket club in the society, and so all the members of cricket club have the same goals and same interests. The goal is that they want to become good cricketers and have interest to play cricket in their free time. Similarly, girls can have their own interests like having a stitching club in the society or a home economics club nearby home where they learn how to cook or decorate their homes etc. They can form a group because of their interests and goals to become better domestic women in order to carry on with their household chores.
Similar family structure: it means people who are all married and having young children may like to have one group formed. Those families having elder children would have another group because of the issues that they are facing having elder children would be not understood by families who are having younger children.
So, there are different reasons of these group formations. Now it is not necessary that once these groups are formed, nobody can come out of these groups that are disintegration of groups. It does takes place but sometimes it happen that there is a group and in the end certain things happen which forces some of the members to leave the group and join the other group. There is no harm in that because that is called growth. It is the growth in the minds and spirit and also physically. Some people find it difficult to now go on with the same group because their physical needs are more. E.g. maybe they were playing cricket but now they want to go for hockey. So, they can change the group with members of cricket club to a hockey club. There can also be chances where people want to look for more opportunities or they want to look their group to be more prosperous. So, they can always leave a group and go for another one. This disintegration of groups should not be taken as a conflict or a negative activity because all these lead to learning. If someone wants to leave the group, they should be encouraged to do that with harmony and tolerance for the further growth of the groups.


Topic: 059 – Group Formation
Priorities and opinion
The priorities of some group would be the same and therefore they meet and form the group. Some people are looking the opportunities for their children education, so they would be all sitting together and discussing how to get good education and thus they form a group. Then there can be another group who could be related to business in a town and they want to talk about how to accumulate the wealth, how to be successful in business and how to make more money.
Having similar point of views on social, religious issues
group have similar opinion in their life, they get to gather and form the group. It is god activity to form a group. This is because when you are a group, you have people similar opinion, similar priorities, so this makes you relax and express your opinion. This takes out the frustration from you because you want to say something in your life. Man is asocial animal; he likes to share his opinion and priorities with other people. So, it becomes easy when other people also thinking like you. It does not mean if in a group, a person who does not have same priority or he has different thinking, should be ignore or rejected. Even then we should learn from the person who has different opinion. People mostly like to stay in a same group where their priorities and preferences are the same and they think alike. Most of the time we form the groups in which we find the interest are the same. There are some groups which like to politics, current situation of the country, they should be allow to do as well because that is the way they can talk and find out ways to make themselves happy and also get information to other people to make their life easy.
Mind set for same priorities in life, for example children’s education, accumulation of wealth etc.
All these groups working own opinion, points of view and priority. The basic ingredient that we need is tolerance, acceptance. So we should other people ideas and tolerate the other people priority. We should what other want their life, it is not necessary what we want in our life. Basically all these cultural attributes but teacher needs to inculcate all these habits in the students. They should make their students aware that in a group, they have to give importance to each and every member of the group. They should avoid bulling any member of the group. They should avoid neglecting anyone opinion. They should avoid rejecting anyone priorities. From the very beginning if the children given training by the school staff, supported by the parents and community then we go the healthy community and society in a country where there is lot acceptance and tolerance among young people as well as the old.


Topic: 060 – Social Stability


All we talked till now, what are the results of these groups priority, opinion, freedom of express. Freedom to accept, freedom to treat to each other equally without bullying each other or criticizing each other. The ultimate result is social stability. When we are working these spirit, the groups, people . team, they have their own priorities, own thinking and these needs to be respected, that means we are going toward social stability.
Schools and teachers play a major role in bringing social stability
School and teachers play manor role in bringing social stability. That is how it is going to happen. When teacher inculcate this habit, training their students to be accepting what is different from them would be accepting that can be conflict only then we will train them toward stability, and this stability will be happening nationally and locally by developing ethos toward culture and value in the society. So its going to start at a small scale, school, in a classroom acceptance.
, nationally and locally by developing an ethos of respect towards culture and values in the society
This ethos has to be maintained by the teacher. parents, school and community members. Community members are also members who are parents, they can also be teachers, they can be all other professionals I the community who can bring ethos. The elders can be the role model for the youngers. The young people always like to listen to person they think to be a hero. A hero is one who displays moral character and conduct. The children who see parents, teachers as role model, they listen their talks with interest. All opinion, values and culture are respected and are given to the importance. Therefore, this type of ethos would start from a very small scale but it would be developed by the elders of the community, by the leader of the community an by the school staff and by the teachers. The students would be having good example of all these important people in the society and thus will be able to take it as habit for themselves and have the patience and tolerance.

Topic: 061 – Effective Communication

Express your opinion
No hidden agendas
Focus on the goals
Achieve them
Basic strategies

Communication is one tool by which we are going to listen to other and say our opinion and look at the priorities of others and accept them.
How to make these strategies
We must express our opinion in order to make a strategy. Usually it is noticed that when the strategy is being made. No body participate and no one contribute but the strategy is made then there is lot of criticism, in order to avoid the criticism, it is good thing to suggest in the beginning when some strategies or rules are make and also the responsibility lies with the organization.
Make your message clear

Before taking the decision, they should really sent a survey to all the members of the organization and ask them their opinion on that matter. In the western world this is very common even if they built a road or bridge, they would send a survey to each and every home premises and around the place to find out whether people think this road is useful or this bridge would be causing any sort of hazard for the life of people there or do they really think they need a bridge. So, this is wonderful example of giving freedom to people to communicate. Not only it is a display of freedom to express but also training their mind. It is also given information because different people will say different things and may be some of the things may not occur in our mind. We come to know about those things only now, may be some people right about things which we are un aware then we will be learning so much from them. This strategy is also to keep yourself safe because you have asked a opinion for doing something and then you see what is the majority opinion is and then you make a report on that and then you declare the report every member of the society. You ask for a survey that whether this community needs a bridge or needs a road and this is what the response was. 30% said that they don’t need it, 70% said they need it and these are the reason are given. So, in the report reasons, there will be reasons for not having the bridge and there will be reasons having the bridge. So we come to know why we need the bridge and why we don’t need a bridge. All this information, actually, is training our mind to look both sides of the picture. It is also training of our mind whatever we want to do, we ask other people as well because they have also right to say thing. Most of the time we would not be knowing every thing because we are not expert everything. We might be expert in one field or two field but we can’t be expert of everything. So. we need to have opinion of the people around us. When we read these opinions, we will shock to see that there are so many things that we didn’t know. The organization who has asked for this opinion would be safe because they declared everything to you. They told you this is what thing you should do, tell us shall be do this or not and when you tell them they declared this is what the response is and this is what they say. So, they are safe now, there will be no criticism, nobody would point them out for doing that thing.

Topic: 062 – Find out?

Who are the volunteers in your community?
Volunteering is not very common in Pakistan. Teachers are the one who can find out who can be volunteers? It is time high time now that students in Pakistan learn to be volunteer. So, that they developed an instinct to help people, to participate in social activities without expecting the reward. The teacher needs to find out to volunteers in a school in a very early age. From the primary section, teachers can find out volunteer who can do things in the school or may be just the neighborhood or may be just in their house. For example teacher can introduce a project of making the child know that whether the mother or father knows a particular language. So, teacher can select the volunteers in the class and say, will these children are going to go home and ask these words to the parents, do they know the meaning of these words. So, these children become the volunteers of teaching a language to their parents. Some volunteers can be selected in their schools to work in the environment of the school. So that mean during the break time, children having lunch. These groups of volunteers can go in each corner of the school and teach the people to through the waste papers in the dust bin and keep the school hygienic clean. They do not have really task, they just to go and train the people, they just to inform them that children who are throghing these things need to learn that these have to be thrown in the dust bin. So, all these volunteers work has to be introduce at a very early age in the school and the students should know that volunteering would be continue during their school session. In the end of school, when they are leaving the school they will be given a certificate for the all task that they had served as volunteers. In western countries these certificate have a lot of value when the student go to the university and colleges. If they have a lot of things done as volunteer, they do get standing for that and that help them to get admission in a good university. So teachers needs to introduce the same thing in the pakistnai context where they would encourage the students to be volunteers work and this volunteers work should be recorded in their reports, ultimately when they leave the school, they should have the certificate of being volunteers and all the work they have done should be added to that certificate. That would be another incentive for those who are still in the school to work as volunteers and then have a certificate at the end of the school.
Which charity organizations are promoting education around you?
This is also a task which teachers needs to find out, they need to find out which are the charity organization which are working on the education, by finding them out the teachers can join or at least get some information about that and then give suggestions or can do some activities in their own school and invite the people from the organization to some charitable work in their schools. In the west, a lot of such practices are done, the charity organization are invited to the schools in order to do so many things like introducing the cooking sessions or introducing the project which are for cleanliness and charity organization provide dusts bin to the schools or provide bags to collect the paper or waste which are stored in the schools.


Topic: 063 – Find out?
Talk to your students about helping others, joining volunteer work and charity organizations.
Not only the teacher needs to participate in such organization or get information, the teacher also inculcates the habit among the students to know about the charity organization. The teacher should encourage the students to participate in the volunteer work and also find out to similar things for the charity organization and arrange some completion in the school. The student should also encourage to visit the charity organization to observe how the different task in the charity organization are be done. So that may be in later life these student would love to work as themselves for charity organization and then they would know how to set up a charity organization. So, all these things are exposure toward progress, communication, understanding and helping each other. But when helping each other actually we are helping our self. So, in hat sense teacher should work in that directions. It is not only the book that is required for a teacher to be delivered for the students. All these aspects are very important for the teacher to look at these aspects and find out whether there are possibilities of the students to go through this and learn this.

Start your own project
The students can start their own project with the help of teacher. There are so many projects which can be worked out at specially in the secondary level. For example literacy project, there are example we find in Pakistan where the literacy projects are going on with the help of the teachers and students. The students are working to teach servant and maid in their houses and teach them how to read and write. Many student are doing that Pakistan and that is wonderful and very positive thing. So this can be in the literacy project which can be supported by the teachers and the school. There can be many other projects especially on environment, collection for rubbish. So many Times Street are laden with rubbish and when you are walking on those streets is very difficult to walk safely. These things need to be inculcating in those areas where there is less education or less awareness of the cleanliness. Such project can also be run by the school student’s with the help of the school and also the teachers.
Topic: 064 – Types of groups

Primary groups
Family and friends
Secondary groups
Work, profession, organization
Primary group are based on family and friends. These groups are the one which are form while people are thinking and expressing opinions in a family or friend. So some friends get to gather and think this is the group that they would like to make because they have similar opinion or they have similar priority therefore they can form this group. More professional group could be form as secondary group, those professional group would be work place form profession or from an organization. So it is possible doctors all over the city, they form a certain group and it is also possible that doctors in one hospital they form their own groups according to the work place environment and it is also possible that some organization which may be in different city would form one group having members of different city because they would have an input from all over the country. So in any case the secondary group would seem to be more professional. Having said that, it does not mean that the family or friends group which would be the primary groups would not be professional or they cannot be professional. Of courage they can be professional, it is up to them they want to make very professional group but why we are primary group because it is formed by the members of the family or friends, It is not requiring any location or any organization or any professional. It is open to family and friends. So there is no restriction of profession and workplace or location and organizational name. It is more free and people have more access to the family and friends groups. It does not mean that these groups cannot work more than the professional groups.

Topic: 065 – Community Education & Parent Involvement

Role of community education

How is community education being practiced in the country, Is parents involvement is important in the community education? All these related to one another. The school, parents and the community, again it comes to be triangle whether in a community, there has be community education. How much the parents to be involve this community education. This is the serious issue most of the countries in the world. This has to be introducing in Pakistan as well in the context of teaching and learning.
Role of community education
Role of community education is that since people who are in the community, also going to the school and also learning and teaching, they are also parents of those who are going to the school to learn and teach, they are also people of the community. The role of community education would benefit everyone like the child, the learner, the teacher, the adult, the parents, the community member, the community leader, the community and society as a whole. Therefore it becomes very important that there is some community education prevailing in the society. This community education can be encouraged by having community schools in the community and people who are in the community a part from those who working on salaries and are employed by the community, other people should also participate and get involve in the different activities in the community to bring better results. So that mean everybody is responsible for the community education.

Topic: 066 – Context of a Community

Teachers come to know the community and be active in the community in which they teach
The community is the children, their families, neighbors, parents, grand parents, retired adults.
What is the community?
The community is the children, their families, neighbors, parents, grandparents, retired adults. So in a way all these people are related to one another either they are children or they are parents either they are teachers or they are parents, either they are family or they are neighbors, parents, grandparents or retired teachers in the community.
Responsibility of a teacher
The teachers must come to know community and be active in the community in which they teach. For some teachers it would be difficult to understand the community if they are coming from some other place. But if they are living in the same community, it would be much easier for them to know the people in the community and the people who are teaching, they would know what sorts of community they are living in. That is why it is suggested that people should be working in the places which are near by to the homes an the community because it is easy for both the parties. The teacher would know about the community because they are living in the same community. The people and community would be knowing about the teacher because the teacher belongs to the same community.

Topic: 067 – Context of a Community

They are a valuable resource of knowledge
They must be welcomed by school and teachers
Communities are dynamic and change is important to survive
The community is a valuable resource, it is the resource which is actually in life given information to the people in the community. The learners, students, teachers and the school, they are informed in time about what is happening currently in the community. They must be welcomed in the school and the teachers because if they are discourage to participate in school and other activities then that means school will be isolated from the community. The community also isolated from the learners who are the major part of the community
Communities are dynamic and change is important to survive
It is not compulsory that the community would just stay as it is or it would stay stagnant. Communities have to make changes in their rules and regulations as well but this can all be done together with the help of the staff of the school, students, teachers and parents. Therefore it should be considered to be a resource which is actually given the current information about the all the activities taken place in the life of individual who is living in the community. The parents should be also involved in the activities which are taking place in the community. They should also sense of appreciation as well as they should evaluate whether those activities are really contributing to the family life of the children and school education is being also guided by the community. If the school not involving in the community, in the activities that are taken place in the educational circle of the students, that’s means community would be deprive of knowing how the knowledge is transmitted in the young generation of the community.

Topic: 068 – Collaboration

Community education must develop within schools a climate of cooperation, expertise and experience in parent involvement in the school education.

Community provides a certain education in a school. This community education must have climate of cooperation. Cooperation and collaboration with the school authority and the teacher and also parents are very important. So that community school should know what are the things which are going to be elements of particular community education and also parents need to know how they would be able to contribute to that particular community. Community member also play a role in imparting community education to the learner by providing documentaries on the community work and how the progress is taking place in the community and how the community member can help the learners, for example documentaries on the environment project running by particular community. So community education which has to be imparted to the learner and it has to show that community is participating and imparting knowledge and information to the learners. They have to show some evidence to that this is be done but the consent to the parents and school authority is very important in all respect. Most of time it has been notices that people who are involved in these activities seldom know who is doing what. So, it is very important to know what are the responsibility who are the people who are engage in the community education.

Topic: 069– Collaboration
Community education is a relatively new subject
Self help groups and voluntary efforts can help the expansion of community education.
Teachers can guide the community to form such groups.
In the community education, there is not major role of government to participate rather it is self-help and voluntary efforts. So, members of the community do not have depended the sources from the government. They have to be self-sufficient. They have to depend on self-help group, where are self-help groups come from? Off course there are going to be either the parents of those school children or school staff who are going to be groups, who are going to work on their own and provide enough contribution and administration to hold these community education school. Teacher also can guide the community to form such groups. So teacher can be who can nominate, who can be voluntarily, who can be self-help group because they would be having understanding if they are knowing the community and the parents that which people can become the member of self-help group and who can work as a volunteer.


Topic: 070 – Community Education

“Community education is a process of commitment to the education and leisure of all ages through local participation in setting priorities, sharing resources and the study of circumstances.
Community education refers to an organization's programs to promote learning and social development work with individuals and groups in their communities using a range of formal and informal methods. A common defining feature is that programs and activities are developed in dialogue with communities and participants. The purpose of community learning and development is to develop the capacity of individuals and groups of all ages through their actions, the capacity of communities, to improve their quality of life. Central to this is their ability to participate in democratic processes.[1]
Community education encompasses all those occupations and approaches that are concerned with running education and development programs within local communities, rather than within educational institutions such as schools, colleges and universities. The latter is known as the formal education system, whereas community education is sometimes called informal education. It has long been critical of aspects of the formal education system for failing large sections of the population in all countries and had a particular concern for taking learning and development opportunities out to socio-economically disadvantaged individuals and poorer areas, although it can be provided more broadly.

Topic: 071 – Mutual support between school & community
Shared facilities between school and community
Learning based on the local area.
Shared management and control
Involvement in decision making
It is a support which has to be shared by the school and community and of course, in a community we have also parents involvement. When we talk about this mutual support, we talk about the facilities which are being shared by the school and by the community. This mean those facilities which are present in the school will be shared by the community and those facilities which are with the community will be shared by the school. For example, there can be events which can take place the school premises because school has big grounds.
Community is a part of the society and education is the counterpart of both the above mentioned elements. School is the social institution where consciously designed learning experiences are provided with the objectives of achieving social aim at large, over a period of time. School is also defined as a subsystem of the larger system of the society. It has to functionally coordinate with its immediate environment, the community in which it is situated.
. Topic: 072 – Mutual support between school & community

A community oriented curriculum
Community development
Sharing of power
However, considering the above in the Pakistan context, some observations are to be noted

Community has a support to introduce the community problems and issues and what ever the community needs and requires for its development in the curriculum and they can inform the students and the teachers about the community progress and the development that is taking place in the community. So, who is going to design this curriculum, there has to be involvement of the teachers, parents and community board members and off course they need to have skill in order to develop the curriculum. People coming those qualification who can do the curriculum will be encourage in order to set the curriculum with regard to the reference from curriculum of the community but at the same time they have to see to it that it is that part with curriculum of other states, other community in order to compete the national and local level. The community development would be included as a part of community curriculum. So that every body of aware of it that how the community going to developed, what are the requirement of the community to develop and what has it done till date about the development of the community. The entire member, parents and the school staff are responsible of that community development.


Topic: 073 – Sharing of Facility
This may be interpreted differently by the school and the community.
School standards and expectations to be upheld by the community members while using the school premises and its facilities.


When we talk about the mutual cooperation and support between school, community and the parents. We also talk about the sharing the facility. This can be interpreted differently by the school and the community. As the interpretation could be different of different people for example students may misunderstand that can use the community facilities whenever they want or the community member can misunderstand that they can make use of school whenever they do that. However there has to be time table to be followed when can each party use the facility of the others shared those facilities. Along with that school standard and expectations to be upheld by the community members, why use the school premises. should not be practiced If the community members using school premises for some event that they just destroy the things that are present even it is furniture, the chairs and tables or drinking water facilities, anything of that kind has to be taken care of the community members. All things should be over handed properly in a correct order to the school staff. Any destruction cause due to some reason on the other may be noticed and paid for the community members to the school and also school is using community hall or the community center to perform certain events that they need to that particular premises, the same policy applies to them as well. They must see that students have left the premises clean and tidy with everything in its place but along with this all these things must be written down and they must be discussed in a meeting and policy has to be made in order to follow and take care of all the utility,. The school standard must be kept in view. There are certain school standards which school needs to exercise and maintain in the school. The community members should be aware of it. The parents and student need to protect and take care of school standard. Everything that need to be done has to be in writing and best thing is if all those policies and rules are exhibited on the notice board in the school and also pamphlets booklet should be distributed in the community to make sure everybody knows the school property has to be care of and it is not to be damaged.

Topic: 074 – Sharing of facilities

Care should be extended in all areas by every member of the community
Guidelines to be made clear to all by the school and teachers
It is the duty of every member in the community to take care and protect and have understanding how to maintain the things in the building and also to look after all the items which are present in the building. Sometimes in some place there is no fire alarms, it has to be taken care of that building have the fire alarms and fire system in order to control the fire in case of emergency. All these things need to be in the knowledge of students, the teachers and school administrator and community members and parents so that they know where they have to assemble in case of any emergency. In the context of Pakistan, these things are highly ignored and also building maintenance not taken care of. All these things are very important for the safety of the children and elders. Both in school and in community centers which since these are the boiling which are the use in public, for the public, they have to be taken care of and proper care needs to be in place and these notices should be displayed in the walls and the notices boards

Topic: 075 – Parents Involvement

Parents involvement in schools can be in the form of:
Parent’s day or parent’s evening
Practical help in the classroom
Parent’s may involve in both school and the community. Parent’s involvement in schools can be in the form of parent’s day or parent’s evening and practical help in the classroom. So, school can hold the parent’s day to parents to come in and look at the school premises, look at the facilities provided by the school and evaluate what is going on in the school. There can be suggestion register, parents can write their suggestion the end of their visit and also community center can do similar activities. They can invite the parents to the community centres and let them, know, what is happening in the community

Topic: 076 – Parent’s Involvement

Contribute to school magazine
Share projects, e.g environment, cleanliness, recycling etc.
Parents also contribute to the school magazine; there is a section of school magazine where there is parent section. This is not necessary to parents to write about the school. They can write about anything. May be there are some parents who are poets, they can contribute as poet. If the parents know how to make flower and they can just write the article which is given guidance to people how to make paper flower. Similarly parent s run and share the projects for example environment project, the cleanliness projects or recycling project etc. These projects can be run by the school or the community, it can be any body which is wanted to do some of the other project and the parents can get involve in it. This will not help the parents to know what is going in the school and what is going on in the community rather it also help to grow mentally and to become mature, to contribute in the society.

Topic: 077 – Success of the community

Individual success is taken to be more in focus, as well as important.
Bright students get the maximum attention from all corners of the society.

Success of individual depends upon the success of the community. However, whenever it is be thought about success, individual success is taken to be more in focus and important. In order to have successful community we all know it depends on the individual. If the individual are successful, the community would be successful. But in order to have team spirit, a group spirit and the spirit of having community successful, it is not important to focus on just one individual success. It is important to focus on every individual success.
Bright students
Bright students they get maximum attention from all corner of the society. The community needs to focus on those people who really need help and support to be successful. It is good thing and it is appreciated those who are bright and going to success and thus, making the community feel, the community is being successful. It is much to be appreciated. But at the same time, it must be taken into consideration, those who cannot make it and those who are not successful, need some attention to the community, parents, school, every member of the society in order to lead them the success. If we focus on individual success, that mean we are not working toward the goal in totality. We are taking it as all together one thing. We are just working on individually. So that will not produce the spirit that we need produce and reflect upon our youngsters.


Topic: 078 – Success of the community

It is beneficial to focus on the success of the community as a whole.
The neglected section of the society has far worst implications, than the profitable gains of the successful ones, in comparison.

It is beneficial to focus on the success of the community as a whole. How it is beneficial? We just on the scenario where the some part of the community is successful and the rest in not. And also we look on the scenario where the majority part of the community is not successful and only a little part or little section of the community is successful, So when we compare the two, we come to know that neglected section of the society is far worst implication than the profitable gain of successful ones.
So, if we compare, on one hand we have the people who are successful, what is the implication of that, for example there is society or community in which 10% people who are getting very good education, there are 30% people who are making good businesses and 50% people who are getting good education and 70% who are knowing a lot about religion and getting good religious education. So what about the rest of the persons. So these will be showing good results and good implication to the society and it has to be appreciated. But the gain and benefit of this type of community would be much less than the worst implication which is done by the neglected section of the society. Because the neglected part of the community is going to implication which are going to spread more.

Topic: 079 – Social Individual

School failure of an individual child is not an individual failure, rather it is a disadvantage which affects all those from this individual’s social setting.
An individual belongs to society and therefore he is known social individual. No man is a island. No individual is something by himself. School failure of an individual child is not an individual failure, rather it is a disadvantage which affects all those from this individual’s social setting. So when one individual is fail that mean that social setting has fail. The social setting from which he is coming from has not given him enough confidence or enough wellbeing or enough well fare to become success. Similarly after his failure, the whole setting is again going to be suffered because the setting which has given him a failure will take back the failure as it is. Therefore it has to be considered if somebody is exceeding and if an individual is successful in one setting that mean that will result in the whole setting. By the setting mean the community by which he is coming from. Usually it has been noticed that one person has become successful in a family, he then tries to bring the change. Although the change is very gradual a things do not change very quickly. Therefore he has to bring that change because he is aware now. He understand how to bring the chang and what are the factors which really needs to be change. There fore the whole setting and the family, they start changes in their traditions and approaches toward their life. And one family spread to another family and this process goes on and on till the time come, when the whole community is changed. When the community changed and be successful, this spread to the other communities as well.

Topic: 080 – Social individual

Educational success from a disadvantaged background should be taken as a step towards changing the condition of all those who share this social setting.
Even we look at the platform which has been damaged for the success of the education still we no losing heart. For example it has been noticed there are some schools in a city or town which are labeled to be school of bad results. Probably the students and teachers have accepted to be damage reputation schools and then they do not think this platform can do any better. It is good practice to start the educational success from disadvantage background because disadvantage background would have evidences which would show people, the people who are concern like the teachers, school administrators and the students that what need to be improved. So in that case, educational success is from disadvantages background should be taken as a step toward changes the conditions of those who share this social setting. So if there is social setting which is been harm or disadvantaged because of the damage done because of consequently failure in that particular background then there is need to take steps and changes the circumstances of that particular disadvantaged area. It should not be consider that because it has labeled as a school which cannot perform well therefore no expectation are there or improvement of the school results or the school performance. Nothing should be labeled in the education. It should be considered if some steps should be taken at any platform they would result for the betterment of that educational process.

Topic: 081 – Collaboration in Learning

Group learning should be encouraged
Community learning must be in practice
Peer learning is a useful tool for learning together
Collaborative learning is a situation in which two or more people learn or attempt to learn something together. Unlike individual learning, people engaged in collaborative learning capitalize on one another’s resources and skill more specifically, collaborative learning is based on the model that knowledge can be created within a population where members actively interact by sharing experiences and take on asymmetry roles. Put differently, collaborative learning refers to methodologies and environments in which learners engage in a common task where each individual depends on and is accountable to each other.
Collaborative learning can occurs peer-to-peer or in larger groups. Peer learning, or peer instruction, is a type of collaborative learning that involves students work in pairs or small groups to discuss concepts, or find solutions to problems. This often occurs in a class session after students are introduced to course material through readings or videos before class, and/or through instructor lectures. Similarly, to the idea that two or three heads are better than one, many instructors have found that through peer instruction, students teach each other by addressing misunderstandings and clarifying misconceptions.
Topic: 082 – Collaboration in Learning

Working as a team result in achieving high goals.
Teachers can have a role in collaborative learning, but they need to be free of the traditional control to make decisions.
Working together in a group can be a great experience for some people and a terrible one for others. In cooperative learning, students work together in small groups to complete a structured task or goal. It is more than just working in a group, as group work alone does not guarantee cooperative learning.
To encourage and support teachers to work more collaboratively with students, they need to experience what it is like to work in a collaborative community themselves. If teachers are expected to control less, so must school and education authority management. Many head teachers already know that top-down management does not empower teachers to create vibrant and innovative learning environments.
Topic: 083 – Authority and power

Teachers need to share their authority and power with parents and other community members.
In turn, parents and community members need to share the responsibility and outcome of this shared authority.

Teachers need to share their authority and power with parents and other community members. What is authority and power? Authority and power is very much related to education. Fortunately or unfortunately it is the subject which everybody needs to explore. Usually there is concept that education has nothing to do with the authority and power but it has a lot to do with authority and power. It starts with compiling with the syllabus, it starts with writing with curriculum, and it starts with building up to school. Everywhere there is authority and power which influence the education. Whatever the authority and power of the teacher ir or whatever authority and power of the community is, and whatever is the authority and power of the parents. All power and authority has to be shared among these three bodies. If any of the three bodies itself taking the control the authority and power in education, there will be disturbance, people will be confused and upset because of imbalance. So it is required there should be balance of authority and power among these three bodies in order to have stable educational system. If the teachers have some authority, they need to share with parents as well. The parents need to know what is the authority of the teacher is, what is the power of the teacher. Similarly teachers need to know what is the authority and power of the parents. The community member’s needs to know what is the power and authority of the parents and what is the power and authority of the teachers. So as far as the teaching and learning and results concern, it is mostly power of the teachers. The teacher know about the curriculum, syllabus, the teacher is in the classroom to monitor the students and make them work. The teacher is one who tests the students. So he has the power over questions and examination power, the parents have no power in the assessment system. They have no authority because ultimate authority in this case is the teachers


Topic: 084– Authority and power
Negotiations must be directed towards the benefit of the student.

Negotiation in this power and authority must be directed to the benefit of the students. There are things which have to negotiate and there are things which need to be changed. Change is survival, change is existence. If we keep on changing things then things exist. Therefore there is possibility that negotiation is required on authority and power. For example there are some students in the school who are not attending the school regularly. The community member and school staff tries out to reason for that, ultimately the community and staff come to know that it is because of parents that students are not attending the classes. What do the parents want? Parents are probably too busy or leave the house before the children supposed to go the school. The job of the parents such a nature where they have to leave the house earlier than the children. Therefore the children, they do not get up after their parents leaver and in their absence they make some of the excuse not to go to the school. In that case staff and parents should approach the parents whenever possible. Then discuss the matter with them and ask them to authorize them to come and check that students are getting ready to school or not. This authority the parent s can give either to some community members like neighbor or school staff. If the school has sufficient number of people who can go to the home and find out whether the children are getting ready or not. If the school cannot provide help then the community member need to offer this help to parents.

Topic: 085 – Common Purpose of Education

Successful schools in which children, students, parents and teachers have learned how to learn together with cooperation collaboration and harmony

Successful schools in which children, students, parents and teachers have learned how to learn together with cooperation collaboration and harmony achieved the common purposed of education. Why it is important to have all these parties together to learn and why it is so much common to have purpose of education done by all these people. Because learning together process is not just to simply learning together process. It makes everybody understand the common goal of education. They can watch and observe what is happening with the learning that is taking place and they do understand what type of learning is taking place, due to which change is taking place. The parents would know what the children are learning. The teachers would know what the parents are learning. The community member would know what everybody is learning. So in that case, not only the learning will the students but everybody is learning in a process. Everybody is aware of it that what are the goal and purposes of this education and learning.

Topic: 086 – Low Esteem

Sometimes children coming from homes with uneducated backgrounds develop low esteem, due to their parents’ lack of knowledge or education.
Low esteem is very negative aspect that affects the learning of the people. Sometime children coming from homes with uneducated background develop low esteem due to the parents lack of knowledge or education. This brings a lot of discomfort in the lives of the student and the learning of the students. They feel they are not confident because their parents are not confident. The parents’ lack of education and do not come up the level of society and the community or they cannot be represented in the school as the parents of their child. Therefore automatically or naturally, these students develop low esteem in themselves. They are less confident not because of themselves but because of parents. They tend to stay away from the rest of the group. They not like to learn collaboratively because they have the feeling that why learning collaboratively, may be there background will come to surface and the other friends and students of the class would come to know about their parents. So this is what they don’t like because they think very low about their parents. In this case, community member play great role. The community members should as such parents to come to the community center and have some extra classes on basic learning even spoken classes in their mother tongue could be improved by the community center. It is not necessary that community centers must hold classes in English language, even mother tongue knowledge and awareness can be provided because it is for the parents to star some lesson in own language.
Topic: 087 – Low Esteem
Teachers play a major role to boost the confidence of such children and treat them at par with children coming from educated backgrounds.

Children come from low back ground have low esteem and the teacher should be able to know who these children are. The teachers who are can boost these children who have low esteem. Teacher play key role to boost the confidence of such children and treat them at part at which children coming from educated background. It is some time very difficult to treat the children coming from educated background with the children who are from coming uneducated background in a equal manner. Because they think that what the children have learnt at home makes their hob easy. Because children come from educated homes already know the lot due to the exposure their parents have, also their parents discussing different things and children comes to know about those things which makes the life of the teacher easy because the student has already come that experiences.

Topic: 088 – Social Class Difference

Many parents do not meet the school administrators or teachers because of the difference of social class between them.

Unfortunately social class difference has effects on education. Many parents do not meet the school administrators and teachers because of social class between them. Either the children make them conscious about this, that parents are not fit to see school administrator and teachers because probably they cannot dressed up well or they do not look rich or their behavior is different from the school teachers and staff or they cannot speak the language. Sometimes the parents themselves who develop this complex, sometimes students come home and tell story about the teachers and school staff belonging to high class and parents themselves think they should not be going to school to meet the school administrator and the teachers because they belong to high class. So sometime students discourage their parents to visit the school and sometimes parents themselves think they should not visiting the school because they would probably harm the dignity of their children.

Topic: 089 – Social Class Difference
School must have an open door policy to encourage this two way communication between parents and school.

It has been noticed that the schools, they have timing for the parents. That is fair enough as for the as the discipline for the school is concerned but at the same time, there should be one person available for the parents all the time in the school to meet any parents who come. It is fair that sometime parents come to see the teacher in the class. Of course teacher cannot leave the class and come and see the parents but in order to substitute to that teacher there should be some person, may be person who can be counselor or person who is looking after the discipline of the students because these people who know all the students. So, if the parents are discouraged to enter the school because it is not the time for the parents to enter the school then probably parents cannot make some other day. Because may be, he has some tasks to do, maybe he is discouraged because he thinks that body language of the school was not good and was not welcoming and probably he get into complex, he has should not going to school. So this will discourage the parents to go to the child school. Therefore it is important that school should maintain open door policy. There can be at least one person available for the parents to meet the staff of the school in order to any query that they have in their mind. The parents should be encouraged to meet the staff just because they have some query and to know what is happening in the school.

Topic: 090 – School generated problems

Some teachers are insensitive to the needs and problems of students and their families.
Students sometimes come home and talk about their teachers’ insensitivity towards their problems.
Some problems which are generated by the school. Some teachers are insensitive to the needs and problems of students and their families. Because these teachers they do not know what is going on in the family of the students. Therefore, they are unaware that are problems students are facing at home or in their families. They become totally insensitive toward it. Sometimes it has been noticed that teachers in the staff room, they talk about some child that he is never smiling or he is showing poor performance. The teachers need to know why that child is not smiling, why he is showing poor performance. There might be some problem at home which is affecting this child or may be condition in which he is coming for school is not very appropriate for the child. It may be child feel very uncomfortable in reaching the school. The teacher needs to show a lot of sensitivity all these issues. Instead of passion remarks teacher need to find out these condition and situation. It is very helpful if the teacher finds out what are the conditions which make the child unhappy. Why the child is sad. It is important to know the reasons instead of just saying that is the situation in which the child exists.

Topic: 091 –  Winners and Losers The concept of winners or losers prevails in the minds of parents to a great extent, nonetheless, it is also sometimes displayed by the behavior and attitude of teachers and school staff.The concept of wining in the education has been prevailing in many years. It is not a good practice, however, to winner and loser in education. The concept of winners or losers prevails in the minds of parents to a great extent, because they always to see their child as a winner. It is not a meter of wining of education, it is mater of learning as long as the child is learning and progressing. The parent’s needs to just have an idea that child is learning and progressing and changing his behavior according to his learning in a positive direction.Topic: 092 –  Teachers’ Perspectives
Teacher must consider the parents involvement in school as a positive measure to work together for better educational goals for their children.Teacher must consider the parents involvement in the school as a positive measure. They should encourage the parents to come to the school and work together toward the better educational goal for their children. It has also been noticed that the teachers think if the parents are coming to the school and getting involve that what is happening in the school that means, parents are criticizing the teachers. Teachers needs to understand that parents that leave their children in the school for the progress and better development of their child. In order to control and watch their child progress, they need to talk with the teachers. They need to get involved in the school activities and need to sort of supervise what is going on in the school. They have right to it. If the parents just asking the progress and trying to get involved in order to make the growth in a positive, that is fine with the parents and the teachers should encourage the parents to do that. Parents involvement in the school must be encourage as well. Sometimes parents come into the school for a visit and meet the school authorities or teacher; they are not offer the chair to sit it. These things, which discourage the parents to visit the school. The school and the teachers must make it very comfortable for the parents to come and visit the school and the teachers. By doing a little gesture, it will be shown that the school encourages the parents to involvement in the school and class room activities.

Topic: 093 –  Guideline to parents
Parents must be informed about the activities that take place in their child’s classroom.They should also be guided about the aims of doing those activities.Parents must be informed about the activities that take place in their child’s classroom. So, it the school authorities inform the parents what is going in the school, what are the activities are taking place and when the children verified that these particular activities are taking place in the school then the parents to satisfied as long as they have the information and they are in the picture that what is going on in the school. They do have a medium from which they always verified, children just tell the truth to their parents. So if the parent, they are well informed and discussed those activities with the children. They come to know that school is informing very and also come to know these activities are given development and growth to their child because the child knows about that. In case the parents finds that whatever the school is different from whatever the child is telling at home then they need to ask the school authority very politely that they just want to clarification on it.


Topic: 094 –  Use of Home Resources
Parents can be guided by school and teachers to make use of home resources to help their child learn basic language, literacy, numeracy at home.
The work resource just means anything to do with from where learning can take place. Even the things in the home can make the children learn. For example if the child is siting in the room. The parents can ask, named the things in the room. For example there is a table/chair/fan and also there is a mirror in the room. All these things are the resources. These are the home resources from which a  lot learning can take place. Nobody has to buy anything. Newspaper is the good form of resources which is present at the home, magazine; all these things are the resources which the parents may use in order to different activities at the different level. Parents can be guided by the school and the teachers to make use of home resources to help their children to learn to basic language such as numeracy, literacy at home. So things which are at home, the parents can always use them as resource.Topic: 095 –  Use of Home ResourcesFor numeracy, children can be asked to maintain a household account according to their level.Geography lessons can be made easy by talking about the city, the country, landscape, climate etc.
For numeracy, children can be asked to maintain a household account according to their level. Household account means that there is some purchases be done in a house daily. May be the children who are in a secondary level could be asked to go and shop and then make the list of things and then put down the prices and add those prices and find out, how much balance has to be there due for them to take back from the shopkeepers. So, such the activities would help the students to learn how to purchase, how to deal with the money, how to add and how to subtract? Off course such activities cannot be done with the younger children who are in the primary section. But still the parents can always deal with the smaller money and ask the children that money, they are going to pay for the child fee. For example, the parents can show the notes to the children who are younger, that is five rupee note, this is 10 rupee note, this is twenty rupee note and these notes are going to pay to school as their school fee.
Topic: 096 –  More Examples
A visit to some historical place can take the form of a history lesson.A game played together could be a lesson on discipline, team work and learn to win and lose.A visit to some historical place can take the form of a history lesson. The parents should be more careful to take their children to places where some learning takes place. Usually in the Pakistani cultural context, parents love to take their children to eat; they love to take their children to weddings. This is cultural concept which is common in the context of Pakistan. The parents must encourage to visit the historical places, places where the children can learn, places where the exhibition of knowledge. This is very important aspect where the parents have to really work on. Because the for parents only the entertainment taking them out to eat or taking them to watch movies or attending the wedding. In this, parents can teach the table manners to the children, parents can talk about the hygienic and along with the parents needs to take the children in the historical places where they can talk about the history.


Topic: 097 –  Support the Mother Tongue
In order t make children learn other languages in school, it is important that the children are supported to make use of their L1 or mother tongue.In order t make children learn other languages in school, it is important that the children are supported to make use of their L1 or mother tongue.Mother tongue refers to the language that a human learns from birth. Children who come to school with a solid foundation in their mother tongue develop stronger literacy abilities in the school language. When parents and other caregivers create time to spend time with their children and tell stories or discuss issues with them in a way that develops their mother tongue vocabulary and concepts, children come to school well-prepared to learn the school language and succeed educationally. Children's knowledge and skills transfer across languages from the mother tongue they have learned in the home to the school language. From the point of view of children's development of concepts and thinking skills, the two languages are interdependent. Transfer across languages can be two-way: when the mother tongue is accepted at school and promoted at home, the concepts, language, and literacy skills that children are learning in the majority language can transfer to the home language
Topic: 098 –  Using Knowledge of Life Skills
Teachers may ask their students to talk about a difficult problem they had to face with regards to their culture or community.Usually these problems are focused on interpersonal peer issues of acceptance and rejection.It is very important for the teachers to teach the knowledge of life skills to the students. It is the same time; it is also job of the parents to teach these life skills to their children. Teacher may ask to the students to talk about the difficult problems they have to face regards to their culture and community. For example community may ask to the girls students to stay at home or just to by nearby the school and not to travel the school which is for away. This could be one problem which is faced by the girl’s students. Therefore, the students should be able to communicate these problems with their teachers. The teacher must encourage the students to talk about the community problems or the society problems to the teacher. It should not be hesitation on the part of students to talk such a  problem to the teacher. As a result of that, the teacher must explain a method to solve the problem with life skills. This is how the student going to learn, how to live in the life and solved the problem instead of getting upset and frustrated about it.
Topic: 099 –  Listen to the Problems
As teachers we need to listen to the problems of our students and accept those as problems and try to solve the problems by discussion.Students need to be part of the discussion in order to know both sides of the picture.
A Child has number of problems while they are growing up at home or in the school. Sometimes the parents or teacher in the community take it very lightly that children have a problem. Agree that problem could be very minor but this is the age which makes it bigger. A small problem in a young age becomes very big problem for these young people. As a teacher, we need to listen the problem of our students and accept those problems. It is important to accept that this is the problem for the students and tries to solve the problem by discussion. So, it is possible that big problem for the students may be easy in front of teacher. But still teacher should accept that this is the problem that the child is facing. The best thing is that to have a discussion, to communicate instead of hide it. It is a good thing to listen the problem, have an open mind and open heart to accept the problem and discuss with the child.


Topic: 100 –  Confidence and Trust building
Students coming from any cultural background and any community must have trust in their teachers that they will be heard by the school authorities.
Students coming from any cultural background and any community must have trust in their teachers that they will be heard by the school authorities. Even if there is violent act in a school that is taking place by the children, as a result of some frustration because they were negative feeling about the community or the school or they were child abuse in a school. Anything that happen, the students and child must have trust and confidence in the school, in the community and in their family. If they are not having this the confidence that mean they are not going to talk about the issue which has come up to be result of some unfair treatment from the school authorities or the parents or some kind of frustration which has  led to that particular incident. So, whether they are coming from any cultural background or any economic status they should have the trust that when they talk to the parents, the parents are going to listen to them and accept the problem and also they should have the trust that school is treating them fairly. Community member needs to listen the students if they have the problem in the community and if any kind of violent act takes place in the community. The students must have the confidence and they must have the trust that everybody in the community, in the school and in the home treated them fairly.
Topic: 101 –  Expending the Dialogue
Each student must have an opportunity to explore, discuss, and express their opinion freely.Explore new areas and find new meanings to express cultural valuesEach student must have an opportunity to explore, discuss, and express their opinion freely. To explore mean that when they the problem and they come to the teacher and the parents or to the community members to get solution of it, the parents and the teacher can ask them to explore about it, to go further and think about questions and answer of that problems. They should be actually growing to lean the problems, the causes, the reason and how to get solution of it. So, that this prepares the students to listen the teacher or the parents when they were talking about their opinion. Because students will have explore the all areas and then have note to all those areas and be ready for discussion with the parents and the teacher and then discussed after exploring the areas after exploring the problem, the student has lot to say because he has explore that area. He knows why this problem happens. It is not  an immediate emotion. He has been ask to go and work on it, to work on the problem and come with the solution and then the teacher and parent, they are going to have discussion on that. The student will be able to give all the ideas that he has known after exploring.
Topic: 102 –  Building Bridges between Home & SchoolShare knowledge from school with family and community and vice versa.Exchange knowledge of culture, traditions and community with friends and teachers at school.Building bridges between home and school. Both the places are good and both the places are amazing for a child. Share knowledge from school with family and community and vice versaSo, all the knowledge that is coming from the school has to be shared at home and all the knowledge coming from home has to be shared in the community and all the knowledge that is coming from the community has to be shared in school. So the circle of knowledge has to be shared between all these three parties.
Exchange knowledge of culture, traditions and community with friends and teachers at school.Students should not be ashamed to share their culture, their tradition and whatever is happening in the community with the teachers in the school. Any thing is happening in the school, the students should not be ashamed of sharing it with the family and friends at home. Whatever happened should be shared with the positive manner with the family, community and friends. If this knowledge is shared, nothing will come as a surprised or shock of any three parties.


Topic: 103 –  Priorities
What are the expectations my parents have for my future?What is my community wanting from me and my family?Compare these priorities with those of your teachers, school and you yourself. We all have priorities, as a student, he faces a lot of priorities coming from school, parents, community and then he has his own priority. What are the expectation my parents for my future?Usually in the context of Pakistani society, the parents expect a lot from their children and specially from their male children. From the very earlier childhood, boy is told that parents are expecting him to be the earner of the family when the parent getting old. The child has a lot of pressure because of that. He think that he has priority to earn money for the rest of family when he grows up. With this pressure on his shoulders, he has also pressure his on priority. When he goes to the school, may be the priority totally changed. The teachers want to the student to be concentrating on their subject. The school expects them itself in different activities in a school. Therefore, the students feel pressurized having all these priorities and responsibility on his shoulders.What is my community wanting from me and my family?Community expect from the children, participating in the community events, participation in such events which give rise the reputation of the community and enhance all those things that are happening in the community in order to bring it good reputationTopic: 104 –  PrioritiesHow can I justify my role?Overcome these pressures by discussing, brainstormingAnother thing related to the priorities is to justify my priorityHow can I justify my priority?Sometime students are getting confused whether I am going in a right direction or not and how can I justified, this is my priority. For example, student may have situation, there is some body sick in the family. The school expect from the  students to perform well in the examination but at the same time student is facing a problem at home and serious situation is there where parents or sibling are not well. That person needs his attention. Then student decide the priority. How students explain this with the teacher? Sometime they feel very scare to talk about this to the teacher because the teacher just going to say, you need to work hard, you need to focus on your study. You cannot be doing anything else. Is this justified from the part of the teacher? The teacher must realize that he is a human being and he has full of emotion of that age. In this age, he cannot decide how to handle the situation. He gets pressurized and may be ha could not perform these two tasks. So encourage the students to talk about the priority and their suffering which is really making them as a confused individual that how to justified my priority.


Topic: 105 –  Parents’ Trust
One positive result of interactions between classroom and home is that teachers can really begin to communicate interest and caring toward all students.
Parents must develop a feeling of trust among the children, school and the community. The parents should trust the child. One positive result of interactions between classroom and home is that teachers can really begin to communicate interest and caring toward all students. Because they are well inform about the situation of the students what is happening at home. The parents have already informed the teachers. They have trust in the teachers that when they will explain, what is the problem and what is the student facing that moment, thinking about his priority but having an issue to decide which one is the priority and if the teachers know about it. The parents can trust them to find solution together. Teachers can take interest and take care of the students in that respect. Even just asking the students when he is having somebody sick at home. Sometimes it has notices that teachers become insensitive toward a problem of a child. But if there is interaction between the parents and the teachers and parents informed the teachers what is happening at home and how the child feeling. Is it a better for a teacher to find a way to sort of support to a student and talk about the different things to him in order to let him choose what is going to do in future. Let him decide what should be his priority and let him decide whatever choices he makes. So that he is not frustrated any more in that respect.

Topic: 106 –  Parents Trust
Families become more willing to share their experiences and thoughts as they come t believe that the teacher is sincere and that their own child values the information given.McCaled (1994) Building Communities of Learners. New Jersey
How do we build communities of leaners?Families become more willing to share their experiences and thoughts as they come to believe that the teacher is sincere. So, what happen is that family would love to share their experiences and thoughts what they think if they come to know if the teachers is sincere enough to help their child and also come to know that their own child values the information given. It is very important for the child and the student to value the information that is given to him by his teacher or parents. It is natural phenomena when the students respect the information given by the parents or the teachers then they tend to look at the information and follow it. In cases where the students do not trust or source from where the information is coming then they tend not to listen to it and not to follow it because they already no respect for the person. Therefore, they do not trust them. It is not only in the case of the teachers that students do not trust, in some cases, tit is also the parents attitude that student do not trust them. 
Why does this happen? Not because the parents are not sincere but parents do not know how to behave in front of a child. Sometimes they talked about the negative things, they find in the child in front of other people. In this respect, child loses all respects for the parent and he do not have any trust in his parents because he understands that parents will share any weakness what he has. So, these parents would not be trusted by the child and child will never tell them any weakness that he has or he suffer from.
Topic: 107 –  Differences and Similarities
Sharing, Recognizing and Appreciating differences and similarities between culture, traditions and communities makes it easy to integrate and communicate with people coming from diverse communities.
Looking at the difference and similarities in the Pakistani context, we come to know there are so many different ways of living and so many accepting the society norms in different places of Pakistan. It has been noticed that acceptance level in most of the parts is very low. But in order to recognize our weakness and strengths. We need to  work on these differences and similarities.
Sharing, recognizing and appreciatingBy recognizing mean that this is something that is there and we need to accept this. We need to recognize this and this difference or similarity is in the community or in a society and it exist. We cannot escape from the fact and reality.Sharing, Recognizing and Appreciating differences and similarities between culture, traditions and communitiesWe have to share tradition, culture. We have to recognize these are the differences, we need to understand that, we need to appreciate whatever the differences or the similarities between the cultures and also we accept this with open mind and heart. It makes too easy to integrate and communicate with people coming from diverse communities. Even in one community, there will be differences in attitude of people. Community needs to recognize that and face it and appreciate it. Because there will be some similarities as well which would be same. So we cannot look upon on other community or group, just because some differences.
Topic: 108 –  Transformation
All the above mentioned principles and views if taken practically would enable participant to transform the community towards achieving better results.Transformation in the community and society is very important to take place. How will it take place? The diversity, the differences, similarities, acceptance in community, all these views taken practically would enable participants to transform the community toward achieving better result. On the other hand, this is not accepted, the community would lead the disaster and there is going no improvement in the community toward going and achieving goals, targets and moving toward progress. Families, students and communities would become the center the class room life. That will be transformed community. That would be transformed society in which everything is happening in the family, school and community would be part of class room learning. How is this going to take place because everybody is accepting every other being in the community, school and family? Everybody in the community knows what is happening in the family who is progressing towards which goal. The school is informing everything to the parents and the community. So that mean this community is so common between everyone and everybody knows community, class room learning and about what is happening in the family. So, there will be nothing to be surprise about. There will be nothing to be shock about. Everybody is sharing and supporting. Everybody would contribute and enrich the class room experience.

Topic: 109 –  Family involvement in EducationRecognize the context of students learningFamily involvement in education becomes very important if that place there is no other support. Families need to intervene in order to give support for context of education and learning there. For example in some remote places, schools are there but still for certain reasons, the family involvement has to be there. The family has to intervene in order to provide some facilities and at some places some funds in order to carry on the education. It has been notices that there are no buildings in the schools, the families provide the house to school to run so that students can have comfortable rooms to start learning. So, recognize the context of students learning that is very important and if the parents in the community recognize the context and then they come to know the needs of context of learning in that particular case. In that case, they have to intervene and support the education system and the learning there. Family involvement also needs maintain balance, dynamics balance between thoughts and feeling. So this is also required if the family is intervening or getting involved the education context in certain place. Whatever is the thoughts, feeling and actions behind the support should be dynamic and for purpose of maintaining balance between learning and support. 
Topic: 110 –  Feminine Approaches
PassionIntuitionAestheticsCareSpiritualityCommunity
The teacher also the deal the gender limits in the community specially reference to Pakistani context. The feminine approaches of teachers believed to be all over the world. The feminine teachers, they have more passion in institutions, sense of aesthetics, more care to the students, spirituality and understanding of the community. It does not mean that male teachers do not have it. There is possibility that some male teachers who have similar approaches toward teaching. They can have passion toward the children. They can feel that children are facing problems and these problems are very sensitive to the students and they are too dealt with care. However the passion is to be supposed to be female characteristics and comes under feminine approaches. Intuiting is largely found in women as a whole. By intuition here, it is meant that female usually have intuition when something goes wrong with the student or we may say, it is a sixth sense that something is going wrong at somewhere. Again it is possible male teacher do have intuition. The female teachers tend to have some aesthetics as is very clear from their gender. We know, women have sense of aesthetics and they always try to implement that in their household by taking care of their children and in their family and if they are professional at their professional place. So when the teachers deal with aesthetics. They really take care of it and provide the joy of those aesthetics. Usually it has been notices, that female teacher are good artists. They are good drawing teachers.

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